Against the background of spontaneously arising (every day and other) forms of world understanding, philosophy appeared as a specially developed doctrine of wisdom. Philosophical thought has been chosen as its guide, not myth-making or naive faith, not popular opinions or explanations, but free, critical thought about the world and human life based on the principles of reason.
There are always two opposing perspectives on worldview in general and its philosophical form in particular. The direction of consciousness “outwardly” – the formation of this or that picture of the world, the universe; on the other hand, its appeal “inwardly” – to the human himself, the desire to understand his essence, place, and purpose in the natural and social world. In this respect, we may define the criteria of philosophical thinking.
Philosophical thinking is the selection of the most critical and essential from the endless variety of phenomena that surround us. The “meaning filter” of information selection, which is characteristic of philosophy, is expressed in three features of philosophical thinking: reflexivity, integrity, and criticism.