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Describe the controversy over Skinner’s views of human behavior, and identify some ways to apply operant conditioning principles at school, at work, and at home.

Skinner’s theory was based on the view that human behavior is dependent on the quality of consequences that follow. The controversy of the psychologist’s theory is related to Skinner’s simplistic approach to understanding the roots and causes of such a complex process as forming of behavior. Although the theorist acknowledged...

Define and describe philosophy.

Philosophy refers to the quest for knowledge, knowledge, and truth in its expansive sagacity. Nevertheless, in Greek, the term itself implies “love of understanding.” Individuals contemplate philosophy whenever they cogitate on profound, central issues about reality and themselves, the precincts of human understanding, their ideals, and the drive of life....

Are you philosophical? Explain.

I consider myself philosophical, following my ability to stay thoughtful and detached in case of any setback that is threatening my efforts to lead quality and sustainable lifestyles. The research of how humans think through difficulties is more precisely the field of philosophy in modern days. Ancient thinkers have various...

Does Socrates agree with Euthyphro’s definitions: why yes or why no?

Socrates does not agree with the definitions of piety and impiety given by Euthyphro. He does this by leading questions that lead the hero’s reasoning to a dead end. The solution of the problem that follows from Socrates’ reasoning differs from the definitions of Euthyphro. So, he claims that gods...

What is your understanding of reality and how did you come to that conclusion?

Reality constitutes all there is, known and unknown, both as a unified system and a combination of separate parts. It cannot be truly perceived in its entirety, since the inability to fully comprehend all of the existence is a part of the concept itself. The philosophical studies of mind and...

What are your thoughts of the Socratic (classical) definition of knowledge?

Socrates defines knowledge as the absolute truth, therefore implying that it is objective. I disagree, sine I do not believe that a person may have an access to the absolute truth in the first place. Every person’s view of the world, even when based on facts, is innately subjective to...

What are your thoughts your understanding of Aristotle’s Four Causes?

I find this framework to be illustrative and very focused on the precision and categorization that may occur when discussing reality. By separating perception into material, formal, efficient and final a scholar gives themselves tools to engage with mutually exclusive or internally contradictory events. As multiple things can be true...

What are your thoughts on Descartes’ Mind and Body Dualism?

I think that it cannot be true in the most literal sense, with the brain being ultimately an organ within the body. At the same time, the consciousness, personality and other non-tangible unique things are definitely varying from a person to a person, and are not dependenton their bodies. Overall,...

What is your theory of reality? How did you come to it?

I am unsure if I have a personal theory of reality yet, but I would say that I lean towards emphasizing subjectivity. One cannot ever be objective and interact with absolute truths outside of a limited number of mathematical laws. By accepting this fact, a person opens their mind to...

Describe the difference between Chrematistics and Economics in Aristotle’s thought. How does Aristotle’s disdain for Chrematistics relate to the notion of evil with respect to the Garden of Eden Story?

Chrematistics means the acquisition of wealth in excess of a healthy level of human need. Aristotle contrasted Chrematistics – economics as a purposeful activity to create the goods necessary for the natural needs of man. At the same time, Aristotle saw the role of the economy in meeting urgent needs...

Discuss the differences between the Stoics, Epicureans, and Cynics. How do their views compare to modern views of “rational self-interest”?

Stoics’ and Epicureans’ concepts focus on self-realization and self-satisfaction. Cynics believe that the purpose of life is to live in harmony with nature, rejecting the generally accepted desire for wealth. The Epicureans are in search of sensual pleasure, while the Stoics are in search of knowledge and honesty, which “is...

How do we balance the moral claims?

There is no balance; either one chooses to keep the status quo or make changes to the way one farms or fishes. It is a slow change that one has to look at and not a balance. However, if one farm and fish ethically and sustainably, the fish and animals...

Why do people act differently in each of their social groups? How have social groups, formal organizations, and society as a whole changed with time? Why is it Important to use or employ verstehen when learning about the events that have occurred in the past year in America?

These are questions that Max Weber, one of the founding fathers of sociology would ask. He thought of sociology as a science of social action. Weber believed that understanding why people do the things they do is the basic building-block of sociology, a concept he termed Verstehen. He believed that...

Does Plato’s theory of knowledge as recollection make sense to you? Why or why not?

Like any other philosophical theory, Plato’s theory of knowledge as recollection cannot be considered either wrong or right. He distinguished four degrees of knowledge such as the apprehension of pure sense images, the perceptive knowledge of sensible objects, mathematical knowledge, and philosophical knowledges. Furthermore, there are two classes such as...

What is it to understand a thing functionally? Give an example or two. What follows about evaluation under a functionalist conception? Aristotle applies a functionalist argument to persons. Exactly what is his argument, and how is it different from a standard functionalist conception? Say something in favor of this argument, or criticize it.

Functionalism is a theory of consciousness, according to which mental states are determined not by their internal structure but by their roles as an integral part of a particular system. For example, from the perspective of functionalism, being in pain means being in a specific functional state. Thus, to feel...

Explain why, according to Aristotle, courage and truthfulness are virtues.

It is safe to say that Aristotle’s contribution to philosophy is impossible to measure fully even today. He had a significant impact on many of his contemporaries and students, including Alexander the Great. Moreover, his legacy continues to inspire thinkers over two thousand years later. It is primarily thanks to...

Describe the “New Thinking” of the Greek philosophers.

The new thinking of Greek philosophers emphasized rationality over traditionally held beliefs. The new perspective did not disregard religion. Rather it introduced a new of perceiving religion based more on logic. The new paradigm was characterized by a strong focus on science and intelligence. Therefore, it can be attributed to...

How does Plato treat tradition? How does he formulate his argument?

At first glance, it might seem that traditionalism belongs to the category of sensitive historical phenomena firmly associated with antiquity. Thus, as a rule, when individuals reflect on tradition, the mind directs the flow of thoughts toward past experiences and events. As a consequence, an erroneous belief may be created...

Give some reflection to the way Aristotle uses the term “happiness” or eudaimonia.

In the understanding of Aristotle, eudaimonia or happiness is a long-standing condition and way of life, which is aimed at achieving the self-sufficiency of a person and human relations. For example, Aristotle argues that one who is happy living in accordance with virtue and is sufficiently equipped with external goods...

Of the five classical branches of philosophy, i.e., Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Logic, and Aesthetics, which branch do you find most interesting? Explain why.

For me, of the five classical branches of philosophy, ethics is the most interesting. It studies moral issues, including capital punishment, euthanasia, and abortion, and tries to find universal answers to the question of the morality of these concepts. However, it is evident that there is no definite answer because...

What are your first impressions of the philosophy class?

My first impression of the philosophy class is a mixture of admiration, a desire to dive into the search for answers to eternal questions, awe, and even fear of how difficult this journey will be. I think philosophy is one of the most complex and ambiguous classes. We will have...

How does Aristotle define happiness? How is human nature connected with human happiness? How are reason and virtue connected with human happiness?

According to Aristotle, a happy life involves long-life activities that bring the rational soul virtues. In addition to these virtues, Aristotle states that other goods that result in human satisfaction include wealth, power, and friends. Therefore, a lack of friends and family contributes greatly to jeopardizing a person’s happiness. An...

Do you agree with Aristotle’s account of human happiness? Why or why not?

I agree with the account of human happiness provided by Aristotle since it is an observable truth that wealth does not bring absolute joy to humans. Unlike wealth, things that create long-term satisfaction and contentment are not buyable. Money allows people to do certain things and have fun, but long-lasting...

Explain Aristotle’s three forms of friendship in terms of: Are the all created equal? If Aristotle see’s one of them as best, why does he consider it best?

Aristotle’s three acquaintance systems include pleasure relationship, utility attachment, and virtue alliance. Though it is not clear how individuals ought to comprehend the difference between the three methods, the central idea argues that virtue, utility, and pleasure explain why these bond forms exist. A person may love a friend to...

Please give a synopsis of Plato’s Moral and Political Philosophy. What aspects of this theory do you think are correct,and what aspects do you think are incorrect?

Plato’s moral philosophy revolves around the virtue-driven eudemonistic idealization of ethics. According to him, happiness is the highest object of moral behavior and thoughts, while virtues are the necessary skills and confessions required to achieve it. Plato’s political philosophy was that conflicting ideas and interests shared by different sections of...

Is Plato’s Theory of the Forms cogent? Please give a detailed account of Plato’s Theory of the Forms when answering. Be sure to explain and address the criticisms we covered.

Plato’s theory of forms states that the physical world is actually not the real world, but the ultimate reality only exists beyond what we can see in the real world. Plato claims that there is the physical and the spiritual realm. The physical realm involves objects that interact with and...

Consider cases in which someone has a heart transplant from an organ donor, and begins to experience feelings and emotions associated with that donor’s former life. What would two of the philosophers say about this phenomenon?

With regard to memories experienced after receiving an organ for a donor, Hume would argue that the self exists as a result of recorded sensory impressions. Therefore, sensory objects play a critical role in forming the self, which becomes embedded in the body. Descartes would argue that the act of...

Describe veritistic epistemology, and compare it to Descartes’ description of his method for understanding how he is a thinking existing being.

Veritistic epistemology refers to the evaluation of specific practices by assessing their capacity to contribute to knowledge. It relates to Descartes’ theories in that all issues are first considered false before being subjected to analysis. Descartes applies the method of doubt to evaluate his existence. While various aspects of life...

Explain Locke’s distinction between sensations and reflections, and Hume’s distinction between impressions and ideas. How are their theories alike, and how do they differ? Whose view is most convincing? Be sure to explain each philosopher’s key terms in your answer.

Hume believed that impressions are vivid perceptions of the mind’s expressions while ideas are reflections of impressions. Locke noted that sensations are the experiences gained from sensory stimulation, while reflections are thought processes in one’s mind. While both theories define the origin of ideas, Locke includes aspects of the senses...

You and a friend are kidnapped by an evil mad doctor who is planning to switch your brain into your friend’s body and your friend’s brain into your body. After the surgery, you will not remember the surgery. You will be treated as the body you currently inhabit with that body’s identification, driver’s license, etc. Who would you say you are, according to Locke? Why would Descartes possibly disagree?

According to Locke, consciousness is inextricably linked to personal identity rather than the physical form. Therefore, people are not dependent on their bodies, and they can exist in other bodies. Descartes would disagree because while he believed that the self is separate from the body, he did not state that...

Some argue that Descartes really does not need to use “radical doubt” to help us perceive our mind as a perceiving thing. Describe Descartes’ method of doubt, and explain his examples of why doubt is necessary. Do you agree or disagree with his method?

The method of doubt encourages individuals to doubt the truth regarding everything and realize that indubitable ideas qualify as pieces of knowledge. I believe it is an effective way of understanding truths because doubt prompts inquiry which is essential for a comprehensive review of an idea’s multifaceted elements.

Consider the example of maring ice in a freezer. How do we know that the water we placed in the freezer is the same thing as the ice we take out later? What would Descartes and Locke tell us about how we know the “thing” that is the water and the ice?

Descartes posits that the marked ice in a freezer can only be identified by depending on absolute certainty. Therefore, the individual must be capable of deducing that the ice is the result of frozen water. Locke proposes that there is no certainty in knowledge. Therefore, the identity of the ice...

How would you describe the difference between modernism and post-modernism?

The difference between modernism and postmodernism is that these theories treat the progress and rationality of the world differently. In particular, the modernists regard that they can find the methods to explain how the world is constructed by applying the knowledge about humans. Consequently, they aspire to learn the “true...

When Russell talks about things like “prejudice” and “common sense,” what does he mean? Based on his use of these terms, what role does he think philosophy should play in addressing “prejudice” or “common sense”? How might this compare to the role that Socrates thinks philosophy should play in a society? Use specific passages from The Apology and the Russell reading on “The Value of Philosophy” in your response.

Russell’s view on common sense and prejudice is that the aforementioned notions are often conceived in the absence of concrete evidence. In order to avoid falling victim to prejudice, he proposes that topics must be evaluated from all sides using philosophical principles in order to gain a better perspective. Socrates...

What was the method that Socrates used in his discussions, and how did his approach differ from that of the Sophists? How would you compare Socrates’ method from that of Russell, or that of Descartes?

It is vital to note that, unlike sophists, Socrates advocated for the promotion of arguments that ask important questions that serve to guide conclusions or a better understanding of the matter under review. Sophists promote arguments with no regard for the truth provided they achieve their goals. Russell views philosophy...

What did the Oracle at Delphi mean when he told Socrates “You are the wisest of men”? How does Socrates’ understanding of wisdom compare with how Russell describes philosophy and having a sense of wonder?

The Oracle of Delphi meant that Socrates was filled with wisdom because he had embraced his inability to know everything. Both Russell and Socrates prefer to question ideas rather than assess issues superficially. Sophists were regarded as individuals who were skilled at arguing in support of any side of an...

Socrates wanted to be known as a “philo-sophoi” and not a “sophist.” Explain the difference between these two terms, and give an example of how Socrates addresses ethical issues in a way that shows his love of the truth. Was he unjustly accused? Was he a gadfly in a good way, or merely a nuisance to the people of Athens?

Socrates’ insistence on being referred to as “philo-sophoi” was based on his insistence on arguing for the truth. He was unjustly accused, seeing as he supported the dissemination of truth. He addressed ethical issues by questioning what others considered the truth and by analyzing concepts such as piety and virtue....

Which of the philosophical questions the TED talk about Mary’s Room Experiment raises or addresses? How has Mary’s Room caused you to think about those questions in a new or refined way?

The main question that the piece raises is «What is knowledge?». Nelsen mentioned that the experiment created a dispute on whether the knowledge about a specific mental state is enough to fully understand it even without any experience of the mental state itself. Thus, it is possible to ask whether...

How does Rousseau distinguish “the general will” from “the will of all”? Why does this distinction matter in understanding Rousseau’s normative account of law?

Political philosophy is one of the primary subjects in the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and the terms “the general will” and “the will of all” should also be interpreted in the legislative context. The philosopher regards that the primary purpose of the government should be aligned with the general will....

According to Mill, why is it indefensible to appeal to “natural” differences between men and women in justifying women’s subordinate status within society? To what extent does Mill’s critique succeed in defeating these nature-based justifications?

The subjects of femininity, feminism, love, and how to be a woman persist and are central in the works of Simone de Beauvoir. The French philosopher also continually tackles the topic of marriage and its role in the relationship of men and women. At the present time, the concept of...

What was the most important movement or idea, ideology or philosophy of the recent American experience (1877-2010) – what made it so and why do you think it was so important?

The most important ideology in the U.S. is “American individualism,” as it emphasizes the moral value of the individual. President Hoover’s cultivated the philosophy and a spirit of rugged individualism. It prevents unnecessary government intervention in the daily lives of Americans. It is an essential approach to foster the personal...

Discuss how representational realism can still lead us to the external world.

The primary qualities of an object do not depend on the existence or opinions of an observer. For example, the Grand Canyon existed long before humanity and, though it has changed over time, as all things do, has generally maintained its shape. Each of its sections has a specific depth...

Is there any way that you can tell whether you are awake or dreaming? Is Descartes right that he cannot tell the difference? Try to identify and explain at least two ways that dreaming experiences and waking experiences are different.

The idea that the observable reality is merely a dream has been a common point of discussion among scholars since the conception of philosophical thought. According to Descartes, discerning a dream from reality is virtually impossible due to the lack of credibility that an individual should lend to his or...

Suppose someone claims that he can easily refute Berkeley’s idealism by simply kicking a rock or eating an apple. Does this demonstration show that Berkeley’s view is false? Explain.

Berkeley’s idealism, particularly the argument that material substance does not exist, appears to be easily refutable by doing a simple act of interacting with material objects. However, according to Berkeley, the specified action does not defy his argument since, in his interpretation, the act of perception implies a very subjective,...

What things in any society can cause religion to die or become corrupt, as Fredrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, and Karl Marx present their views? Talk about each individually.

Friedrich Nietzsche believed that the Christian church transvaluates the natural human instincts by assigning supposed divine intention to rules such as “You shall not kill.” He argued that Christian prophets usurped the concepts of morality and ethics to further their interests and assigned additional fake meanings to what was previously...

What is the philosophical method? Have you used it? How?

The philosophical method, or philosophical methodology, is a study of how philosophy is done, and a way in which philosophers tend to address philosophical questions. There is more than one way used by philosophers to answer those questions. The main elements of philosophical methods include asking questions that involve methodic...

Socrates said to his jurors, “Are you not ashamed that, while you take care to acquire as much wealth as possible, with honor and glory as well, yet you take no care or thought for understanding truth, or for the best possible state of your soul?” Do you agree with this attitude? Why or why not?

The attitude addressed by Socrates in the given statement may seem too radical and subjective to some people nowadays. Although being obsessed with money and constantly wishing to gain more is still seen as a vice, the fact of having large amounts of money does not make someone a bad...

Describe the utilitarian approach to moral philosophy of Bentham and Mill. How does Singer extend this reasoning to animal rights as part of the greater good?

According to the utilitarian ethics of Bentham and Mill, an action is considered moral when it produces happiness and joy and immoral when it produces unhappiness or pain. The philosophers believed that an individual should choose an action that would lead to the greatest contentment for the biggest number of...

Summarize Aristotle’s approach to moral philosophy by concentrating on virtue. How does he apply the golden mean in his Nicomachean Ethics?

Aristotle believed that people could achieve happiness only if they developed their virtues. The philosopher distinguished eleven main virtues, including courage and wittiness. However, it was not enough just to cultivate these virtues. A person should try to attain the golden mean between extremes of excess and deficiency. For example,...

What is the subject of Philosophy of Nature? Why is it useful to study it? What is the difference between artificial and natural things? What is the definition of “nature” we studied in class?

The subject of Philosophy of Nature is natural things and changeable beings that exist in matter and are defined by matter; fire, an orange, and a cat are examples of natural things because they cannot live without matter that explains their essence. Philosophy of Nature helps us to understand how...

What are some of the implications of Gödel’s Theorem?

Firstly, it could be said that Gödel’s Theorem provides a concept of truth, as it mentions that some theories are not eligible to be entirely complete and reliable. It raised attention to the logical matter in philosophy. It could be said that this theorem also questions the relevance of the...

Consider the existential approaches to moral philosophy through Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Sartre, Camus, and de Beauvoir. Which do you find the most interesting?

According to existentialists, all people are free to decide how to act and what choices to make in their lives. Different philosophers approached moral philosophy differently, but each of them believed that human existence was of the highest value. The most interesting approach to moral philosophy is that of Simone...

What is philosophy? What are the main areas of philosophy?

The term philosophy originates from the Greek word philos, which denotes fondness, and the word sophos which means understanding. In literal terms, philosophy refers to an individual’s passion for wisdom. According to Sober, philosophy refers to the study of the subsistence, understanding, and realism of objects. It deploys the supremacy...

Briefly summarize Aristotle’s and Plato’s beliefs about the soul.

Plato and Aristotle have diverse speculations concerning the soul and body. Plato believes that the body and the soul are separate entities within a person. Aristotle upholds a contrary opinion. Plato asserts that the soul is irrelevant and that it belongs to the ‘humanity of appearance’. Jackson confirms Plato’s belief...

What theory about the nature of reality was the thought experiment and the accompanying Knowledge Argument designed to refute? How does it attempt to do this, i.e. how does the thought experiment and accompanying argument purport to show what it aims to show? Do you think it is successful? Why or why not?

Philosophy has many concepts that explain the nature of the world, human, and universal processes. At the same time, many theories are opposed to each other, since philosophers have different views on things that can be applied and appropriate from different perspectives. The ideas of physicalism and the Knowledge Argument...

Explain some of the benefits a student may gain by studying philosophy.

Firstly, a student gets a general perception of a plethora of philosophical ideas. Moreover, it helps accept that views might vary due to the different mindsets. Furthermore, it changes one’s decision-making in a positive direction, as philosophy provides a logical rationale and reasoning for various actions, dogmas, and social phenomena.

Compare and contrast rationalism and empiricism.

Rationalism implies that “reason is a sole or primary source of knowledge”. In turn, empiricism supports a different point, as it implies that knowledge could be acquired with the help of feelings and senses. It could be said that a primary difference is the areas of getting knowledge, as one...

Explain the difference between A priori and A posteriori knowledge.

Saul Kripke clearly differentiates A priori and A posteriori knowledge, as A priori is always correct and does not depend on external conditions. In turn, A posteriori is acquired with the help of an experiment. In conclusion, it could be said that A priori is always true, and A posteriori...

Plato went to a great length to differentiate tradition from knowledge and true belief. How did he define them and what purpose did he have for drawing such distinctions?

For Plato, the definitions of knowledge, tradition, and true beliefs were critical since men’s philosophical intentions were to study the world in depth. Plato commented that people often confuse these categories and live in ignorance, substituting fundamental knowledge for traditional beliefs. Thus, the deliberate classification of the three aspects of...

In faulting traditional beliefs, Plato uses the case of courage. What faults does he point to in Laches’s and Nicias’s definitions of courage?

Integrating the ideas of traditional beliefs and definitions of courage, it is pertinent to note causal connections with Plato’s Dialogues. In particular, this concerns the Laches, in which two generals discuss the nature of courage and bravery. First of all, according to Plato, it should be recalled that traditional faith...

How does Plato treat tradition? How does he formulate his argument?

Categories of philosophical doctrine describe many components of social being, among which tradition occupies a special place. The attitude toward traditional beliefs and faiths forms an integral part of Plato’s philosophy. From extant writings, it is inevitable that Plato was not a supporter of direct traditionalism, preferring to it an...

To Socrates (Plato), knowledge is more valuable than true opinion. Comment.

Finding the connection between knowledge and true opinion is an essential part of Socrates’ philosophy. Nevertheless, it must be admitted that a thorough knowledge of Socrates’ ideals and the truth is impossible because of the small number of primary sources which have preserved the philosopher’s views. Most of the worldviews...

Some people have suggested that evil exists in the world because its existence is necessary to bring about the “greatest amount of good.” What is Hospers’ criticism of this line of reasoning?

Hospers claims that ‘developing virtues is not an accuse of permitting disasters.’ It means that ‘moral urgency’ and ‘virtue-building,’ which can be developed by creating barriers and difficulties for people, can not be achieved by doing evil to them because this will ruin every meaning of virtue and morality.

Other people have suggested that the purpose of evil is to discipline and improve us – not to punish us. They suggest that the world is really a moral training ground for building up our characters. How does Hospers respond to this?

Hospers claims that, however, the pain is something necessary to feel relief, it does not mean that physician should arbitrarily cause pain in this patient. If applied to God, it means that the notions of good and just run in great contradiction to conscious initiating of the evil. If God...

Another suggestion that is sometimes offered to explain the existence of evil is the following: “What seems evil to us is, in fact, good when seen from the vantage point of omniscience.” How does Hospers criticize this view?

As Hospers claims, this vision is contradictory to the human notions of morality. If we consider all evil in our eyes to be good in God’s eyes, it would mean, according to Hospers, that we should change our own notions of morality and behave correspondingly to the new morality. This...

In what respect is the metaphysical notion of non-duality exemplified in Christianity? Explain. What does the word “monism” mean? How does Christianity escape the monist predicament?

The metaphysical language suggests that the infinitive neither wills imagines, acts, nor causes anything. Negative language about a creative action of the infinitive must be understood in the same way as negative language about its being and nature. In Christianity, selflessness is the means by which the infinitive engenders the...

What is the Supreme Identity of which Watts speaks?

Man’s own identity is so mysterious to the external world. At times as human beings, we have had to ask ourselves a weird question or a riddle of who we would be if our parents had not married or married someone else. Perhaps, death is the worst fascinating of these...

Be prepared to explain the meaning and the purpose of the following remark made by Stace: “We must always distinguish an experience of any kind, whether it is a sense experience or a mystical experience, from the interpretation which our intellect puts on it.”

The author states that to encourage readers to differentiate between the experience itself and the intellect’s interpretation of the fact. The experience itself is certain and cannot be doubted, whereas the intellect’s interpretation can always be doubted and is at most only a probable opinion. Explaining this difference is important...

In Stace’s opinion, are there any arguments for the objectivity of the mystics’ experience which rely on something other that merely his or her own inward experience? If not, why not? If so, what is it?

According to Stace, there exists an argument for the objectivity of the mystic’s experience which relies not merely on his own inward experience but on independent and outside checking: one mystic’s experience is supported by the evidence of other mystics all over the world, in all ages, countries, and cultures....

What idea does Stace use the “Leibnizian Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles” to explain? How does this principle help to explain it?

The mystical consciousness is trans-subjective. The author uses the Leibnezean principle of the identity of indiscernibles to support this statement. Stace supposes two persons, A and B, to expel all empirical content from their minds so that to reach the unity of pure consciousness. By the mentioned principle, pure ego...