Stuck with your philosophy assignment?

Get answers from academic experts to any study-related questions.

Descartes’ Mind-Body Dualism: Philosophy of Human Reality

Is Descartes’ mind-body dualism the best philosophy of human reality? Take a stand for or against Cartesian Dualism & select an opponent, either Darwinian Monism or Sartrean Nihilism. Consider Descartes’s arguments. Briefly present Descartes’ arguments for metaphysical dualism. Make an argument for/against Descartes’s dualism. Consider the arguments made by the...

Discussing an Idea, Theme, or Philosopher’s Writing

Explore in-depth an idea (e.g., liberty or democracy), theme (e.g., development of natural law, natural right, or liberalism), or philosopher’s writings (e.g., John Locke’s Second Treatise on Government) of your choice. Engaging primary sources is highly recommended. Do not rely exclusively on secondary commentary. However, you must present a topic...

Voltaire’s Biography for the Philosophical Dictionary

Who was Voltaire? What would you write in a brief biography of him for the philosophical dictionary? What was Voltaire’s personal motto? What did it mean? Who are some of the “patriarchs” that Voltaire meets on his journey? Why are they sad? Who is the last person he meets? What...

According to William James (1892/1963), the self is what happens when “I” reflect back upon “Me.” The self is both the I and Me (i.e., it is both knower and known). Discuss how this relates to the three ways of knowing oneself. Which, of the three, is this quote most illustrative of?

According to William James, “I” is both the subject and the object of self-соgnition. Among the three ways of knowing oneself, introspection should be mentioned as the closest mechanism to the one described by William James. In introspection, the cognizable “Me” is the complex of thoughts, feelings, images, and emotions...

Discuss the general belief system of the “philosophies”.

Belief systems significantly influence a state’s political and social development, especially in Asian countries. The Chinese, for instance, believed in cosmic unity and the divinity of the emperor who held the mandate of heaven. It led to the increased control and power of the ruler. In general, the earliest belief...

Why do human beings not reproduce but procreate?

Reproduction occurs as a result of fertilization, which is a natural and mindless process in mammals that allows them to continue to exist. The unity between humans is way more complex and involves different layers. The co-existence of the physical and the spiritual, as well as the intent and the...

How to Write a Teaching Philosophy Statement

Discuss how to write the teaching philosophy statement. The teaching philosophy is written in a narrative format and is replete with concrete examples which breathe life into the author’s values. While there is no specific format, the writing must contain the following elements: Introduction – a brief statement about who you...

How to Write a Research Paper on Political Theory

How would you write a research paper on some topic related to political theory? Begin with a broad topic and narrow it down to a specific research question you would like to answer. Pick a certain aspect of a theorist’s writings and apply it to a modern issue. Below are...

What Is Reality and What Is Not?

Penny Phang states, “When you were born into this life, you probably learned that what you see in front of you is “reality.” Do you agree with this statement? To answer the question, think of the next controversies. What is reality and what is not? Is one person’s reality the...

Defend a Position For/Against Descartes’ Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God

Analyze Descartes’ cosmological argument regarding God’s existence. Evaluate the method of inquiry used by Descartes in his Meditations. Which conclusions does he end up defending by following this method? Defend a position interpreting one of his views: is he successful? Defend a position for/against Descartes’ Cosmological argument for the existence...

Kant on Aesthetic Ideas, Rational Ideas, and the Subject-Matter of Art

Analyze Kant’s Third Critique: the Critique of the Power of Judgment. How does Kant view the aesthetics of poetry? Is poetry beautiful for Kant? What kinds of poetry? What are the forms/contents of poetry based on Kantian theory? How do we appreciate poetry’s beauty without its content (the conceptual meaning...

The Concept of Genius According to Kant

Discuss the question: What is genius for Kant? How can one genius teach another genius – without turning him or her into an imitator? (See Critique of the Power of Judgment by Kant). Do you think Kant is right to locate the source of art in (what he calls) genius?...

Origin and Nature of Descartes’ First Principle of Philosophy

Discuss the origin and nature of Descartes’ first principle of philosophy. Explain the origin and nature of Descartes’ first principle of philosophy, “I think; therefore I am.” By origin, it meant how he arrived at the principle. Compare and contrast this principle to the characterization of thinking. Identify the logical...

Understanding of Plato’s Allegory of the Cave

Discuss Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave”. The opposition between philosophical life and daily life (bios) is perhaps nowhere more powerfully figured than in the “Allegory of the Cave” from Plato’s “Republic”. Demonstrate your understanding by applying the terms and concepts from the lesson and readings to your analysis of the...

Benefits of Philosophical or Academic Argumentation

In Cohen’s view, what is the true benefit of philosophical or academic argumentation? Watch Cohen’s video “For argument’s sake”. Explain how we can go beyond argument as war, proof, or performance in academic discourse, or any discourse, in a spirit of collaboration rather than contention. How can we overcome the...

Political Components in Wallace’s and Orwell’s Works

Use either David Foster Wallace or George Orwell to analyze the political components of one of the analytic philosophy texts. First, explain the relevant features of Wallace/Orwell that matter for your analysis (for a general audience). Next, give a brief overview of the point and motivation of the analytic philosophy...

Do you agree that being able to forget a little bit is important for life? Or do you think we should be able to remember everything? Could we survive if we could remember everything?

According to Nietzsche, forgetting is essential to living well. I agree with this statement because dwelling on troubles, living with grievances, and relying on irritation and anger brings negativity into life, which can destroy an individual, society, and the state. Indeed, having memorized everything, we would not have survived since...

Read Nietzsche’s “On the advantage and disadvantage of history for life.” What does Nietzsche say with regard to animals’ and humans’ sense of time? Why don’t animals have ‘history’? What do you think it means that humans aspire to live in the present but can’t?

Nietzsche asserts that animals and humans feel differently about time. Animals are not worried about the past and the future; they live only in the present. That is why they have no history because history connects with the past. In turn, people have a history associated with the past, and...

Try to articulate the difference between “existence” and “essence” in Sartre’s thesis: “existence precedes essence.” What is “existence,” and what is “essence”? What do you think is the meaning of this thesis? Alternatively, what difficulties are you encountering in understanding it?

Jean-Paul Sartre explains the fine line between “existence” and “essence” and presents that existence usually precedes essence. While “essence” relates to the meaning of humanness and being wise to the surrounding, the term “existence” stands for the idea that it is real only when it is perceived by the human...

How can we distinguish between dreams and wake for Descartes? Can we distinguish at all? Can we distinguish between dreamed-up things and reality?

In a dream, it seems to people that they have perceptions corresponding to wakefulness. Thus, there are no clear criteria that would make it possible to distinguish dream perceptions from actual perceptions. Descartes’ argument about dreams is the possibility of doubt about the principles of mathematics, logic, and other exact...

What is the meaning of the building metaphor for Descartes, and what is “first philosophy”?

Descartes’s building metaphor is associated with the foundation of knowledge. Just as building construction involves laying a solid foundation and gradually building walls, so does the development of knowledge. According to Descartes, the “first philosophy” is metaphysics. Thus, metaphysics is a solid foundation of knowledge on which principles and theories...

On the second page of Meditation I, enumerate the steps of the progression of Descartes’ doubt. I started giving you an example with the first step: doubt in the senses; the second step, I am not insane. You should continue in this progression: What are the next steps?

The third step is to doubt that everything around is a dream and not reality. The fourth step concerns doubting divine principles. However, since God is good, the fifth step implies the existence of a cunning, deceitful, and powerful “evil genius” who tries to deceive.

Why is “I think therefore I am” the only point of certainty?

The principle ‘I think therefore I am’ makes consciousness more reliable than matter and one’s thinking (for oneself) more reliable than other people’s thinking. Although there is a tendency towards subjectivity in this position, Descartes came to a firm truth: the existence of the ‘I’ was proved by inference from...

Reconstruct to the best of your ability the Divided Line. Present the strongest argument you can in support of this theory of reality. Is the Divided Line theory consistent with modern science? Why or why not?

The Divided Line theory is a symbolic explanation of reality and the distinction between its two powers, namely the intellectual and visible worlds. Using this theory, Plato emphasizes the difference between knowledge and opinion. To explain the Divided Line theory, one should draw an imagined line and divide it into...

What is the purpose of the Allegory of the Cave? Why might a story be more instructive than a lecture? Have you ever learned more from a story than from a direct argument? When? And how?

The Allegory of the Cave is a story used by Plato to exemplify and vividly demonstrate an abstract notion that the philosopher aimed to explain. The purpose of this story is to indicate that the lack of education is a limiting factor that alters one’s belief about the world. Without...

What does Aristotle say about the definition of Eudaimonia and Happiness?

Concerning Aristotle, it is fair to say that Eudaimonia is the highest happiness a man can comprehend during his lifetime. The attainment of Eudaimonia becomes possible only through the endless choices of life, which can be complex; in so doing, benefits, whether economic, social, or spiritual, are achieved. Eudaimonia is...

How does Spinoza handle the matter of free will?

There is no free will, Spinoza thinks. One must come to terms with their limitations and the way the world is and reach a kind of freedom by learning to love God and nature. Freedom also manifests itself in a person’s ability to free themselves from the tyranny of passions,...

How does Descartes build up from the foundation of indubitable beliefs?

Descartes’ main problem was to justify his views on the external world using his rather narrow base about indubitable beliefs founded on the content of one’s mind. This is where the famous “Cogito Ergo Sum” – or “I think, therefore I exist” comes from. Descartes states that his certain knowledge...

Explain Spinoza’s Monism.

Whereas Descartes sets out to find epistemological foundations for knowledge, Spinoza seeks metaphysical connections. According to his perspective, the world is comprehensible, and nature can be seen as a rational thing. In exploring this assumption, one finds out that there is only one view that does not produce contradictions or...

How does Spinoza handle the mind & body problem?

Following in the footsteps of his God/nature theory, Spinoza explains that a human being’s existence presents one with two attributes – of thought and of extension – in other words, mind, and body, which actually are one and the same. The concept of them being different and interacting with one...

What beliefs does Descartes ultimately identify as indubitable?

There is at least one belief that Descartes finds indubitable. That is the belief that one thinks. Even if an allowance for an evil being is made, one still would have to be thinking of something to deceive them. An example of this would be forming a belief about the...

List and explain the six criteria for just war from the reading Philosophers Agree on Criteria for Justifiable War. Assess any one of America’s past or present wars according to those criteria.

Just Cause The just war tradition holds that aggression is unjustifiable and unjustly carried out in retaliation for aggression. Aggression is defined as the use or threat of force by one state against another’s political sovereignty or territorial integrity, such as America’s involvement in the Vietnam War. The apparent justification...

In his discussion of Marx & Engels, Marshall Berman states that under capitalism, “catastrophes are transformed into lucrative opportunities for redevelopment and renewal.” Find an example of the process described in this quote that relates to the COVID-19 crisis. Explain, drawing from Berman, whether the ultimate consequences of this ‘redevelopment and renewal’ are good or bad for society.

The occurrence of crises in the capitalistic world is viewed as an opportunity for change and further progress. Indeed, capitalism implies that monetary value might be asserted in any situation, which is why catastrophes should be viewed as sources of developmental inspiration. Indeed, the latest events associated with the outbreak...

When deontologists describe their theory as a priori, what precisely do they mean?

A priori refers to knowledge that comes before any experience or independently from it, which is a concept started by Immanuel Kant. Kant distinguished between a priori and a posteriori (derived from experience) knowledge by pointing out the differences between necessary and contingent truth. The former refers to a truth...

What influences or impacts personality development?

The first perspective is a psychodynamic personality development theory. This theory was pioneered by Sigmund Freud, who assumed that personality is based on the three structural elements – id, ego, and superego. Those three elements coexist within a person, and the relationships between them and reality shape the personality. The...

For Aristotle what makes human beings moral and virtuous is the use of reasons and the restraint it provides against instincts and passions. What does Rousseau claim makes men moral?

According to Rousseau, morality is an intrinsic quality of every human being vital for living in communal societies. Moral men have a sense of moral duty and possess different categories of judgment. Besides, righteous men only include the ideals of self-preservation which allows them to address the most basic needs...

Define and describe Virtue Ethics. What do you think of the theory? Explain.

Virtue ethics is concerned with individuals’ characters acting, unlike the ethical responsibilities or consequences of specific actions. They are mainly based on Aristotle’s definition of virtuous individuals as people who possess ideal characters. The characters stem from internal inmate behaviors and must be developed to be stable. In the context...

In Book 9 Aristotle establishes two notions of Self-Love, one good and one bad. The positive version of Self-Love has to do with those with good character and the negative version has to do with people of bad character. Explain, compare and contrast these two versions of Self-Love.

Self-love is when people put themselves priority when doing something or when making a decision. Depending on the situation, it can either be lousy self-love or good. Good self-love is when people choose to do just, moderate, or do as the rules command. Positive self-love also ensures that one secures...

What does Aristotle say about imperfect friendships? Should we try to remain in the relationship or “dissolve” it? Why or why not?

Aristotle thinks that a friendship between virtuous people and bad people is imperfect because each individual sees the other as a source of advantage for themselves. Imperfection also comes in because the company is based on the reasonable person’s character or the wrong person’s behavior because those different characters cannot...

Describe the controversy over Skinner’s views of human behavior, and identify some ways to apply operant conditioning principles at school, at work, and at home.

Skinner’s theory was based on the view that human behavior is dependent on the quality of consequences that follow. The controversy of the psychologist’s theory is related to Skinner’s simplistic approach to understanding the roots and causes of such a complex process as forming of behavior. Although the theorist acknowledged...

Define and describe philosophy.

Philosophy refers to the quest for knowledge, knowledge, and truth in its expansive sagacity. Nevertheless, in Greek, the term itself implies “love of understanding.” Individuals contemplate philosophy whenever they cogitate on profound, central issues about reality and themselves, the precincts of human understanding, their ideals, and the drive of life....

Are you philosophical? Explain.

I consider myself philosophical, following my ability to stay thoughtful and detached in case of any setback that is threatening my efforts to lead quality and sustainable lifestyles. The research of how humans think through difficulties is more precisely the field of philosophy in modern days. Ancient thinkers have various...

Does Socrates agree with Euthyphro’s definitions: why yes or why no?

Socrates does not agree with the definitions of piety and impiety given by Euthyphro. He does this by leading questions that lead the hero’s reasoning to a dead end. The solution of the problem that follows from Socrates’ reasoning differs from the definitions of Euthyphro. So, he claims that gods...

What is your understanding of reality and how did you come to that conclusion?

Reality constitutes all there is, known and unknown, both as a unified system and a combination of separate parts. It cannot be truly perceived in its entirety, since the inability to fully comprehend all of the existence is a part of the concept itself. The philosophical studies of mind and...

What are your thoughts of the Socratic (classical) definition of knowledge?

Socrates defines knowledge as the absolute truth, therefore implying that it is objective. I disagree, sine I do not believe that a person may have an access to the absolute truth in the first place. Every person’s view of the world, even when based on facts, is innately subjective to...

What are your thoughts your understanding of Aristotle’s Four Causes?

I find this framework to be illustrative and very focused on the precision and categorization that may occur when discussing reality. By separating perception into material, formal, efficient and final a scholar gives themselves tools to engage with mutually exclusive or internally contradictory events. As multiple things can be true...

What are your thoughts on Descartes’ Mind and Body Dualism?

I think that it cannot be true in the most literal sense, with the brain being ultimately an organ within the body. At the same time, the consciousness, personality and other non-tangible unique things are definitely varying from a person to a person, and are not dependenton their bodies. Overall,...

What is your theory of reality? How did you come to it?

I am unsure if I have a personal theory of reality yet, but I would say that I lean towards emphasizing subjectivity. One cannot ever be objective and interact with absolute truths outside of a limited number of mathematical laws. By accepting this fact, a person opens their mind to...

Describe the difference between Chrematistics and Economics in Aristotle’s thought. How does Aristotle’s disdain for Chrematistics relate to the notion of evil with respect to the Garden of Eden Story?

Chrematistics means the acquisition of wealth in excess of a healthy level of human need. Aristotle contrasted Chrematistics – economics as a purposeful activity to create the goods necessary for the natural needs of man. At the same time, Aristotle saw the role of the economy in meeting urgent needs...

Discuss the differences between the Stoics, Epicureans, and Cynics. How do their views compare to modern views of “rational self-interest”?

Stoics’ and Epicureans’ concepts focus on self-realization and self-satisfaction. Cynics believe that the purpose of life is to live in harmony with nature, rejecting the generally accepted desire for wealth. The Epicureans are in search of sensual pleasure, while the Stoics are in search of knowledge and honesty, which “is...

How do we balance the moral claims?

There is no balance; either one chooses to keep the status quo or make changes to the way one farms or fishes. It is a slow change that one has to look at and not a balance. However, if one farm and fish ethically and sustainably, the fish and animals...

Why do people act differently in each of their social groups? How have social groups, formal organizations, and society as a whole changed with time? Why is it Important to use or employ Verstehen when learning about the events that have occurred in the past year in America?

These are questions that Max Weber, one of the founding fathers of sociology would ask. He thought of sociology as a science of social action. Weber believed that understanding why people do the things they do is the basic building-block of sociology, a concept he termed Verstehen. He believed that...

Does Plato’s theory of knowledge as recollection make sense to you? Why or why not?

Like any other philosophical theory, Plato’s theory of knowledge as recollection cannot be considered either wrong or right. He distinguished four degrees of knowledge such as the apprehension of pure sense images, the perceptive knowledge of sensible objects, mathematical knowledge, and philosophical knowledges. Furthermore, there are two classes such as...

What is it to understand a thing functionally? Give an example or two. What follows about evaluation under a functionalist conception? Aristotle applies a functionalist argument to persons. Exactly what is his argument, and how is it different from a standard functionalist conception? Say something in favor of this argument, or criticize it.

Functionalism is a theory of consciousness, according to which mental states are determined not by their internal structure but by their roles as an integral part of a particular system. For example, from the perspective of functionalism, being in pain means being in a specific functional state. Thus, to feel...

Explain why, according to Aristotle, courage and truthfulness are virtues.

It is safe to say that Aristotle’s contribution to philosophy is impossible to measure fully even today. He had a significant impact on many of his contemporaries and students, including Alexander the Great. Moreover, his legacy continues to inspire thinkers over two thousand years later. It is primarily thanks to...

Describe the “New Thinking” of the Greek philosophers.

The new thinking of Greek philosophers emphasized rationality over traditionally held beliefs. The new perspective did not disregard religion. Rather it introduced a new of perceiving religion based more on logic. The new paradigm was characterized by a strong focus on science and intelligence. Therefore, it can be attributed to...

How does Plato treat tradition? How does he formulate his argument?

At first glance, it might seem that traditionalism belongs to the category of sensitive historical phenomena firmly associated with antiquity. Thus, as a rule, when individuals reflect on tradition, the mind directs the flow of thoughts toward past experiences and events. As a consequence, an erroneous belief may be created...

Give some reflection to the way Aristotle uses the term “happiness” or eudaimonia.

In the understanding of Aristotle, eudaimonia or happiness is a long-standing condition and way of life, which is aimed at achieving the self-sufficiency of a person and human relations. For example, Aristotle argues that one who is happy living in accordance with virtue and is sufficiently equipped with external goods...

Of the five classical branches of philosophy, i.e., Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Logic, and Aesthetics, which branch do you find most interesting? Explain why.

For me, of the five classical branches of philosophy, ethics is the most interesting. It studies moral issues, including capital punishment, euthanasia, and abortion, and tries to find universal answers to the question of the morality of these concepts. However, it is evident that there is no definite answer because...

What are your first impressions of the philosophy class?

My first impression of the philosophy class is a mixture of admiration, a desire to dive into the search for answers to eternal questions, awe, and even fear of how difficult this journey will be. I think philosophy is one of the most complex and ambiguous classes. We will have...

How does Aristotle define happiness? How is human nature connected with human happiness? How are reason and virtue connected with human happiness?

According to Aristotle, a happy life involves long-life activities that bring the rational soul virtues. In addition to these virtues, Aristotle states that other goods that result in human satisfaction include wealth, power, and friends. Therefore, a lack of friends and family contributes greatly to jeopardizing a person’s happiness. An...

Do you agree with Aristotle’s account of human happiness? Why or why not?

I agree with the account of human happiness provided by Aristotle since it is an observable truth that wealth does not bring absolute joy to humans. Unlike wealth, things that create long-term satisfaction and contentment are not buyable. Money allows people to do certain things and have fun, but long-lasting...

Explain Aristotle’s three forms of friendship in terms of: Are the all created equal? If Aristotle see’s one of them as best, why does he consider it best?

Aristotle’s three acquaintance systems include pleasure relationship, utility attachment, and virtue alliance. Though it is not clear how individuals ought to comprehend the difference between the three methods, the central idea argues that virtue, utility, and pleasure explain why these bond forms exist. A person may love a friend to...

Please give a synopsis of Plato’s Moral and Political Philosophy. What aspects of this theory do you think are correct,and what aspects do you think are incorrect?

Plato’s moral philosophy revolves around the virtue-driven eudemonistic idealization of ethics. According to him, happiness is the highest object of moral behavior and thoughts, while virtues are the necessary skills and confessions required to achieve it. Plato’s political philosophy was that conflicting ideas and interests shared by different sections of...

Is Plato’s Theory of the Forms cogent? Please give a detailed account of Plato’s Theory of the Forms when answering. Be sure to explain and address the criticisms we covered.

Plato’s theory of forms states that the physical world is actually not the real world, but the ultimate reality only exists beyond what we can see in the real world. Plato claims that there is the physical and the spiritual realm. The physical realm involves objects that interact with and...

What did Marx believe would eventually happen to the world?

Marx thought that, in the end, the working class would rebel against the bourgeoisie, and the workers’ revolution would end the bourgeoisie’s existence. As a result, there would be only one social class, and all citizens would be equal. In this new world, no oppression would take place, and even...

Consider cases in which someone has a heart transplant from an organ donor, and begins to experience feelings and emotions associated with that donor’s former life. What would two of the philosophers say about this phenomenon?

With regard to memories experienced after receiving an organ for a donor, Hume would argue that the self exists as a result of recorded sensory impressions. Therefore, sensory objects play a critical role in forming the self, which becomes embedded in the body. Descartes would argue that the act of...

Describe veritistic epistemology, and compare it to Descartes’ description of his method for understanding how he is a thinking existing being.

Veritistic epistemology refers to the evaluation of specific practices by assessing their capacity to contribute to knowledge. It relates to Descartes’ theories in that all issues are first considered false before being subjected to analysis. Descartes applies the method of doubt to evaluate his existence. While various aspects of life...

Explain Locke’s distinction between sensations and reflections, and Hume’s distinction between impressions and ideas. How are their theories alike, and how do they differ? Whose view is most convincing? Be sure to explain each philosopher’s key terms in your answer.

Hume believed that impressions are vivid perceptions of the mind’s expressions while ideas are reflections of impressions. Locke noted that sensations are the experiences gained from sensory stimulation, while reflections are thought processes in one’s mind. While both theories define the origin of ideas, Locke includes aspects of the senses...

You and a friend are kidnapped by an evil mad doctor who is planning to switch your brain into your friend’s body and your friend’s brain into your body. After the surgery, you will not remember the surgery. You will be treated as the body you currently inhabit with that body’s identification, driver’s license, etc. Who would you say you are, according to Locke? Why would Descartes possibly disagree?

According to Locke, consciousness is inextricably linked to personal identity rather than the physical form. Therefore, people are not dependent on their bodies, and they can exist in other bodies. Descartes would disagree because while he believed that the self is separate from the body, he did not state that...

Some argue that Descartes really does not need to use “radical doubt” to help us perceive our mind as a perceiving thing. Describe Descartes’ method of doubt, and explain his examples of why doubt is necessary. Do you agree or disagree with his method?

The method of doubt encourages individuals to doubt the truth regarding everything and realize that indubitable ideas qualify as pieces of knowledge. I believe it is an effective way of understanding truths because doubt prompts inquiry which is essential for a comprehensive review of an idea’s multifaceted elements.

Consider the example of maring ice in a freezer. How do we know that the water we placed in the freezer is the same thing as the ice we take out later? What would Descartes and Locke tell us about how we know the “thing” that is the water and the ice?

Descartes posits that the marked ice in a freezer can only be identified by depending on absolute certainty. Therefore, the individual must be capable of deducing that the ice is the result of frozen water. Locke proposes that there is no certainty in knowledge. Therefore, the identity of the ice...