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List and describe the four segmentation categories.

The four market segmentation categories are geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral. Geographic segmentation refers to the impact of the geographical position on the market. Demographic segmentation refers to the impact of demographical factors like age, gender, and education on the market. Psychographic segmentation is segmentation by beliefs, lifestyles, and values....

In light of AIDWA’s charges, how would you suggest Fair and Lovely promote its products? Discuss, would your response be different if Fairever continues to use “fairness” as a theme of its promotion?

Fair & Lovely has several potential consumers and from different regions. Moreover, the company has a global appeal and outlook. Therefore, it should use diverse themes in the promotion since it is also planning on the introduction of men’s fairness cream. Therefore, in case “Fairever” persists using the theme fair...

Is the advertising of Fair and Lovely demeaning to women, or is it promoting the fairness cream in a way not too dissimilar from how most cosmetics are promoted?

Ethically, the advertisement of Fair & Lovely in India is considered demeaning to women. The advertisement exploits the norms and cultures of Indians according to charges pressed by AIDWA. Instead of promoting its product strictly, it is also influencing the employment and marriage of Indian Women. The advert discriminates against...

Discuss is it ethical to exploit cultural norms and values to promote a product?

Generally, it is unethical for any organization or company to exploitcultural norms or values of any society in promoting a product. Ethics are the expected codes of conduct, and hence ethically, organizations have to consider norms and values of respective societies or communities where they operate or opt to operate...

Discuss is it ethical to sell a product that is, at best, only mildly effective?

A company may decide on how to sell and distribute its products depending on its strategies. However, decisions on sales and distribution are regulated by ethics. Therefore, the decision on how to sell and distribute products may depend on the marketing and promotion strategies of a company. However, the promotion...

What is your opinion of a temperature-sensitive vending machine? How do you think customers would react to a similar? Is this a logical distribution strategy for Coca-Cola to pursue?

For a long time now, Coca-Cola Company has been using vending machines as its primary distribution method for its soft drink products. In fact, the lion’s share of revenues for Coca-Cola comes from vending machines. The application of a temperature-sensitive vending machine that charges higher prices for soft drinks when...

Explain dynamic pricing. How and why the Internet encourages dynamic pricing? How do marketers use the Internet for auctions? Are there any advantages of the Internet for consumers?

Dynamic Pricing Dynamic pricing is a form of pricing where the parties to a sale contract ascertain the price when the actual transaction is taking place. In this case, the price is not fixed in advance, but instead, it is flexible. Dynamic pricing has been applied in various markets where...

Discuss what such brands as Coca-Cola, Disney, Starbucks, American Express, and Ford capture in the customer’s mind? What questions do these brands answer? Why are these effective brands?

The mentioned brands, Coca-Cola, Starbucks, Disney, American Express, and Ford, answer the question of quality. Every time a customer comes across them, they become aware that they are buying quality products. This has made the brands stand out even in a market that is full of substitutes. Why are these...

Discuss which stage of the product life cycle are the following markets in currently: wireless phone service, DVD players, and fast food? Is there evidence that any of these markets are on the verge of moving into the next stage of the life cycle?

Wireless phones are at the growth phase of the product life cycle. This means that the market for wireless phones is almost at its peak, and businesses are making most of their profits from their sales. The reason for the booming sales is the lifestyle demands in developed and underdeveloped...

Choose a consumer service. As a consumer, what pricing issues do you consider when purchasing this service? How difficult is it to compare prices among competing services? What could service providers do to solve these issues?

The consumer purchase I chose is traveling by bus to town every day. I consider pricing differences during peak and off-peak hours. I prefer to travel at noon to town when few people are going to town, and hence prices are low at that time. The difference in prices is...

What alternative definitions of marketing do you know?

A number of businesses have given different definitions of marketing. This is because marketing is a wide topic that cannot be fully captured from a single perspective. Gattorna has advanced that “marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and...

What are the human resource practitioner’s role, tasks, and activities?

These activities and functions of the human resource management department require impeccable competence and professionalism to ensure the smooth and efficient running of the operations of the department. Gottfredson and Puryear observe that “in deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to...

What are the various elements of the marketing concept?

The aim of marketing in any organization is customer-focused. Marketing is a concept of philosophy that draws its origins from the understanding of the market situations from the customer point of view. Under the concept of marketing, an organization has the responsibility of finding out gaps existing within the market...

What are the main characteristics of a marketing-oriented organization?

The market is the most important in the business of selling or buying any product. In this regard, its selection should depict thorough research to determine all the factors and market conditions that may affect the product both positively and negatively. One common characteristic of a marketing-oriented organization is that...

What are the express terms and implied terms of a contract?

The importance of understanding the concepts of contract terms is critical to an organization. “Express terms are terms that have been specifically mentioned and agreed by both parties at the time the contract is made and can either be oral or in writing.” This includes terms in simple contacts. On...

What macro & micro environmental factors influence marketing decisions?

According to Kotler and Amstrong, “The purpose of segmenting a market is to allow marketing or sales programs to focus on the subset of prospects that are like to buy the company’s offering. Given that the process is operated properly, it ensures the highest return for the company’s marketing/sales expenditures....

How products are developed to sustain competitive advantage?

“Marketing mix principles are controllable variables which have to be carefully managed to meet the needs of the defined target group”. In marketing, the ability to develop products in a way that meets the demands, needs, and fulfills the requirements of customers determines the capacity to sustain competitive advantage. This...

How is promotional activity integrated to achieve marketing objectives?

According to Kotabe, “marketing communications strategies, mediums, and particular vehicles serve to convey these advantages and points of differentiation to the target in the form of words, images, and other symbols.” Promotions on a product enable consumers to develop an interest in a product through added initiatives such as price...

What are the additional elements of the extended marketing mix?

According to Stone, Hobbs, and Khaleeli (2002), “The marketing mix is the combination of marketing activities that an organization engages into best meet the needs of its targeted market.” Whereas the traditional approaches of marketing mix had the four Ps, the extended mix has 7ps. The physical layout of a...

Does it make sense to talk about the “distribution” of services? Consider including your thinking about your service life prediction, especially if that’s a service, in the discussion.

In the marketing mix part one: product, brands, and their distribution, it is significant to talk about service “distribution.” This is because SLP is applied in the distribution of services. It is always vital to factor in the durability and level of risk in the distribution of services in the...

Where does marketing not apply? Where does it apply, is it always benign or are there potentially dangerous, pernicious, evil, or otherwise deleterious effects of marketing on people, communities, nations, or society?

It is important for marketers to know that for marketing to take place there has to be authorization for it to be initiated. People do not just get products direct into the market before getting authorization as per the set business laws in the marketing region. Failure to do this,...

Describe how your project company currently prices its main products or services. Is this the best method? Why or why not? Comment on the traditional approaches of skimming and penetrating in your discussion as they would apply to your product, brand, and company.

Coca-Cola uses a value-based pricing model for setting the selling price for its range of products. Being in a lifestyle product segment, Coca-Cola has to create and sell the brand, which entails setting prices depending on the consumers’ attitude to the brand. It requires heavy investment in advertising to be...

How does a vertical marketing system differ from a horizontal marketing system? What system best describes your project company’s distribution approach?

A vertical marketing system is a method of availing goods to be marketed by integrating all the members in a supply chain. This includes distributors, wholesalers, and retailers; they all work in tandem to ensure customers’ needs are met. Horizontal marketing is a collaborative venture between two unrelated companies for...

Identify your company’s primary marketing channel’s strengths and weaknesses. Where do you think your company can cut costs while providing more value from manufacturing to final retail?

One of the advantages of vertical marketing used by Coca-Cola is the ability to serve specific markets. Besides, the combined effort of supply chain partners can give the consumer a new experience that is likely to be of benefit. The weaknesses of this system, on the other hand, are based...

Provide a concise and precise overview of the five elements of the promotion mix as they apply to your project company. Additionally, how might the leveraged sales approach strengthen your current sales strategy?

Advertising, as the first aspect of the promotional mix, provides Coca-Cola with its communication strategy. Temporal notes that many of the big brands are now paying a lot more attention to digital branding and marketing strategies. For instance, Coca-Cola uses multiple platforms – it has its own corporate blog site...

What are your project company’s brand vision, brand personality, and brand positioning?

Coca-Cola’s brand building is about putting trust to consumers that a company will deliver what it promises. Coca-Cola invests heavily in the entertainment industry to relate its brand to popular culture. Temporal wrote that another significant co-branding exercise was the huge commitment by Coca-Cola to the Harry Potter movie, which...

When launching a new brand, it is best to build the brand first with PR and then sustain it with advertising if necessary. Do you agree with this reasoning?

At the initial phases of launching a brand, it is important to make sure the correct message is passed to the consumers since their first experience influences the perception they have towards a brand. Advertising reinforces the brand message by continuously communicating the brand. McKenna illustrates the marketers being able...

Identify and discuss the main globalization opportunity or challenge impacting your project company. What must be done to strengthen the global position of your company’s brand?

The process of globalization has provided Coca-Cola with a platform to offer the same product everywhere in the world. Consumers feel they are enjoying the best that is to be offered. This increases the profit margin of the company by having limited customization in countries where it operates, companies bid...

If you were hired by Target to design and create a personalized coupon booklet for consumers based on their spending history, what would you do to make it “sneakier” and not as obvious to the consumer that Target is “stalking them”?

If I were hired by Target to design and create a personalized coupon booklet for consumers based on their history of spending, I would break the rule of informativity to make it “sneakier” and avoid consumers’ perception that they are being stalked. This is because if a text is too...

If economic incentives are effective ways to resolve conflict, why not simply offer better terms to the trade? What are the best ways to resolve conflict by making a resolution economically appealing? Why is it effective to couple incentives with communication?

Good terms of trade are very essential in solving crises; it is much better to have good terms and avoid incentives as they can even cause more conflicts. Like in the case of the military, the use of incentives on one side can provoke the team to cause crises with...

Identify the primary challenges an organization faces in managing its channel members. What are some of the methods companies use to motivate channel partners?

To motivate the channel members, a number of factors are considered, and they include taking care of the partners ‘customers’ needs and ensuring those needs are satisfied that is satisfying the partners’ needs. The needs of the business of the partners must be taken care of, especially operational and financial...

Explain labor market analysis from a neoclassical economic perspective. How is this understanding of the labor market different from a heterodox economic perspective?

Labor Market Analysis refers to the process of survey of different aspects of the labor market in order to identify different trends in the market like the availability of work opportunities, prevailing salary and wage rates as well as the availability of people possessing the necessary skills and knowledge to...

Why is Rosewood considering a new brand strategy?

Rosewood Hotels and Resorts is one of the largest hotel management companies in the world. It is devoted to building luxury hotels and resorts which are different from other hotels and resorts. This “company became known for its ability to enhance a property’s value by creating unique, one-of-a-kind properties with...

What are the advantages of price discrimination to consumers?

Firstly, when certain products are sold at a cost that the buyers are willing to pay, more people are in a position to consume. Consumers belonging to families with lesser income will be able to buy the goods they want at a cost which they are capable of paying. In...

Explain why a niche company might have an advantage in a market.

One of the greatest advantages of niche marketing in the market is the reduction in the marketing cost of your product line. The reason is that marketing is usually directed to a particular section of the market. This means that your advertisement will be directed to the particular group thus...

How must marketing strategy and implementation be adjusted or conducted to position a product for the 21st century consumer, and succeed within the new internal and external environmental forces associated with BSR?

Today every responsible person in business or elsewhere must be or become something of an ethicist or an environmentalist. Each time people will tend to act morally more readily under certain conditions rather than others, we recognize the importance of the conditions for moral behaviour. When the lights go out...

Construct a ‘biography’ of a product, tracing its progress from the time it was introduced. How long did it take to diffuse to the mass market? Do the same consumers use the product now as did those who first adopted it? What are its future prospects—is it destined for obsolescence? Would you characterize the product as either a classic or a fad?

In theory, product development is determined by offering the right goods at the right time, at the right price, in the right quantities, in the right place. Referring to the process of evolving new products, it is closely associated with market development. It focuses on the future product line, on...

Identify your own generational cohort in terms of consumer values, needs, and buying behavior, and compare it to similar cohorts in other cultures, or choose a specific product and discuss how cohort values would affect its marketing from one culture to the next.

Consumers’ behaviour and tastes are influenced by specific historical times and values dominated during their childhood and adult years. This can be explained by the fact that humans learn most efficiently through vision and audition. Although the information is acquired from the other senses as well, touch, taste, smell, the...

Debate the following: Marketing towards children is ethical as it serves their needs and benefits society vs. Marketing towards children is unethical as it is manipulative and overly-focused on their hedonistic responses, ultimately not benefiting society.

Marketing and advertising have a great impact on decision-making and consumers’ choice. Children (despite their age and knowledge level) are the main target audience for many marketers selling food and toys products. Children audience is easy to manipulate and create a certain image of the product, create demand and manipulate...

What is viral marketing? Define it and explain how it works.

December 1996 was the year that Harvard School professor Jeffrey F. Rayport wrote an article entitled The Virus of Marketing for Fast Company. This was the first time that the term Viral Marketing first came to the public consciousness prior to becoming the key descriptive word used to describe Hotmail’s...

Describe the different types of advertising and promotions.

Advertisement is any paid non-personal form of presentation about a product that is selected and delivered through a mass communication medium. Advertisement is considered as a method of mass promotion as it reaches many customers. It plays a very vital role in making known, promoting, persuading and connecting the advertiser...

Find an advertisement for the hospital service line you have selected for your marketing plan. Who is the target audience for the ad? What is the “call to action” the ad is seeking from the consumer? (what does the ad want us to do/believe/change) Is there a secondary or underlying message in the ad? What type of appeal is used in the ad (social status, emotional, fear, etc.)? What might the ad placement tell you about the target audience?

The advertisement for the chosen hospital service line tells about cancer services provided by specialists from the Northwestern Medical Center. Healthcare services are advertised with the help of one patient’s cancer story with a happy ending. The advertisement is targeted at people diagnosed with cancer (especially women with breast cancer)....

View the direct-to-consumer YouTube advertisements. Who is the target audience for the ad? What is the “call to action” the ad is seeking from the consumer? (what does the ad want us to do/believe/change) Is there a secondary or underlying message in the ad? What type of appeal is used in the ad (social status, emotional, fear, etc.)? What might the ad placement tell you about the target audience?

Direct-to-consumer YouTube advertisement Advertising goods and services have never been a simple task due to the necessity to consider the specific characteristics of clients. All prospective buyers see products through the prism of their personal experience, and their situation can have a major impact on their consumer decisions. Companies in...

How can the marketing manager of mobile tech (a mobile phone “add-ons” company) use this knowledge of potential Generation Z buyers and users to raise awareness of their product within the Australian market?

The marketing manager of mobile tech (a mobile phone “add-ons” company) needs to know that the people of generation ‘Z’ are not very good listeners and they lack the very essence of interpersonal skills. But all forms of technology, whether it is the internet or mobile technology, are like second...

Which buyer behavior topic can be used to achieve consumer awareness of the impending changeover to digital TV signals, with an emphasis on why consumer need digital-ready technologies and how they can make a successful purchase decision?

The buyer behaviour topic that can be used to achieve consumer awareness of the impending changeover to digital TV can be done with the help of learning theory. Learning basically means when an individual’s behaviour changes when they learn from their past experience. It is a known fact that human...

Describe the licensing operations in the fashion industry other than licensed designer names. Cite one example for each and discuss why they can license their name.

“Giorgio Armani is, to many, Italy’s premier fashion designer. His work is crisp, clean, elegant and tailored” Armani is a straightforward designer who came from humble beginnings in Piacenza, Italy, where he was born on July 11, 1934. It encompasses brands for men’s and women’s wear (Emporio Armani), jeans (Armani...

Explain what a licensing arragement is.

It is very difficult to give an appropriate definition of licensing arrangement. To understand the licensing arrangement, first, it is the sine qua non to comprehend what is licensing. The Encyclopedia of Small Business states that “According to Pat Upton, author of Make Millions in the Licensing Business, licensing is...

Using celebrities is a way companies have of endorsing their products. Are there any dangers associated with this strategy?

A main goal of advertising is influencing the customers, i.e., the active attempt to change or modify consumers’ attitudes towards brands. In this aspect, the credibility of an advertisement plays an important role in convincing the target audience of the attractiveness of the company’s brand. Today, advertisements without celebrities are...

In the prelude to an exchange taking place, what are the main internal and external factors that impact and influence customers.

Customers are influenced or impacted by numerous factors which may be external or internal. These factors are: The locality, attractiveness, and style of the premises play an important part in impacting both internal as well as external customers. Able and customer-focused services will prove instrumental in positively impacting the customers....

How do you believe that internal marketing communication has evolved as a concept?

The concept of internal marketing originally emerged from the literature relating to services marketing. A crucial and primary cause of concern among organizations was the involvement of all the employees of the organization into service encounters, which would consequently better the interactions between the external customers and the employees or...

Consider the use of technology in marketing. Describe the drivers you believe are influencing the rate of new offering development. You may be able to relate this to your own workplace.

The use of technology in marketing is an essential tool and driver and a crucial aspect of business marketing today. The use of technology in marketing and for daily routine operations implies superior stages of effectiveness, larger earnings, and the use of technology that the competitor does not possess definitely...

Summarise the article, A brand plan, Management Today, Australian Institute of Management, September, 2006. What do you think Microsoft learnt from this exercise?

What Microsoft did enlighten itself from this exercise is to associate themselves with sports by sponsoring important sports events and Microsoft took the opportunity to project themselves as the Official Technology Providers of the Commonwealth Games which is a brand that holds great relevance to the entire Australian community as...

How are the needs of internal customers met within a workplace?

An internal customer in an organization is an employee who “you count on or rely upon to complete a task or a function or to provide you with information so that you can get your job done…and anyone who counts on you to complete a task or function or to...

What is the value of marketing research for a business?

According to the ‘Marketing Research Association,’ market research is the ability to provide important information to companies that in turn supply products and services. Market research thus assists these associations by enabling them to recognize and fulfill customer needs and requirements consequently facilitating the associations to develop the value and...

Define the concept of marketing and how general marketing concepts differ or are similar to those of internal marketing.

The ‘Chartered Institute of Marketing’ defines marketing as ‘The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitability’. According to Kotler, ‘Marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others’. The term...

Focus group interviewing is both a widely used and widely criticized research technique in marketing. List the advantages and disadvantages of focus group. Suggest some kinds of questions that are suitable for exploration by using focus groups. How could focus group research be done via the Internet?

The focus group is a group discussion that gathers together people from similar backgrounds so that they can have a discussion on a specific topic of interest. They carry out interviews on the people’s cultures and beliefs. The advantages include: the group provides a lot of information in a quicker...

Distinguish between the five principles of enlightened marketing: consumer-oriented marketing, innovative marketing, value marketing, sense-of-mission marketing, and societal marketing.

Customer-oriented marketing refers to the way in which the suppliers provide the products to the consumer where the consumer is the control agent in that the suppliers have not to know the tastes of these consumers and their preferences before supplying any product in the market so that they are...

Beyond evaluating current businesses, designing the business portfolio involves finding businesses and products the company should consider in the future. Using the product-market expansion grid, illustrate the process that a company can use to evaluate a portfolio.

Market penetration whereby a company is willing to enter the market to sell its products, and this can be achieved through ensuring that the company has a stronghold in the market and has the goals of raising its sales that is in making its product known to the consumers. A...

Why is target-market selection important for a customer-driven marketing strategy? Discuss some of the negative consequences a company might incur from not paying enough attention to selecting its target market.

A marketing strategy refers to a process in which an organization concentrates on the limited resources and ends up increasing sales and therefore achieves a sustainable competitive advantage. A consumer requires a target-market selection so that they can be able to top know how to protect themselves from the prices...

What added value do IKEA offer their customers?

Sales promotion is any activity or material used as an inducement to anyone in the distribution channel such as wholesalers, retailers, and customers. Customers regard sales promotion as offering added value to the exchange process. This method of using sales promotion is very relevant when the focus is on short-term...

Using the internet, locate three companies that conduct sports marketing research. What types of services and products do the companies offer?

The relation between sports and business is growing year by year. So also are the number of companies that provide market information and research about sports and business. Three such companies are discussed here. They are the American Sports Data Incorporated, Performance Research, and Sportbusiness.com. American Sports Data Incorporated: Their...

Find two sports organizations that, in your opinion, have undergone or are about to undergo a crisis situation. How should these organizations handle the crisis from a marketing perspective?

It is common knowledge that any organization during its lifetime will face problems and crises. It is also fairly well known that professional sports organizations are now more business-oriented than in earlier times. They now have a lot of financial stakes and have to manage their finances and their bottom...