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Make two geographic connections between two geographic facts.

Fact # 1 The Hudson is a broad, full-flowing river that has access to the Atlantic Ocean. Fact # 2 The first Dutch Colonies were created on the island of Manhattan, which is now one of the largest cities in the United States – New York. Connection A wide and...

What is the Ring of Fire?

The Ring of Fire is a place in the Pacific Ocean basin. It is still a seismically active area where most volcanic eruptions and earthquakes take place. This is also a place where several plates subduct, and this is what causes numerous earthquakes and eruptions.

Contrast the formation of the Hawaiian volcanoes with that of Paricutin.

Paricutin is an exemplary cinder volcano that was formed in the twentieth century. Like any other cinder volcano, Paricutin is a cinder cone that is formed from basaltic lava. The eruption is caused by the accumulation of gasses, and when the volcano erupts and releases pyroclastic materials, a cone is...

What is the circumpacific belt?

The circumpacific belt is the place where the greatest energy is released as a result of plates’ motion. It is a narrow area of great seismic activity in the Pacific Ocean.

When I think about communities like Las Vegas, I wonder about sustainability. Can a desert environment support such a large population? Where does Las Vegas drinking water come from? I’d like to know your thoughts about limiting population growth in a city such as Las Vegas to maintain a sustainable and ecological balance. What are the pros and cons of limiting growth in a city like Las Vegas?

It is quite amusing to see millions of people supported in a desert-like Las Vegas. Las Vegas gets its water from Lake Mead and River Colorado through the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA). The population should be controlled in this city if there is no other way of providing a...

What path do you think the Black River used to take?

The observations of these rivers suggest that, in the past, the Black River used to follow a path different from the current one. In particular, the Black River used to cross the area known as Deep Hollow and empty its water in the Cornwallis River.

Choose a region of the globe that is facing issues of extremely, high resource exploitation, experiences high pollution, and is likely to be affected by global climate changes. Propose a plan to the UN that you feel will help this region recover from the woes that it is experiencing. Use as much scientific fact as you can to support your suppostions. Identify the resources in trouble, outline a plan on how to fix it, and as best as you can: describe how you would get people to comply, how much this project will cost, and how long you expect it to take to see results.

The environmental situation in Haiti is paradoxical. On the one hand, the country has a variety of natural resources. On the other hand, people have practically no access to these resources. Apart from the resource exploitation problem, Haiti also has serious environmental issues, pollution being the most severe of them....

Choose a geographic region of the world of interest and discuss the marine resources present, how they are of value, how they are used, and where their final destinations are (country of export).

Indonesia: Resources and Their Value For the successful development of their civilization, people rely on a variety of resources, many of which come from oceans and seas. There are four main types of marine resources: biological, physical, marine energy, and non-extractive ones. Biological resources are used for food, whereas other...

You are fishing in the Northern Atlantic Ocean. You decided you are going to fill a glass bottle with water that is destined to become NADW and leave a note inside. You drop the bottle into the sea and watch it sink. Trace the path of the bottle as it travels through the global conveyor belt (thermohaline circulation). Also, where might you see this bottle surface? How long might it take?

The movement of a bottle thrown into the sea would be dictated by thermohaline circulation or the global conveyor belt. The nickname of the deep circulation pattern appeared due to the resemblance with a belt that girdles the Earth. The thermohaline circulation incorporates different water temperatures and depths. As a...

It is the year 2044. You are now all accomplished physical oceanographers. The governments of the Caribbean nations hire you to advise them on ENSO events and the possibilities of Hurricanes. What would you tell them if you see the trade-winds die down or even possibly reverse? Will you have an ENSO event? Do you expect to see more or less Hurricanes?

If trade winds die down or reverse, there is a possibility of a hurricane and an ENSO event. Such a change can be explained by the nature of trade winds and their characteristics. Trade winds are the groups of dependable surface winds that appear between the sectors of rising and...

Describe the environmental problem of climate change, its causes, its impacts, and possible mitigation and adaptions of humans to climate change. In your response, answer these questions: What is climate change? What causes it, and how is it related to our atmosphere’s natural greenhouse effect? Are humans responsible for recent (last 100 years) climate change? Why or why not? What are the possible consequences of future climatic changes to Earth and to society? In your answer, describe at least two ways that humans can lessen their contribution to atmospheric warming and global climate change.

Climatic change has many negative effects on people and their environment. Some of the effects can give rise to dry spells, tsunamis, increased occurrences of hurricanes, and melting of ice in the northern and southern poles, among others. Generally, climatic change is a rapid and unexpected change in various natural...

Describe geologic resources, their occurrence, and their use. Describe the difference between mineral resources and energy resources and give examples of each type. Include a discussion of renewable and non-renewable energy resources and examples of each. Describe the mineral and energy resources of Indiana, their extraction, and their use.

Natural resources are substances that form on the Earths’ crust in their original form; that is, they normally occur on their own without any influence from human beings. These resources are either efficient for human survival or useful in men’s study of the environment around them. Mineral resources are naturally...

The study of depositional environments in sedimentary rocks is critical to understanding Earth’s history. How do geologists use sedimentary rocks to describe past environments? What are the three categories of sedimentary environments? What features or characteristics of sedimentary rocks are unique to particular environments? Use a description of the stratigraphy of the Grand Canyon to support your response.

Geologists study sedimentary rocks through a process known as sedimentology. Generally, sedimentary rocks can be found all over the Earth, and they are used to study the Earth’s history, mainly because they contain most fossils, which may be as old as the Earth itself. Geologists compare recent rock features with...

Describe metamorphism and how it creates metamorphic rocks. In what environments does metamorphism occur? Include a discussion of each of the agents of metamorphism, including heat, pressure, and chemical fluids. In your discussion, explain the different environments and processes that create marble and gneiss, two different metamorphic rocks. How are the processes and environments that create these two rocks different?

Metamorphism is a sudden change in the Earth’s minerals without the process of liquidation taking place. The occurrence of the metamorphism process is catalyzed by heat, pressure, and reactive chemical fluids. Generally, chemical and crystal compositions of rocks tend to change without affecting or changing the rocks’ natural solid form....

Describe the differences in shape and size of shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and composite volcanoes, relating these differences to their composition and eruption style. Give examples of each type. Answer these questions: How does the relative size and shape of each reflect variations in eruptive characteristics (duration, types of materials, the composition of lava, etc.)? Which eruptive characteristics are common to all volcanoes, and which ones are unique to each?

Shield volcano is a type of volcano that is completely made up of liquid lava. The flow is very large in size and resembles a warrior’s shield when laid on the ground. The formation of a shield volcano emerges from the flow of lava with low-viscosity, which increases the size...

Explain the three basic types of plate movement. How do differences in density help to explain what happens at each boundary and the types of features we see at the Earth’s surface, such as ocean rifts, mountain belts, and volcanoes? Which tectonic boundaries result in the formation of volcanoes? Which do not? Why don’t volcanoes form in all tectonic settings?

Plate movement is the sliding of Earth’s lithosphere (Earth’s outer layer) over the mantle layer. This action results in the formation of Earth’s features, such as mountain ranges and continental drift. Generally, plate movements are influenced by different forces on the Earth’s plates; these forces may be classified as either...

Provide the (a.) conceptual difference between “centripetal” and the “centrifugal” forces in State Cohesion Theory; (b.) discuss and exemplify how Administrative Organization and (c.) Institutions function as centripetal forces, while (d.) Language and (e.) Subnationalism function as centrifugal forces.

a. Centrifugal force is a force that pulls objects to the center of the Earth. This force causes the object to move in a circular motion. Centripetal force is a sudden force that is equal and opposite to the centripetal force. It represents the revolving body away from the Earth....

Explain the conceptual difference between “mapping” and “cartography”; define/describe the following five concepts: a. Mapping vis-à-vis Cartography, b. The International Date Line, c. Latitudes, d. Longitudes, e. The Equator, f. Provide the “absolute address” of the Kingdom of Tonga.

a. Mapping is the process of giving a full definition of how a particular document or place can be mapped to the search engine, while cartography is the art of making charts or maps. b. International Date Line is an imaginary line drawn on the Earth’s surface and is internationally...

Explain the conceptual difference among the following geographic fields of specialization: a. Spatial Geography, b. Physical Geography, c. Land-Use Planning, d. Human Geography, e. Historical Geography.

a. Spatial geography deals with the study of space that pertains to and involves the nature of space. It might involve the spatial distribution of the population of people in a given area. b. Physical geography is the study of all the features within the Earth’s crust. It includes oceans,...

Provide the conceptual meaning and appropriate two examples for each of the following terms: a. Political Geography, b. Partitioned State, c. Elongated State, d. Fragmented State (Enclave/Exclave).

a. Political geography is a field that deals with human geography and is concerned with the study of mutual and effect of political procedures, and similarly how spatial structures influence politics. Political geography covers a wide range of aspects, for example, boundaries, nations, and other simplified divisions and subdivisions. For...

Provide the academic and etymological definitions of “Geography”. Discuss and exemplify what is referred to as “Geographic Value Judgments”.

The academic meaning of geography is that it is the study that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of miscellaneous physical, biological and cultural features of the Earth’s surface. It explains the study of natural phenomena and the distribution of natural resources on the Earth’s crust. Geography deals with...

Firstly, provide the conceptual difference between “centripetal” and the “centrifugal” forces in State Cohesion Theory; then, proceed to fully discuss and exemplify how Administrative Organization and Institutions function as centripetal forces, while Language and Subnationalism function as centrifugal forces. a. Centripetal Forces versus Centrifugal Forces, b. Administrative Organization, c. Institutions, d. Language, e. Subnationalism.

According to Horowitz, Centripetal force is the force that orbits objects such as the earth use in making the revolutions around the sun and other orbiting bodies. In the case of the earth, gravity acts as a centripetal force. On the other hand, centrifugal force is the outward force of...

Firstly, explain the conceptual difference between “mapping” and “cartography”; then, proceed to fully define/describe the following five concepts: a. Mapping vis-à-vis Cartography, b. The International Date Line, c. Latitudes, d. Longitudes, e. The Equator, f. Provide the “absolute address” of the Kingdom of Tonga.

a. According to Maguire, mapping is the use of maps, which are representations of the earth’s surface on a flat medium. Cartography, on the other hand, is the study that involves the creation of maps designed to present the spatial information, material, and features on the earth’s surface on a...

Explain the conceptual difference among the following geographic fields of specialization: a. Spatial Geography, b. Physical Geography, c. Land-Use Planning, d. Human Geography, e. Historical Geography.

a. Spatial geography is the field of geography that concerns itself with the study of locations, spatial interactions, and patterns as well as places. It focuses on the situation of things and how their occurrence took place. b. Physical geography is another field of geography that concerns itself with the...

Provide the conceptual meaning and appropriate two examples for each of the following terms: a. Political Geography, b. Partitioned State, c. Elongated State, d. Fragmented State (Enclave/Exclave), e.Mediterranean State vis-à-vis Mediterranean Region State.

a. Political geography is a branch of geography, which combines and integrates both political and geographical phenomena into one study. In other words, it is concerned with the study of geography that illuminates the political aspects of a region. It is also concerned with the study of politics linked to...

Firstly, provide both the academic and etymological definitions of “Geography”; then, proceed to fully discuss and exemplify what is referred to as “Geographic Value Judgments.”

Geography is a field of study that strives to instill a better understanding of the planet within students. Geography is the study of various geographical areas and human beings’ interaction with their environment. Geography acts as a bridge between the physical and social sciences. The word geography comes from the...