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What types of rocks are fossils found in?

Sedimentary rocks are the only types of rocks that contain fossils. “Sedimentary rocks form when particles of sediment are deposited by water or wind, and then (in most cases) hardened or consolidated through time.” Other types of rocks do not preserve fossils. This is because, in other types of rocks,...

Why do fossils represent an incomplete picture of geologic history?

Fossils represent an incomplete picture of geologic history because there are specific conditions to be met for a dead animal to become a fossil. The remains have to stay in a place that is oxygen-free. This can happen only when the animal is buried immediately after its death. The other...

How do fossils become exposed so they can be found?

As time passes, more and more sediment accumulates around the remains of the dead organisms, which later on get hardened into sedimentary rock because of the pressure, heat, and chemical reaction at the depth where the dead animal is buried. Movements in the earth’s crust make the layers of hardened...

What are the most common rock-type fossils are found in? Why?

Fossils are found in shale, sandstone, and limestone, which are the different types of sedimentary rocks. Fossils can be found in limestone in the form of preserved whole shells or shell bits. Shapes of dead life forms get preserved in shale rocks, with fine-grained rock settling around the life forms....

In which type of environment are organisms most easily preserved? Why?

Fossilization is usually a rare phenomenon as most components of once-living creatures tend to decay relatively quickly after their death. In order for the organism to be fossilized, it is necessary that the remains need to be covered by sediments at the earliest. Fossilization occurs under circumstances when the organisms...

What is fossilization and how are fossils formed?

Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of dead animals or other organisms. Fossil formation begins with the death of a creature. When the dead animal settles at the bottom, the first reaction is the decaying of the fleshy parts. As a next step, the sediments cover the remains of...

Consider how underpopulation is a major problem in certain US states. Would you take advantage of the opportunity to move to the Midwest that is suggested in the article, “Empty House on the Prairie?” Why or why not? Explain one other method that may help solve the underpopulation problem.

The article “Empty House on the Prairie” is dedicated to the move to the Midwest before the ice breaks, making the family build the new house and totally change their life. “The tiny towns in the Great Plains and upper Midwest don’s want to die. They are trying to keep...

What are the similarities and differences among the terms environmental pragmatism, ethical relativism, and ethical pluralism?

Environmental pragmatism, ethical relativism, and ethical pluralism are the three theories leading to environmental protection. Environmental pragmatism is the realistic and sensible approach against environmental destruction due to pollution, population explosion, global climate variations, etc. The environmental pragmatist principles focus to reduce maximum environmental destruction which is legally applicable. Ethical...

In the desire to provide safe, clean, inexpensive, and reliable energy, what are the multiple sets of values, ethics, and philosophies that are in conflict when scientists, economists, energy companies, and politicians get together to decide whether to develop nuclear power plants?

An advertisement about nuclear energy in an American scientific magazine runs like this “cleaner and greener”, referring to the energy obtained from nuclear power plants. “Our 103 nuclear power plants don’t burn anything, so they don’t produce greenhouse gases.” The Nuclear institutes try to tell the world that nuclear energy...

What are the similarities and differences between social ecology and deep ecology?

The term “Deep Ecology” is a part of Ecological philosophy that considers all human kinds as a basic element in this environment. This philosophy gives the idea that all living beings have an equal right to live and flourish in the environment. This philosophy was introduced by a Norwegian philosopher...

Compare and contrast the images of people and places constructed and perpetuated by tourism advertising in different countries of the Asia Pacific region. Use examples drawn from the tourism websites of two countries from within the region.

There is no denying the importance of the fact that tourism plays an important role in bolstering development and GDP growth in the Asia-Pacific region. Such countries as Thailand and Malaysia are notable examples of tourism phenomena when tourism money and resource flows significantly improved their economic and political positions...

Describe the advantages of modern technologies used in eruptions prevention.

The main advantage of modern technologies and innovative solutions used by the US is that they allow the state to inform populations on time and prevent mass destructions. The eruptions not only vary in their style and power, but also in their effects and interaction with the natural and the...

Tell if volcanic eruptions can be predictable? Why or why not?

Geologically, volcanic eruptions are predictable. The main methods of predictions are seismographic monitoring, tiltmeters, surveillance by satellite. Generalizations based on broad trends are thus of limited use, because little preventive action could be taken about them. If, also, a volcano behaves in a consistent way, like many active cinder cones,...

Contrast the philosophies of catastrophism and uniformitarianism. How did the proponents of each perceive the age of Earth? How do the two types of “dating” prove one philosophy more accurate than the other?

Catastrophism ardently believes that the earth has sustained innumerable catastrophes and upheavals during its eventful lifetime. The present earth structure has been the end result of numerous cataclysmic activities like deluges, earthquakes, volcanic explosions, etc. The earth has survived all these calamities and yet is surging forward. Evidence of the...

Discuss volcanic hazards. Although commonly thought to be associated with most volcanic eruptions (by the general public), lava is rarely responsible for the loss of life. Which hazards would tend to be more deadly? Finally, indicate and discuss those hazards that are a direct result of volcanic activity as well as those hazards that are indirectly linked.

The main type of volcanic hazards would be in the event of a series of small volcanic eruptions, change in the surface of the grounds, or significant gas emission in the vicinity. Similarly, it is seen that “Plate tectonics and continental drift are the basis for evidence of volcanoes.” Scientists...

On a given day in the winter in St. Louis, Missouri, it began snowing in the morning, the snow changed to rain by noon, later in the afternoon sleet was falling which turned to snow, and by evening rain was freezing on bridges and roadways as glaze. Briefly explain how such a sequence of precipitation might occur.

Precipitation occurs when cloud elements become too laden to remain in a state of suspension in the atmosphere and has to take recourse, following the law of gravity to move down to the earth’s surface. This may take the form of hail, rain, sleet, or even snow.  The processes of...

Considering the albedo of various surfaces, compare daily temperature ranges and means for an urban area to a more rural setting of crops and forests. Also, are there any other factors other than albedo that might affect these temperature variations.

Urban construction modifies surface properties that contribute to the VHI, such as albedo, etc. Studies conducted, including surface albedo, helped to locate surface-atmosphere interfacing and test conduct urban effects in a global climatic model.  When comparing the zonal averaged urban albedo to the averaged cropland albedo, it is seen that...

Briefly define and describe the terms climate change and global warming. In trying to balance the pros and cons on the respective sides of this issue, provide one scientific statement or argument for your position and then provide one countering statement or argument from the other side. Provide some discussion for both positions.

Climate change refers to the conspicuous variations in either the average state of climate on earth or its variation over a period of time. This may occur due to internal forces or even due to external reasons, due to population growth or usage of land resources. The impact of greenhouse...

“Perhaps more than any other single measurement, atmospheric pressure is the best indicator of current and changing weather conditions.” Explain and discuss why this statement is correct. Provide some examples.

The atmospheric pressure exerted on any matter X could be said to be the pressure exerted above it. When the pressures at this point X increase, the atmospheric pressure is said to increase, and vice versa.  It is seen that local high atmospheric pressures act as an obstacle to the...

Shorelines are temporary geologic and topographic features. Explain this statement

Shorelines are in a constant state of fluctuation since sea waves move during high tides. The rising and falling of tidal waves advances or retards shorelines. The dangers of erosion and flooding pose real threats to shorelines, especially during storms. The areas near coastal regions are invariably affected by high...

A variety of techniques and efforts are used to stabilize shorelines throughout the world. Are all of these efforts only temporary measures, or are any of them permanent? Also, do urbanization and development of coastal areas always contribute to shoreline erosion? Explain

The main aspects with regard to stabilizing shorelines could be seen in terms of alleviating the challenges posed by flooding, inundations, and erosion of shorelines. It is seen that there are a variety of techniques used, including providing barricades to seawater intrusion, providing walling and reinforcements, and laying of channels...

Discuss the distribution of seafloor sediments in the ocean basins. What are the different types of sediments, and what are the factors that control their distribution?

Just as the seashores are abode to different objects, so also the ocean bed may consist of rock, sand, remains of living organisms, etc. The origins of sediments could be divided into four categories as below: Originating from land, emanating from living undersea organisms, stemming from chemical reactions, and even...

A fault is observed in a road cut, but there are no obvious rock units to correlate on either side of the fault to determine relative movements. How else might you determine or even infer whether the hanging wall has moved up or down relative to the footwall? (Hint: think of fossils, tectonic settings, etc.)

The main factors that determine whether the hanging wall has moved upwards or downwards could be seen from a number of perspectives, including tectonic settings, fossils, etc.  If it is in a pressurized compacted setting, it is very much likely that the hanging wall has moved in an upward direction,...

The wind is included along with gravity, water, and ices as an agent of erosion. In many national parks and other areas of natural beauty, statements are often made that credit wind as having sculpted the landscape. Briefly discuss the importance of wind as an agent of erosion and explain why such statements are probably inaccurate

To a certain extent, the wind does contribute to soil erosion, especially in dry, arid regions, devoid of rainfalls except for occasional cloudbursts. Erosion is said to be a condition whereby rocks and other materials on the surface of the Earth get disintegrated and fragmented due to a variety of...

When examining the geology of a region for potential aquifers, what characteristics or factors would you consider? Also, what areas (based on natural and human factors) would you avoid?

The main aspects that need to be considered would be the demand and levels of productivity of proposed aquifers. Besides this, other factors that are relevant are the total area of the proposed aquifers, the demand for it, the quality and proposed quantity of water that could be diverted to...

Describe the roles of weathering in different climates. Consider the various processes involved in mechanical and chemical weathering. What are some of the factors that influence or control the weathering of earth materials? Also, discuss which of these factors would be most important and why?

Weathering refers to a set of processes by which surface rocks break up into smaller fragments or gets dissolved during contact with water and atmospheric pressures. The various processes involved in mechanical or physical weathering could be seen in terms of wearing off action, which results in cleansing action on...

First, identify the most important elements that compose Earth’s continental crust. Second, describe what physical properties of minerals provide a reliable means to identify common minerals, discussing how certain properties can exhibit a range of characteristics or values, thus making them less useful for identification purposes. Third, choose three physical properties that might vary considerably between samples of the same minerals and explain why such variability might exist.

The most important elements that constitute the Earth’s crust are oxygen and silicon. The physical properties of minerals that help identify them are structure, thickness, chemical composition, and weight. The uncovered portions of the continental crust are thicker than oceanic crust, which is loaded with iron and other minerals. However,...

Discuss the significance of the organization of the world as depicted in these maps below. In your answer be sure to analyze how they relate to each other during the second half of the twentieth century.

These two maps illustrate the political, social, and economic structure of the international community during and after the Cold War. There are various approaches to the stratification or division of countries. One of them is the so-called three-world theory, and it can be observed in the first picture. To some...

What is meant by the term sustainability? Would you consider the United States to be a country that is following sustainable development methods? Why or why not? Support your answer.

Some of the most common words that we hear almost daily include sustainable development, sustainable community, sustainable industry, sustainable agriculture, etc. If we observe, the term “sustainable” is very common in all these terms. In a layman’s language, sustainability is associated with the quality of life in a community. This...

What are the major environmental problems facing the National Park System? What is being done to minimize these problems? Which National Park has been most affected?

There are seven main areas of environmental problems that face the National Park all around the world. These include overuse, insufficient funds for park operation, threats to wildlife, the concession systems, energy and mineral development, atmospheric pollution, and activities on neighboring lands. The major problem comes from the visitors coming...

How has population growth in less developed countries overwhelmed economic growth?

Estimates suggest that the world’s population is growing by nearly 80 million people per year. The problem is with the less developed countries where rapid population growth aggravates poverty in developing countries. As a result, there is dwindling economic growth. People in these countries spend comparatively more percentage of their...

What is your position on the use of nuclear power? Are you in favor of its use, or would you prefer to see nuclear power plants shut down? Support your answer. What are some of the beneficial uses of nuclear power?

If we look at the history of human usage of energy, the sun was the first energy source that gave us light and heat. The discovery of fire resulted in the possibility of burning wood for cooking and heating. Renewable sources of energy such as sun, wind, biomass, and hydropower...

How do human activities adversely threaten wildlife? Explore the impact on domesticated animals versus wild animals. What can be done to reduce the impact on wildlife and domesticated species?

From the very beginning of human civilization, it has been noted that in one way or the other human beings have had their impact on the wildlife as well as the nearby ecosystem. Human impacts on wildlife species upset the basic life of wildlife and also cause pressure on wildlife...

Many ecologists would like to move away from protecting individual endangered species to concentrate on protecting whole communities or ecosystems. Others fear that the public will only respond to and support glamorous “flagship” species such as gorillas, tigers, or otters. If you were designing a conservation strategy, where would you put your emphasis?

If I were in charge of designing a conservation strategy, I would emphasize protecting whole communities or ecosystems rather than protecting individual endangered species. To elaborate on my point, I would like to take the example of the desert tortoise. The desert tortoise is among the endangered species known in...

What took place in Rio in 1992?

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, took place from 3-14 June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Make two geographic connections between two geographic facts.

Fact # 1 The Hudson is a broad, full-flowing river that has access to the Atlantic Ocean. Fact # 2 The first Dutch Colonies were created on the island of Manhattan, which is now one of the largest cities in the United States – New York. Connection A wide and...

What is the Ring of Fire?

The Ring of Fire is a place in the Pacific Ocean basin. It is still a seismically active area where most volcanic eruptions and earthquakes take place. This is also a place where several plates subduct, and this is what causes numerous earthquakes and eruptions.

Contrast the formation of the Hawaiian volcanoes with that of Paricutin.

Paricutin is an exemplary cinder volcano that was formed in the twentieth century. Like any other cinder volcano, Paricutin is a cinder cone that is formed from basaltic lava. The eruption is caused by the accumulation of gasses, and when the volcano erupts and releases pyroclastic materials, a cone is...

What is the circumpacific belt?

The circumpacific belt is the place where the greatest energy is released as a result of plates’ motion. It is a narrow area of great seismic activity in the Pacific Ocean.

When I think about communities like Las Vegas, I wonder about sustainability. Can a desert environment support such a large population? Where does Las Vegas drinking water come from? I’d like to know your thoughts about limiting population growth in a city such as Las Vegas to maintain a sustainable and ecological balance. What are the pros and cons of limiting growth in a city like Las Vegas?

It is quite amusing to see millions of people supported in a desert-like Las Vegas. Las Vegas gets its water from Lake Mead and River Colorado through the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA). The population should be controlled in this city if there is no other way of providing a...

What path do you think the Black River used to take?

The observations of these rivers suggest that, in the past, the Black River used to follow a path different from the current one. In particular, the Black River used to cross the area known as Deep Hollow and empty its water in the Cornwallis River.

Choose a region of the globe that is facing issues of extremely, high resource exploitation, experiences high pollution, and is likely to be affected by global climate changes. Propose a plan to the UN that you feel will help this region recover from the woes that it is experiencing. Use as much scientific fact as you can to support your suppostions. Identify the resources in trouble, outline a plan on how to fix it, and as best as you can: describe how you would get people to comply, how much this project will cost, and how long you expect it to take to see results.

The environmental situation in Haiti is paradoxical. On the one hand, the country has a variety of natural resources. On the other hand, people have practically no access to these resources. Apart from the resource exploitation problem, Haiti also has serious environmental issues, pollution being the most severe of them....

Choose a geographic region of the world of interest and discuss the marine resources present, how they are of value, how they are used, and where their final destinations are (country of export).

Indonesia: Resources and Their Value For the successful development of their civilization, people rely on a variety of resources, many of which come from oceans and seas. There are four main types of marine resources: biological, physical, marine energy, and non-extractive ones. Biological resources are used for food, whereas other...

You are fishing in the Northern Atlantic Ocean. You decided you are going to fill a glass bottle with water that is destined to become NADW and leave a note inside. You drop the bottle into the sea and watch it sink. Trace the path of the bottle as it travels through the global conveyor belt (thermohaline circulation). Also, where might you see this bottle surface? How long might it take?

The movement of a bottle thrown into the sea would be dictated by thermohaline circulation or the global conveyor belt. The nickname of the deep circulation pattern appeared due to the resemblance with a belt that girdles the Earth. The thermohaline circulation incorporates different water temperatures and depths. As a...

It is the year 2044. You are now all accomplished physical oceanographers. The governments of the Caribbean nations hire you to advise them on ENSO events and the possibilities of Hurricanes. What would you tell them if you see the trade-winds die down or even possibly reverse? Will you have an ENSO event? Do you expect to see more or less Hurricanes?

If trade winds die down or reverse, there is a possibility of a hurricane and an ENSO event. Such a change can be explained by the nature of trade winds and their characteristics. Trade winds are the groups of dependable surface winds that appear between the sectors of rising and...

Describe the environmental problem of climate change, its causes, its impacts, and possible mitigation and adaptions of humans to climate change. In your response, answer these questions: What is climate change? What causes it, and how is it related to our atmosphere’s natural greenhouse effect? Are humans responsible for recent (last 100 years) climate change? Why or why not? What are the possible consequences of future climatic changes to Earth and to society? In your answer, describe at least two ways that humans can lessen their contribution to atmospheric warming and global climate change.

Climatic change has many negative effects on people and their environment. Some of the effects can give rise to dry spells, tsunamis, increased occurrences of hurricanes, and melting of ice in the northern and southern poles, among others. Generally, climatic change is a rapid and unexpected change in various natural...

Describe geologic resources, their occurrence, and their use. Describe the difference between mineral resources and energy resources and give examples of each type. Include a discussion of renewable and non-renewable energy resources and examples of each. Describe the mineral and energy resources of Indiana, their extraction, and their use.

Natural resources are substances that form on the Earths’ crust in their original form; that is, they normally occur on their own without any influence from human beings. These resources are either efficient for human survival or useful in men’s study of the environment around them. Mineral resources are naturally...

The study of depositional environments in sedimentary rocks is critical to understanding Earth’s history. How do geologists use sedimentary rocks to describe past environments? What are the three categories of sedimentary environments? What features or characteristics of sedimentary rocks are unique to particular environments? Use a description of the stratigraphy of the Grand Canyon to support your response.

Geologists study sedimentary rocks through a process known as sedimentology. Generally, sedimentary rocks can be found all over the Earth, and they are used to study the Earth’s history, mainly because they contain most fossils, which may be as old as the Earth itself. Geologists compare recent rock features with...

Describe metamorphism and how it creates metamorphic rocks. In what environments does metamorphism occur? Include a discussion of each of the agents of metamorphism, including heat, pressure, and chemical fluids. In your discussion, explain the different environments and processes that create marble and gneiss, two different metamorphic rocks. How are the processes and environments that create these two rocks different?

Metamorphism is a sudden change in the Earth’s minerals without the process of liquidation taking place. The occurrence of the metamorphism process is catalyzed by heat, pressure, and reactive chemical fluids. Generally, chemical and crystal compositions of rocks tend to change without affecting or changing the rocks’ natural solid form....

Describe the differences in shape and size of shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and composite volcanoes, relating these differences to their composition and eruption style. Give examples of each type. Answer these questions: How does the relative size and shape of each reflect variations in eruptive characteristics (duration, types of materials, the composition of lava, etc.)? Which eruptive characteristics are common to all volcanoes, and which ones are unique to each?

Shield volcano is a type of volcano that is completely made up of liquid lava. The flow is very large in size and resembles a warrior’s shield when laid on the ground. The formation of a shield volcano emerges from the flow of lava with low-viscosity, which increases the size...

Explain the three basic types of plate movement. How do differences in density help to explain what happens at each boundary and the types of features we see at the Earth’s surface, such as ocean rifts, mountain belts, and volcanoes? Which tectonic boundaries result in the formation of volcanoes? Which do not? Why don’t volcanoes form in all tectonic settings?

Plate movement is the sliding of Earth’s lithosphere (Earth’s outer layer) over the mantle layer. This action results in the formation of Earth’s features, such as mountain ranges and continental drift. Generally, plate movements are influenced by different forces on the Earth’s plates; these forces may be classified as either...

Provide the (a.) conceptual difference between “centripetal” and the “centrifugal” forces in State Cohesion Theory; (b.) discuss and exemplify how Administrative Organization and (c.) Institutions function as centripetal forces, while (d.) Language and (e.) Subnationalism function as centrifugal forces.

a. Centrifugal force is a force that pulls objects to the center of the Earth. This force causes the object to move in a circular motion. Centripetal force is a sudden force that is equal and opposite to the centripetal force. It represents the revolving body away from the Earth....

Explain the conceptual difference between “mapping” and “cartography”; define/describe the following five concepts: a. Mapping vis-à-vis Cartography, b. The International Date Line, c. Latitudes, d. Longitudes, e. The Equator, f. Provide the “absolute address” of the Kingdom of Tonga.

a. Mapping is the process of giving a full definition of how a particular document or place can be mapped to the search engine, while cartography is the art of making charts or maps. b. International Date Line is an imaginary line drawn on the Earth’s surface and is internationally...

Explain the conceptual difference among the following geographic fields of specialization: a. Spatial Geography, b. Physical Geography, c. Land-Use Planning, d. Human Geography, e. Historical Geography.

a. Spatial geography deals with the study of space that pertains to and involves the nature of space. It might involve the spatial distribution of the population of people in a given area. b. Physical geography is the study of all the features within the Earth’s crust. It includes oceans,...

Provide the conceptual meaning and appropriate two examples for each of the following terms: a. Political Geography, b. Partitioned State, c. Elongated State, d. Fragmented State (Enclave/Exclave).

a. Political geography is a field that deals with human geography and is concerned with the study of mutual and effect of political procedures, and similarly how spatial structures influence politics. Political geography covers a wide range of aspects, for example, boundaries, nations, and other simplified divisions and subdivisions. For...

Provide the academic and etymological definitions of “Geography”. Discuss and exemplify what is referred to as “Geographic Value Judgments”.

The academic meaning of geography is that it is the study that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of miscellaneous physical, biological and cultural features of the Earth’s surface. It explains the study of natural phenomena and the distribution of natural resources on the Earth’s crust. Geography deals with...

Firstly, provide the conceptual difference between “centripetal” and the “centrifugal” forces in State Cohesion Theory; then, proceed to fully discuss and exemplify how Administrative Organization and Institutions function as centripetal forces, while Language and Subnationalism function as centrifugal forces. a. Centripetal Forces versus Centrifugal Forces, b. Administrative Organization, c. Institutions, d. Language, e. Subnationalism.

According to Horowitz, Centripetal force is the force that orbits objects such as the earth use in making the revolutions around the sun and other orbiting bodies. In the case of the earth, gravity acts as a centripetal force. On the other hand, centrifugal force is the outward force of...

Firstly, explain the conceptual difference between “mapping” and “cartography”; then, proceed to fully define/describe the following five concepts: a. Mapping vis-à-vis Cartography, b. The International Date Line, c. Latitudes, d. Longitudes, e. The Equator, f. Provide the “absolute address” of the Kingdom of Tonga.

a. According to Maguire, mapping is the use of maps, which are representations of the earth’s surface on a flat medium. Cartography, on the other hand, is the study that involves the creation of maps designed to present the spatial information, material, and features on the earth’s surface on a...

Explain the conceptual difference among the following geographic fields of specialization: a. Spatial Geography, b. Physical Geography, c. Land-Use Planning, d. Human Geography, e. Historical Geography.

a. Spatial geography is the field of geography that concerns itself with the study of locations, spatial interactions, and patterns as well as places. It focuses on the situation of things and how their occurrence took place. b. Physical geography is another field of geography that concerns itself with the...

Provide the conceptual meaning and appropriate two examples for each of the following terms: a. Political Geography, b. Partitioned State, c. Elongated State, d. Fragmented State (Enclave/Exclave), e.Mediterranean State vis-à-vis Mediterranean Region State.

a. Political geography is a branch of geography, which combines and integrates both political and geographical phenomena into one study. In other words, it is concerned with the study of geography that illuminates the political aspects of a region. It is also concerned with the study of politics linked to...

Firstly, provide both the academic and etymological definitions of “Geography”; then, proceed to fully discuss and exemplify what is referred to as “Geographic Value Judgments.”

Geography is a field of study that strives to instill a better understanding of the planet within students. Geography is the study of various geographical areas and human beings’ interaction with their environment. Geography acts as a bridge between the physical and social sciences. The word geography comes from the...