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Some people have suggested that evil exists in the world because its existence is necessary to bring about the “greatest amount of good.” What is Hospers’ criticism of this line of reasoning?

Hospers claims that ‘developing virtues is not an accuse of permitting disasters.’ It means that ‘moral urgency’ and ‘virtue-building,’ which can be developed by creating barriers and difficulties for people, can not be achieved by doing evil to them because this will ruin every meaning of virtue and morality.

Other people have suggested that the purpose of evil is to discipline and improve us – not to punish us. They suggest that the world is really a moral training ground for building up our characters. How does Hospers respond to this?

Hospers claims that, however, the pain is something necessary to feel relief, it does not mean that physician should arbitrarily cause pain in this patient. If applied to God, it means that the notions of good and just run in great contradiction to conscious initiating of the evil. If God...

Another suggestion that is sometimes offered to explain the existence of evil is the following: “What seems evil to us is, in fact, good when seen from the vantage point of omniscience.” How does Hospers criticize this view?

As Hospers claims, this vision is contradictory to the human notions of morality. If we consider all evil in our eyes to be good in God’s eyes, it would mean, according to Hospers, that we should change our own notions of morality and behave correspondingly to the new morality. This...

In what respect is the metaphysical notion of non-duality exemplified in Christianity? Explain. What does the word “monism” mean? How does Christianity escape the monist predicament?

The metaphysical language suggests that the infinitive neither wills imagines, acts, nor causes anything. Negative language about a creative action of the infinitive must be understood in the same way as negative language about its being and nature. In Christianity, selflessness is the means by which the infinitive engenders the...

What is the Supreme Identity of which Watts speaks?

Man’s own identity is so mysterious to the external world. At times as human beings, we have had to ask ourselves a weird question or a riddle of who we would be if our parents had not married or married someone else. Perhaps, death is the worst fascinating of these...

Be prepared to explain the meaning and the purpose of the following remark made by Stace: “We must always distinguish an experience of any kind, whether it is a sense experience or a mystical experience, from the interpretation which our intellect puts on it.”

The author states that to encourage readers to differentiate between the experience itself and the intellect’s interpretation of the fact. The experience itself is certain and cannot be doubted, whereas the intellect’s interpretation can always be doubted and is at most only a probable opinion. Explaining this difference is important...

In Stace’s opinion, are there any arguments for the objectivity of the mystics’ experience which rely on something other that merely his or her own inward experience? If not, why not? If so, what is it?

According to Stace, there exists an argument for the objectivity of the mystic’s experience which relies not merely on his own inward experience but on independent and outside checking: one mystic’s experience is supported by the evidence of other mystics all over the world, in all ages, countries, and cultures....

What idea does Stace use the “Leibnizian Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles” to explain? How does this principle help to explain it?

The mystical consciousness is trans-subjective. The author uses the Leibnezean principle of the identity of indiscernibles to support this statement. Stace supposes two persons, A and B, to expel all empirical content from their minds so that to reach the unity of pure consciousness. By the mentioned principle, pure ego...

What is the Protestant idea of the calling?

After comprehensive research and study of Franklin, Luther, and Calvin’s works, Weber concluded that the Protestant idea of the calling is the notion of a task set for people by God himself. Weber believed that the concept of the calling is somewhat voluntary and is “a strenuous and exacting enterprise...

How is ascetism embodied to the Spirit of Capitalism?

Weber addressed the capitalistic spirit to determine whether it was influenced by religious notions and the concept of asceticism that may, at first sight, contradict it. Weber defined the essence of modern capitalism as an attitude of a systematic and rational search for profit. Weber also concluded that a successful...

Present, as much as possible, the 5 dimensions of the Manifesto.

Karl Marx is a key figure behind the development of the conflict theory, one of the major perspectives of modern sociology. He is the author of The Communist Manifesto, a book of his economic and sociological ideas for the 20th century. The Manifesto is divided into five dimensions: class struggle,...

What is philosophical hermeneutics?

Philosophical hermeneutics is the ability of people to understand and explain philosophical notions in simple words. Most philosophical ideas are confused and unclear, so, many people do not just understand the real value of this or that expression. The main function of philosophical hermeneutics is to explain the moral idea...

Kant, in his philosophy of knowledge, distinguishes two distinct realms of phenomena and noumena. Phenomena are the appearances that constitute our experiences; noumena are the things in themselves, which constitute reality. How has law struggled between what Kant calls the phenomena and noumena?

Immanuel Kant describes phenomena as that which appears to humans or our experiences. Kant describes noumena as the things in themselves which make up reality. According to Kant, humans are incapable of knowing noumena. While we can experience phenomena through our senses, noumena is a “higher reality” unknowable. These two...

Compare and contrast the perspectives of philosophers Max Weber and Karl Marx concerning the primary forces facilitating capitalist development.

Karl Marx identified several factors that promoted the advancement of capitalism. To begin with, capitalism was promoted by the exploitation of workers. Exploitation enabled capitalists to generate surplus value, which was necessary for the growth of capitalism. Increasing absolute or relative surplus value allowed capitalists to increase their profits and...

Explain the elements of cultural relativism.

Cultural relativism claims that every culture has a unique value system. Each culture is independent and complete, and the assessments on behalf of European-American morality are relative. Each nation has a “cultural focus”, that is, an essential cultural feature. However, some of them have universal traits that are common to...

What are the key dimensions of universalism?

Universalism is an ethical worldview that is the opposite of individualism. Within the framework of universalism, achieving goals alone is considered impracticable. Employees must have solidarity with the people around them. Without establishing harmonious relations in a company, a person becomes divorced from the team and ceases to be effective....

Discuss the Tree Philosophical Puzzle

In two to three full pages you need to include your rough draft introduction with a clear thesis as well as a few major points related to supporting your thesis, e.g. main points you want to address about the Matrix or Descartes’ skepticism. Properly reference your ideas and present the...

Do You Agree that Socrates Goads the Jury into Convicting Him?

In this essay provide the biographical information and the social and political milieu in which Socrates was writing. Describe the venue for where Socrates delivers the Apology and the audience he writes for. After that provide the point of view Socrates presents in the Apology and support your opinion with...

Does a Falling Tree Make Sound

Discuss how the following philosophical puzzle: ”If a tree falls in the forest and there’s no one around to hear it, does it make a sound?” is an epistemological problem. Consider the following philosophical puzzle: ”If a tree falls in the forest and there’s no one around to hear it,...

Essay on Man’s Search of Meaning

Write an essay that evaluates the degree to which Frankl’s work is original (as opposed to merely parroting the ideas of others) and to what degree are his views valuable. Analyze Frankl’s ideas and develop your opinion of those ideas’ value.

On the Genealogy of Morality: Nietzsche’s Critique of Modern Values

What is the most significant argument advanced by Nietzsche in On the Genealogy of Morals? Apply Nietzsche’s critique of objective/universal moral value equations to one of the readings of your choice. For example: Using Nietzsche’s work, what new insights does one gain pertaining to Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, or Locke? What...

Overview the Aristotle’s View on Substance

In answering this question, you should be defining Aristotle’s view on substance and comparing it with other categories of being. The author is expected to examine the views of the second lineage of logic which is the Megarian School of Formal Logic and compare their theories on potentiality-actuality. Use credible...

Discuss If Kant’s Ethics Is Right

You should include concrete, real-world examples to help prove your point (to prove why Kant’s ethics is right or not). Finally, towards the end of your paper, you should briefly consider an objection to your position. In other words, you should include a paragraph that considers a different and opposing...

Philosophy Paper

Write an argumentative/critical essay on Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues.

Philosophy: What Matters To You and What Does Not?

Is success important? Is family? Are your possessions important to you? How do you know there is anything after you die? What is the ultimate meaning of life? What about relationships? How do they impact you? Are they important? What is love? What is faith and hope? What is religion?...

Provide Your Perspective on The Rhetoric and the Poetics of Aristotle

Write a book report on The Rhetoric and the Poetics of Aristotle by Aristotle to identify three ways in which this book distinctively advanced your theoretical knowledge of the rhetoric and philosophy of communication. State the central question of scholarly inquiry guiding the book and locate the dominant themes or...

The Analysis of Aristotle’s Work

Analyze Critique of Nichomachean Ethics by Aristotle. Basic Knowledge: Identify three ways in which this book advanced your theoretical knowledge of the rhetoric and philosophy of communication. Metaphor and Argument:State the central question(s) of scholarly inquiry guiding the book.Locate the dominant themes or idea clusters (metaphor/metaphor pattern) and relate it...

Bertrand Russell’s “The Value of Philosophy”

What does Russell contend is the value of philosophy? Is he correct in his assertion? Do Russell’s views reflect the views of Socrates and Plato? Specifically, how does Russell’s ‘practical man’ compare to the prisoners in Plato’s Cave? How do Russell’s ideas compare to Socrates’ argument that the unexamined life...

The Recognition of the Other in Philosophy

How do pragmatism or critical social philosophy advance the recognition of the Other in philosophy? How does philosophical discourse recognize the importance of other human agents in our existence and self-understanding, and how does this recognition affect our theory of moral and epistemic practices? Explore one philosophical approach (pragmatism or...

Understanding of Virtue and Human Good by Aristotle and Socrates

Explain Aristotle’s understanding of virtue as it is developed in the Ethics. In the first part of the Meno, Plato has Socrates argue that a definition of virtue is necessary if he and Meno are going to be able to claim to know anything about it. Explain Aristotle’s understanding of...

What Is Your Personal Philosophy of Leadership?

In answering this question, you should be discussing what it means for you to become a good leader in the modern world. Reflect and articulate certain things, such as your personal values (i.e. integrity, social responsibility, respect), your responsibility to other people you work with, your attitude and approach to...

What types of political questions did the Classical Greek philosophers look at?

In ancient Greece, the primary forms of government were the aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy; hence, the main question at the time was what form of government could be the most effective. These thoughts are reflected in the works of Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato. Socrates thought when power was a kingdom,...

What are Mencius’ main values and how does he attempt to convince important rulers of his ideas? What is his style of argument and are Mencius’ ideas about ritual propriety?

Mencius, a famous and respected Confucianism teacher, often argued with other philosophers and statespeople. Similar to other ancient thinkers he often used logic and the power of words to construct his arguments. The analogy was one of his most frequently used techniques of convincing an opponent. Thus, in response to...

Explain the idea of analytic philosophy in contrast with other schools of philosophy.

Analytic philosophy is often compared to Continental schools of philosophy, such as existentialism and phenomenology. Analytic philosophy is highly logical and argumentative. This school of philosophy extensively uses conceptual analysis and logical positivism in its empirical studies. This is why it is different from continental philosophies. Continental schools use synthesis...

Explain the role of the “Vienna circle” in the history of analytic philosophy.

Vienna Circle was a gathering of various philosophical minds of the 20th century. This group consisted of philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians who also called their philosophical school logical empiricism. Those bright minds shared the position of logical positivism and promoted this philosophical concept inside the analytic philosophy branch. The goal...

Explain the meaning of being and nothingness according to Sartre.

According to Sartre, the world is a cognizable object and thus is defined by being. You can understand and explain it. However, you cannot define a human being because you know nothing about anybody except yourself. Thus, people are defined by nothingness because they are unknowable.

Explain the role of the “Vienna circle” in the history of analytic philosophy.

The Vienna Circle – a group of scholars representing different branches of science – was a movement that was highly organized and even had its Manifesto. Among all other positivists, they were the most successful with integrating science into philosophy. Their ideas were made popular in educational circles in Vienna...

Explain the idea of analytic philosophy in contrast with other schools of philosophy

There is no single opinion on what makes analytic philosophy stands out among the other philosophical schools. The clearest explanation was suggested by logical positivists and promoted the idea that only those theories that can be proved by logic or experiment have the right to exist. Thus, the main occupation...

Why Plato finds the ascent to truth confusing and painful? The vision of reality is said to be dangerous to the eyes, “like the sun to the eclipse”, how might that help us understand the terror of the ascent?

Plato finds the ascent to truth confusing and painful because the ascent is different from what ordinary minds have learned through the experience of reality. According to this parable, the initial mind is in a cave, and what it perceives as reality are only images or shadows of what is...

Explain Confucius’ vision of the ideal society.

The most significant philosopher in China and the author of the first social utopian project was Confucius. He believed that an ideal society should be built by analogy with the family. Society, according to Confucius, should resemble a large family, where the ruler, as a father, takes care of his...

Whose philosophy is better justified, Plato’s or Hobbes’?

Comparing Plato’s philosophy and Hobbes’ perception of the world, the concepts presented by both are rather controversial. In particular, the most contradicting questions are the philosophers’ deliberations on the human nature and knowledge, on the definition of justice, on politics, and on the social and ethical issues. Considering their vision...

Describe how Kant established the possibility of the Independence Model.

Kant’s independence model urges that religion and science are two independent discourses of a dualistic system. Kant urges that knowledge is anchored on in two separate causalities. There is the practical and theoretical knowledge. The practical knowledge involves the human capacity to start a sequence of events that cannot be...

What was Aristotle’s main issue in the work The Poetics?

The work was written in 335 BC in the ancient period when the meaning of poetry was of primary importance. The Poetics of Aristotle specifically concerns the literary theory where the philosopher focuses on theoretical principles of drama and tragedy; he also gives his own interpretation of poetry, thus identifying...

Some philosophers have claimed that there is gratuitous evil in the world, and that the existence of gratuitous evil entails that God does not exist.

Some philosophers have claimed that there is gratuitous evil in the world, and that the existence of gratuitous evil entails that God does not exist. First, explain what a “gratuitous evil” is—what distinguishes a gratuitous evil from a non-gratuitous evil? Second, explain why some philosophers think that the existence of...

Reflect upon Plato’s political philosophy—antidemocratic, authoritarian, and run by the philosopher-kings.

Democracy is the rule of the free people who govern themselves through representatives.  Plato argued that democracy involves danger of excessive freedom leading to anarchy.  In addition, the belief in equal capacity to rule motivates power-seeking individuals.  Plato noted that democracy promotes personal gains rather than public good.  In addition,...

How does language help to create our world? Using the readings by Wittgenstein, Austin, and Harré explain how language has shifted from tool to subject in philosophy. Explain how language can be a methodology. Explain how it can objectify the world. Is there such a thing as a private language? Give examples of the insights we have gained from the study of philosophy language. In your view, is this a valuable study?

Language is a very important aspect of human life. Language forms the essential part of understanding the world in which man lives. Language creates important relations between what is in the environment that forms experiences and an understanding of the experiences that forms knowledge in human beings. After identifying and...

Russell argues for a “scientific method” in philosophy. What does he mean by that? How does he propose to use “knowledge by acquaintance” and “knowledge by description” to build a hierarchy of knowledge? Would Whitehead agree? What is his view of philosophy? In your view, is either of philosophers correct? Both? Outline your own view about how we can acquire a foundation for knowledge.

In Russell’s argument, knowledge is acquired through the various scientific stages. First of all, these stages involve observation of the significant facts or events that are vital for memory purposes. Then it follows the process of building a hypothesis about the facts just observed. If at all a hypothesis becomes...

Explain the meaning of being and nothingness according to Sartre.

Sartre introduced the concept of Being and Nothingness in existentialist philosophy. It is, in fact, a study of consciousness of being, comparing conscious and unconscious beings. Being-in-itself is considered as the being of objects or being unconscious. Being-for-itself, on the contrary, means being aware and is an attribute of humans....

Explain the role of the “Vienna Circle” in the history of analytic philosophy.

The “Vienna Circle” is one of the known unions of philosophers of the middle of the twentieth century. Its participants are known for the creation of a school of thought, which is recorded in the history of philosophy as logical or empirical positivism. The representatives of the “Vienna Circle” believed...

In Plato’s Phaedo, Socrates argues that a philosopher will not make a fuss about the prospect of dying. After making this argument Socrates goes on to suggest that it is only a true philosopher who can rightly be called courageous and moderate. Recount and evaluate Socrates’ argument that non-philosophers are only virtuous in an absurd or contradictory way. Why, for Socrates, it might be the case that only philosophers are virtuous in a true way?

Phaedo is one of the most important Plato’s dialogues where Socrates speaks about the mission of philosophy, philosophy, the distinction between body and soul. One of the crucial arguments Plato puts forward through Socrates’ words is that philosophers are amongst the most virtuous people in the world. After their death,...

Explain Kant’s objection to homosexuality. How might it be argued that homosexual relations are compatible with, rather than contrary to, Kant’s view of the legitimate use of our sexual faculties?

According to Kant the inclination of a person towards another merely serves the purpose of fulfilling our sexual desires rather than following our human nature. In his opinion safe guarding the moralistic ground of our nature and keeping ourselves from debasement requires us to enter into a binding contract of...

Explain Aristotle’s main focuses in virtues and ethics.

Aristotle’s main focus in moral philosophy was the human character, and what it takes for an individual to become a good person (Kemerling, G., 2002). He gave the thought that all human activities are carried out for a reason, having an aim, and mostly this aim is to achieve some...

Perry asserts that the Greeks were the first to consistently apply reason to the study of the physical world and all human activities. Discuss how Greek philosophy, art, literature, and historical thought exemplify the Greek movement toward a rational analysis of the world and the human condition. Use examples from the primary source readings on Homer, Plato and Aristotle, Thucydides’ Melian Dialogue, Sophocles’ Antigone.

In the history of mankind, the Greeks were the first people to apply reason in the study of the physical world and human beings through their art architecture, philosophy, historical thought so they become the first ever to think rationally. The Greek architecture consisted of buildings that were found in...

Explain how both Spinoza and Leibniz would attempt to avoid the mind-body problem. Explain whether you think Spinoza or Leibniz are successful in resolving the problem and why.

Spinoza and Leibniz do not believe in clear distinctions between the brain and the mind. Spinoza utilizes a monist approach to the issue and states that, despite the seeming differences, both the body and the mind are the manifestations of the universal energy – God. Leibniz offers his own version...

Examine Kantian Ethics, or Deontology. Focus on rule-based ethics, where unlike Utilitarianism, the intent of the agent plays an important role.

Contributing to the happiness of others seems to rely on the fact that people doing so ignore their own wants. However, these individuals use themselves as both an end in themselves and a means to others’ ones, satisfying the deontological formulation of humanity. Furthermore, if run through the appropriate questions,...

How do you explain the problem of evil in the world?

It should be renowned that the idea of natural evil may be discarded if one considers that proceedings such as tremor and food shortage have come concerning due to personal misconduct of the surroundings. It is also dubious whether a tremor causing the loss of a person’s existence is an...

Discuss the competing early philosophies of China, both before and after Confucianism. What were the differences?

Like many other ancient civilizations, China witnessed a flourishing of ideas, philosophies, and societies between 800 and 200 BCE. Creative thinking stemmed from a spread political instability and contributed to the reorganization of the territory. Around 500 BCE, the most important early philosophies of China, Confucianism, and Taoism, formed. While...

What is Nietzsche’s “eternal return of the same”?

Eternal return of the same is the idea stating that all actions, feelings, and decisions a person makes are cyclic. In other words, when he/she dies, all these events will be reborn right in the same year and place when they started (Brusseau 141). In such a way, individuals should...

What values do you bring to your emerging philosophical approach to research?

The development of any research is based on how well a person can introduce the chosen philosophical approach. Subjective qualities of perception have to be shaped by past knowledge and present values. Therefore, the identification of values becomes an obligatory step in research. I would like to pay close attention...

How does Kuhn’s philosophy differ from Popper’s philosophy?

Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn were the most dominant philosophers of science in the twentieth century. Piggott shows that both Popper and Kuhn are often referenced in academic works, and their viewpoints remain valuable to researchers. Whereas Sir Karl Popper was studied logic and the scientific method, Kuhn worked in...

Explain Aristotle’s 4 causes.

Aristotle’s four causes are utilized in modern science as a framework for research, and they are called final, efficient, formal, and material. They are being used to answer the questions of what is an object, what is it made of, how or by whom, and how to use it (or...

Explain how critical thinking can be used to analyze a philosophical issue.

Critical thinking is an essential aspect of philosophy. Thus, it can be utilized to examine a philosophical issue, as it requires questioning a statement until a consensus is reached. Since philosophy offers different opinions on the nature of things, critical thinking can be applied to validate argumentation and come to...

Explain some of the benefits a student may gain by studying philosophy.

Studying philosophy can have a variety of positive effects on a student’s view of life. The nature of the subject is inspiring learners to think through information and come up with critical conclusions. Furthermore, multiple points of view are presented on the subject of philosophy. Also, the topics examined in...

Why Is It Possible to Know Anything at All?

The question regarding the possibility of knowing anything with complete certainty remains open according to the existing theological studies (Plantinga, 2015). Nevertheless, the Bible posits that it is possible to carry the knowledge of a particular notion, phenomenon, or object (Plantinga, 2015). The specified ability is justified by the statements...

a. What is Prime Reality? b. What is the nature of the world around you? c. What is a Human Being? d. What Happens to a Person at Death? e. Why is it Possible to Know Anything at all? f. How do People Know What is Right or Wrong? g. What is the Meaning of Human History?

a. Various views on the world have different explanations for what prime reality is. In religion, particularly in Christianity, the prime reality is God. However, naturalism considers that the term relates to eternal matter. In addition, in this belief, God does not exist at all. Postmodernism defines prime reality in...

Which seems more likely to you: that your path in life is determined before you were born, or that you are born and then you determine how your life will go? Why? Is there a middle ground on this issue?

Choosing between the two extremes, it seems more likely to me that I am capable of determining the direction of my life as I mature and obtain life experience. Living in the twenty-first century, I have the freedom to choose my degree, job, place of residence, hobbies, partner, and overall...

Could you please provide an example for Aristotle’s and Plato’s philosophical approaches to understanding ethics/personal character in today’s modern society?

Plato placed emphasized the ruling class being selected from among the “guardian” class. This value is often represented in American politics, particularly the conservative side. Politicians running for office often refer to their past military service as evidence of their commitment. This stance relies on the ethical structure Plato used...