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Select and describe at least four examples of how the atmosphere influences the oceans. Be certain to explicitly describe mechanisms of the atmospheric phenomena you chose. Then, explain how the ocean responds by influencing the atmosphere and the earth system as a whole.

The most significant impact that the atmosphere has on the ocean is the transmission of sunlight and heating of the ocean surface. This fact is responsible for several atmospheric phenomena. For example, the rotation of the earth and uneven evaporation of water due to different temperature zones cause winds that...

List and describe the major mechanisms of ocean circulation, and what factors influence that circulation. Specifically include both horizontal and vertical aspects of the circulation.

There are two main types of ocean circulation such as horizontal and vertical. Major winds and earth rotation form surface currents throughout the ocean that carries warm water from the equator to the poles. Vertical circulation also occurs in the North Atlantic and along Antarctica as the water cools, increasing...

Answer the following key questions after reading the texts or watching the video on Great Pacific Garbage Patch. What is the main idea? Who is the audience? What are the authors’ purposes for writing about this topic? What are the author’s opinions about the topic? Do you agree or disagree with the authors? Why do you agree or disagree with the author? What can you bring to the discussion about this topic?

The main idea of the video and the two articles is that we, humans, need to be more aware of plastic pollution and the Great Pacific Garbage Patch problem in particular. This pressing environmental issue is a severe hazard, and people need to unite their efforts and eliminate or limit...

What proposed explanations overcame the problem of how the continents moved?

The plate tectonic theory, which suggests that continents move due to the sliding observed in tectonic plates, provides a mechanism that explains Wegener’s observations. The mechanism is creating ocean crust at mid-ocean ridges and the subductions of old crust at oceanic trenches. Plate tectonics theory explains that continents were once...

Describe the problems with the theory of continental drift.

The continental drift theory was incomplete because it could not explain the driving mechanism for what could cause the continents’ movement. Continental drift was based on observations that did not explain events and history and did not allow predictions. It lacked a convincing explanation of how the continents moved, which...

Describe the theory of continental drift, include who proposed the theory and when.

Continental drift theory explains how the continents shift position on the earth’s surface. Alfred Wegener proposed this theory in 1912 based on the preexisting suggestions made by other scholars, as well as his own study of the subject matter. According to Wegener, while the continents currently appear to be disjointed,...

Examine the history of your state’s (Ohio) population. How has population changed in your state over the past 100 years in relation to the use of land for feeding the people? Create a chart to give an example of application of land conservation and a management theory for each of the following: Forest harvesting, Rangeland management, Parks and natural preserves, Agricultural use, Land degradation.

The following chart represents the application of land conservation and a management theory for forest harvesting, rangeland management, parks, and natural preserves, agricultural use, and land degradation: As the chart shows, Ohio has not been witnessing radical changes in the degradation of soil, nor has it yet developed an impressive...

What is the connection between the things we grow in the soil, toxicity, and each of the following: Solubility, Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification, Persistence?

The link between the plants, vegetables, and fruits grown in soil, toxicity, and such elements as solubility, bioaccumulation, and persistence is quite obvious. What grows in soil retrieves most elements required for sustaining the process of growth from the soil. As a result, in contaminated soil, where the toxicity of...

What is environmental risk? What types of environmental risk does research say you are taking by living or working in your local area? Why are some risks accepted in one country but not in another? Examples of risks: diseases due to environmental change, pesticide and antibiotic resistance, toxic chemicals.

An environmental risk is traditionally defined as a risk of developing health issues as a result of being exposed to a hazardous or unhealthy environment. In the area that I live and work in, lead-based paint causes much concern. Diseases caused by the environmental change may only spawn as a...

Find a current news article that helps to describe one of the issues of surrounding water and pollution in your state or region. Summarize the article in 50-100 words. What issue is this related to in our readings for the week?

Unfortunately, surrounding water and pollution issues are not new to Ohio. In a recent report, the problem of pollution and its effect on the water resources in the state has been touched upon. According to the latest data, a range of Ohio water resources, particularly the local river, suffer from...

In 2008, China showed the world an Olympic competition that was in one of the world’s most polluted cities. China is home to 16 of the 20 most polluted cities. How does a desire for a Western lifestyle and wanting a car relate to the problems they have? What natural features might add to the air pollution problems in the region?

The relation between a chase for the Western lifestyle, which the Chinese are pursuing at present, is related directly to their pollution issues. Not only do the local residents fail to afford to buy a Hybrid car, which pollutes the air to a lesser degree, but they also encourage tourism...

How does sea floor spreading support the theory that continentals move?

As shown by evidence such as parallel magnetic patterns on both sides of mid-ocean ridges, the process of seafloor spreading is an observable fact. The specified evidence eventually caused the geological community to acknowledge the plausibility of the concept of continental drift. Seafloor spreading can cause new geographical features to...

How does the fossil record support the theory of plate tectonics?

Evidence from fossils helps to reveal how the plates were once connected. Fossils indicate when and where plants and animals once existed. The analysis of fossils distribution led to the theory that the southern continents were once joined into a supercontinent. For example, the fossils discovered in Africa and South...

How does the distribution and pattern of earthquakes support the theory?

When tectonic plates grind along with one another, they build up potential energy along the fault, which is occasionally released in vibrations, causing earthquakes. The majority of earthquakes on the planet occur at the edge of the plates, although inter-plate earthquakes can occur when pressure accumulates in the plate. For...

Write an original, basic summary of the theory of plate tectonics. How do these two ideas unite to form the theory of plate tectonics?

The plate tectonics theory states that the earth’s solid outer crust is separated into plates that move over the asthenosphere resulting in geological events. Observations from continental drift theory and discoveries of seafloor spreading zones led to the creation of the plate tectonics theory. Continental drift and seafloor spreading are...

Watch NOVA episode “Secrets of Easter Island”. Describe the log-roller method of moving the mo’ai? How successful was it? What other methods were proposed and attempted?

Archaeologist Joanne Van Tilburg proposed the log-roller method of mo’ai transportation. It consists of placing the mo’ai upon a triangular sled and pulling it along wooden log tracks as if it traveled on rails. In reality, Easter Island archaeologists found it challenging to transport the statue this way. The logs...

Explain where and how föhn winds form.

Föhn winds (foehn) are usually dry and warm and form in almost all mountainous regions and high ranges. These winds descend on the leeward side of the highlands. Föhn winds originate from humidified air that ascends on the windward side. As the air flows up the slopes, it undergoes expansion,...

Overpopulation is a major problem that faces all countries. Some environmentalists warn that the earth is reaching its “carrying capacity”. This includes diminishing food supplies and natural resources. What can go wrong when population growth is too much? What are some possible solutions?

Overpopulation leads to scarcity of resources. At the moment not every human being has access to clean water. Many people are dying of starvation due to lack of food which is attributed to global warming. Global warming has led to change of weather patterns in most parts of the world...

Identify a climate or geologic feature for your region and explain how it contributes to good or bad air quality. Where would you go for air quality reporting in your state or region? How do these affect family, home, or health?

One of the climatic features that contribute to good air quality in Ohio is the seasonal variation that is associated with weather in the region. During winter, air quality improves with the condensation of most of the pollutants. For air quality reporting, the place that will be accessible is the...

“Half the rural population in Mozambique has to walk for longer than 30 minutes to get water; only 5% of the rural population have access to piped water.” What are the social, educational, and health implications of this?

Water is a very important resource that people use daily in domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities. The scarcity of water in Mozambique has significant social implications because 50% of people in rural areas walk for more than 30 minutes in search of water, while about 5% of them access piped...

Hurricane Elsa, Its Causes and Consequences

General causes of this type of hazard, a detailed discussion of what that hazard is and the forces/processes/etc. that create that hazard. Include the following: type of disaster (tornado, earthquake, flood, etc.); location: be specific, (which city, country, region, etc.); beginning/end dates (when did it start, when was it over,...

Research Five Countries of Your Choice

Choose five countries and research them in detail. Discuss how the five themes of geography are shown in the realm countries. Provide at least one map, that shows the major physiographic phenomena (mountains, rivers, etc.) and all major cities, including a special marking for the capital city of each country.

Review Articles on Human Geography

Critically review five articles of your choice about human geography. Discuss the influences of diversity and multiculturism in Greater Vancouver’s tourism. What are the influences of immigration and diversity on Vancouver’s Tourism culturally? Examine the topics of aboriginal tourism in Vancouver’s cultural tourism and immigration and culinary tourism in Greater...

Argue on the Issue of Climate Change

Create an argument on climate change. Construct and defend an argument based around the topic of climate change. Explain the issue in your paper, determine which side of the issue you are on, and defend your side with a logically coherent argument using scientific evidence to support your argument. Explain...

The Geography of an Area from the Old Testament

What are the geographical features of an area mentioned in the Old Testament? What are the major landforms and vegetation of this area? What is important to note about the temperature, seasons, and rain patterns of this location? How was water accessed in this area? What crops were grown in...

What is China’s Biggest Strength and Weakness?

Over the past several decades China has attempted to expand its political influence and economic power throughout East Asia and the rest of the world. What is China’s biggest strength and what is China’s biggest weakness affecting its ability to expand its political influence and economic power (explain each in...

Why Are Many Nations Interested in Antarctica?

In answering this question, you should be discussing what is the current status of Antarctica and why are many nations interested in or concerned about Antarctica? What do you think should be done with Antarctica? Should it be left alone entirely, be developed for tourism, used for scientific research, colonized...

What are some likely changes in agriculture due to climate change? What regions and crops are most likely to benefit and suffer?

Agriculture and climate change are highly interconnected phenomena, where it is evident that both make significant contributions towards each other. Agriculture on itself can result in emission of carbon dioxide, which is a major greenhouse gas. However, severe climatic changes lead to alterations in good quality, reduction in food quality,...

What are five ways that agricultural practices add to greenhouse gas emissions? State the practice and the specific greenhouse gas that is emitted. List at least three different greenhouse gases.

Nitrous oxide are highly potent greenhouse gases which are key elements of field fertilization in agriculture. Methane is another greenhouse gas, which comes from the given sector due to decomposing plants. Hydrofluorocarbons are also potent disruptors, which are actively used in refrigeration systems. Livestock on its own releases high levels...

Since GMO crops are patented, farmers who use GMO crops are required to buy new seed each year rather than gathering their own seed as they historically did. Can farmers who use hybrid F1 lines of crop plants use their own seed from the F2 generation? Why or why not?

Farmers who use hybrid F1 lines of crop plants cannot use their own seed from the F2 generation. The main reason is that assortment and recombination of genes would lead to the loss of the specific traits, which makes the line worthless to the farmer. In other words, farmers are...

The Brazilian rainforest is sometimes referred to as the “lungs of the world” because its dense biomass absorbs so much carbon dioxide. An increasingly serious problem for global climate change is that Brazilians are cutting down or burning the forest to clear land to use for agriculture. This results in an inefficient use of the land since, from a global perspective, the lost carbon absorption is far more valuable than the gained agricultural production. What social dilemma best helps us understand the cause of this inefficiency.

Negative externalities best help to understand this situation. The fact that the forest’s destruction negatively affects the global climate and people of the whole world does not seem significant for Brazilian farmers. From their perspective, the economic benefits that they get are more important than the environmental costs. 

Figure 1 shows the major current world climate zones based on sea temperature: Tropical, Temperate, and Polar Zones. Briefly explain the origin of this zonation pattern. Which zone is Australia in? How would this zonation affect the biogeographic distribution of Australia’s marine species?

Current world climate zones are determined according to the zonation pattern based on differences in the sea and air temperature. According to this zonation pattern, the basic climate zones are Tropical, Temperate, and Polar Zones, as it is presented in Figure 1. The mentioned zonation pattern can be explained with...

The main town stormwater drain runs into the lake and has a “gross pollutant trap” on the end. It is blocked and discharging a smelly liquid after a month without rain. Should an environmental health officer be concerned?

The main town stormwater drain runs into the lake and has a “gross pollutant trap” on the end. It is blocked and discharging a smelly liquid after a month without rain. An environmental health officer should be concerned because the sole purpose of the contrivance is to confine solid non-biodegradable...

The swimming leg of a triathlon is once again proposed in the Lake. What are the potential infection, ingestion, and injury risks associated with contaminated water for trainees, participants, and bystanders?

The lake contains numerous contaminants that act as health hazards for trainees, participants, and bystanders during the swimming leg triathlon. The presence of all these wastes particularly fecal wastes introduces pathogenic microorganisms into the water. During the training process and the actual competition, the trainees are likely to ingest varying...

What does bipolar, bitemperate, antitropical, tropical, and cosmopolitan distribution mean? What is an example of an extant species or genus with antitropical distribution? Plot its distribution on a map. Is there a mechanism for dispersal that may account for the distribution pattern observed?

There are three main types of species distribution in relation to zones which are the antitropical (bipolar or bitemperate) distribution, tropical distribution, and cosmopolitan distribution. Antitropical distribution is discussed when species are present in “temperate or polar environments in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres”, but these species are...

Plate tectonics is an important explanatory tool for understanding the shape of continents. Discuss the basic engine that moves the large continental systems, and diagram the crustal dynamics of convergence, divergence and hot spots with characteristic landform for each of these.

The large-scale movement in Earth’s Lithosphere is called “Plate tectonics.” The continental drift concept is one of the basic ideas in the development of the case. It is a very important concept for understanding the shapes of the continents. The Earth is made up of plates like the pieces of...

Plate tectonics is an important explanatory tool for understanding the shape of continents. Discuss the basic engine that moves the large continental systems, and diagram the crustal dynamics of convergence, divergence and hot spots with characteristic landform for each of these.

The large-scale movement in Earth’s Lithosphere is called “Plate tectonics.” The continental drift concept is one of the basic ideas in the development of the case. It is a very important concept for understanding the shapes of the continents. The Earth is made up of plates like the pieces of...

Which environmental factors best explain geographic variation in decomposition rates at large geographic scales? At the ecosystem level? Why should those variables relate so well to decomposition rates?

There are several environmental factors that influence geographic variation in decomposition rates. At the geographic scale, the temperature in various locations is a critical determinant of rates of decomposition. This is just one element of climate which is responsible for the decomposition rate at the geographic level. In addition, pressure...

Create chart showing the most likely rock to be formed from lava under the following conditions: The lava was at 1000 degrees Celsius, fully mixed, when it erupted; Or when it sat underground and cooled slowly; The lava was fairly cool, about 800 degrees C, when it erupted; Or when it sat underground and cooled slowly.

Lava is the melted rock that is erupted during the volcanic processes. In the context of Earth, its crust is a superheated zone and in that place, all the rocks and minerals are melted due to the high temperature. The temperature of lava can range from 700 degrees Celsius to...

How worried are you about to the impact of climate change on your future lives? Is there any hope that climate change will be able to be addressed in a effective way?

Immensely worried because of drastic changes in rainfall patterns and extreme weather conditions caused by anthropogenic activities. Co2 and methane effects on the greenhouse are enhanced by human influence on the ecology due to industrial economic interests. There is hope if we can convince economic sceptics of the harm of...

Human presence and impact on the landscape is a central concern of geography. How did the First Nations, Native Americans, and Amerindians come to their widespread homelands in North, Middle, and South America?

Amerindians were the earliest inhabitants of the Americas; they are also known as the Native Americans, Aboriginals, or the First Nations. They entered the Americas through what is known today as the Baring Strait from Eurasia around 12,000-21,000 years ago. They are thought to have used boats or foot as...

South America is so diverse an area topographically, climatically, and culturally that it may defy meaningful generalization. Pick out some of it’s most contrasting elements that really pique your interest and compare them.

One of the most contrasting features of South America is the climate. The large area of the continent makes climate vary from one region to another, the climate is further affected by the water oceans, i.e., Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the Caribbean Sea, and the Amazon River. The temperature of...

In what ways are scientists attempting to predict natural disasters, and what are their successes in doing so?

Natural disasters are those disasters that are caused by nature. This includes floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, storms, hurricanes, typhoons, tornados, blizzards, avalanches among others. Scientists have therefore identified some mechanisms to predict these disasters. Scientists have advised that hurricanes, tornados, and cyclones can be predicted using meteorological and...

What are the different geologic mechanisms that explain the existence of ocean fossils within crustal rocks in the middle of the continent? Include a discussion of the Earth’s geologic history.

The Earth, which is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old, was a molten rock-magma ocean. The expected high-speed solid forces hit together to form the planet. With the cooling of particles, condensation took place, leading to the formation of rainbows and, subsequently, rainfalls. Plate tectonics also led to the...

What types of rocks are fossils found in?

Sedimentary rocks are the only types of rocks that contain fossils. “Sedimentary rocks form when particles of sediment are deposited by water or wind, and then (in most cases) hardened or consolidated through time.” Other types of rocks do not preserve fossils. This is because, in other types of rocks,...

Why do fossils represent an incomplete picture of geologic history?

Fossils represent an incomplete picture of geologic history because there are specific conditions to be met for a dead animal to become a fossil. The remains have to stay in a place that is oxygen-free. This can happen only when the animal is buried immediately after its death. The other...

How do fossils become exposed so they can be found?

As time passes, more and more sediment accumulates around the remains of the dead organisms, which later on get hardened into sedimentary rock because of the pressure, heat, and chemical reaction at the depth where the dead animal is buried. Movements in the earth’s crust make the layers of hardened...

What are the most common rock-type fossils are found in? Why?

Fossils are found in shale, sandstone, and limestone, which are the different types of sedimentary rocks. Fossils can be found in limestone in the form of preserved whole shells or shell bits. Shapes of dead life forms get preserved in shale rocks, with fine-grained rock settling around the life forms....

In which type of environment are organisms most easily preserved? Why?

Fossilization is usually a rare phenomenon as most components of once-living creatures tend to decay relatively quickly after their death. In order for the organism to be fossilized, it is necessary that the remains need to be covered by sediments at the earliest. Fossilization occurs under circumstances when the organisms...

What is fossilization and how are fossils formed?

Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of dead animals or other organisms. Fossil formation begins with the death of a creature. When the dead animal settles at the bottom, the first reaction is the decaying of the fleshy parts. As a next step, the sediments cover the remains of...

Consider how underpopulation is a major problem in certain US states. Would you take advantage of the opportunity to move to the Midwest that is suggested in the article, “Empty House on the Prairie?” Why or why not? Explain one other method that may help solve the underpopulation problem.

The article “Empty House on the Prairie” is dedicated to the move to the Midwest before the ice breaks, making the family build the new house and totally change their life. “The tiny towns in the Great Plains and upper Midwest don’s want to die. They are trying to keep...

What are the similarities and differences among the terms environmental pragmatism, ethical relativism, and ethical pluralism?

Environmental pragmatism, ethical relativism, and ethical pluralism are the three theories leading to environmental protection. Environmental pragmatism is the realistic and sensible approach against environmental destruction due to pollution, population explosion, global climate variations, etc. The environmental pragmatist principles focus to reduce maximum environmental destruction which is legally applicable. Ethical...

In the desire to provide safe, clean, inexpensive, and reliable energy, what are the multiple sets of values, ethics, and philosophies that are in conflict when scientists, economists, energy companies, and politicians get together to decide whether to develop nuclear power plants?

An advertisement about nuclear energy in an American scientific magazine runs like this “cleaner and greener”, referring to the energy obtained from nuclear power plants. “Our 103 nuclear power plants don’t burn anything, so they don’t produce greenhouse gases.” The Nuclear institutes try to tell the world that nuclear energy...

What are the similarities and differences between social ecology and deep ecology?

The term “Deep Ecology” is a part of Ecological philosophy that considers all human kinds as a basic element in this environment. This philosophy gives the idea that all living beings have an equal right to live and flourish in the environment. This philosophy was introduced by a Norwegian philosopher...

Compare and contrast the images of people and places constructed and perpetuated by tourism advertising in different countries of the Asia Pacific region. Use examples drawn from the tourism websites of two countries from within the region.

There is no denying the importance of the fact that tourism plays an important role in bolstering development and GDP growth in the Asia-Pacific region. Such countries as Thailand and Malaysia are notable examples of tourism phenomena when tourism money and resource flows significantly improved their economic and political positions...

Describe the advantages of modern technologies used in eruptions prevention.

The main advantage of modern technologies and innovative solutions used by the US is that they allow the state to inform populations on time and prevent mass destructions. The eruptions not only vary in their style and power, but also in their effects and interaction with the natural and the...

Tell if volcanic eruptions can be predictable? Why or why not?

Geologically, volcanic eruptions are predictable. The main methods of predictions are seismographic monitoring, tiltmeters, surveillance by satellite. Generalizations based on broad trends are thus of limited use, because little preventive action could be taken about them. If, also, a volcano behaves in a consistent way, like many active cinder cones,...

Contrast the philosophies of catastrophism and uniformitarianism. How did the proponents of each perceive the age of Earth? How do the two types of “dating” prove one philosophy more accurate than the other?

Catastrophism ardently believes that the earth has sustained innumerable catastrophes and upheavals during its eventful lifetime. The present earth structure has been the end result of numerous cataclysmic activities like deluges, earthquakes, volcanic explosions, etc. The earth has survived all these calamities and yet is surging forward. Evidence of the...

Discuss volcanic hazards. Although commonly thought to be associated with most volcanic eruptions (by the general public), lava is rarely responsible for the loss of life. Which hazards would tend to be more deadly? Finally, indicate and discuss those hazards that are a direct result of volcanic activity as well as those hazards that are indirectly linked.

The main type of volcanic hazards would be in the event of a series of small volcanic eruptions, change in the surface of the grounds, or significant gas emission in the vicinity. Similarly, it is seen that “Plate tectonics and continental drift are the basis for evidence of volcanoes.” Scientists...

On a given day in the winter in St. Louis, Missouri, it began snowing in the morning, the snow changed to rain by noon, later in the afternoon sleet was falling which turned to snow, and by evening rain was freezing on bridges and roadways as glaze. Briefly explain how such a sequence of precipitation might occur.

Precipitation occurs when cloud elements become too laden to remain in a state of suspension in the atmosphere and has to take recourse, following the law of gravity to move down to the earth’s surface. This may take the form of hail, rain, sleet, or even snow.  The processes of...

Considering the albedo of various surfaces, compare daily temperature ranges and means for an urban area to a more rural setting of crops and forests. Also, are there any other factors other than albedo that might affect these temperature variations.

Urban construction modifies surface properties that contribute to the VHI, such as albedo, etc. Studies conducted, including surface albedo, helped to locate surface-atmosphere interfacing and test conduct urban effects in a global climatic model.  When comparing the zonal averaged urban albedo to the averaged cropland albedo, it is seen that...

Briefly define and describe the terms climate change and global warming. In trying to balance the pros and cons on the respective sides of this issue, provide one scientific statement or argument for your position and then provide one countering statement or argument from the other side. Provide some discussion for both positions.

Climate change refers to the conspicuous variations in either the average state of climate on earth or its variation over a period of time. This may occur due to internal forces or even due to external reasons, due to population growth or usage of land resources. The impact of greenhouse...

“Perhaps more than any other single measurement, atmospheric pressure is the best indicator of current and changing weather conditions.” Explain and discuss why this statement is correct. Provide some examples.

The atmospheric pressure exerted on any matter X could be said to be the pressure exerted above it. When the pressures at this point X increase, the atmospheric pressure is said to increase, and vice versa.  It is seen that local high atmospheric pressures act as an obstacle to the...

Shorelines are temporary geologic and topographic features. Explain this statement

Shorelines are in a constant state of fluctuation since sea waves move during high tides. The rising and falling of tidal waves advances or retards shorelines. The dangers of erosion and flooding pose real threats to shorelines, especially during storms. The areas near coastal regions are invariably affected by high...

A variety of techniques and efforts are used to stabilize shorelines throughout the world. Are all of these efforts only temporary measures, or are any of them permanent? Also, do urbanization and development of coastal areas always contribute to shoreline erosion? Explain

The main aspects with regard to stabilizing shorelines could be seen in terms of alleviating the challenges posed by flooding, inundations, and erosion of shorelines. It is seen that there are a variety of techniques used, including providing barricades to seawater intrusion, providing walling and reinforcements, and laying of channels...

Discuss the distribution of seafloor sediments in the ocean basins. What are the different types of sediments, and what are the factors that control their distribution?

Just as the seashores are abode to different objects, so also the ocean bed may consist of rock, sand, remains of living organisms, etc. The origins of sediments could be divided into four categories as below: Originating from land, emanating from living undersea organisms, stemming from chemical reactions, and even...

A fault is observed in a road cut, but there are no obvious rock units to correlate on either side of the fault to determine relative movements. How else might you determine or even infer whether the hanging wall has moved up or down relative to the footwall? (Hint: think of fossils, tectonic settings, etc.)

The main factors that determine whether the hanging wall has moved upwards or downwards could be seen from a number of perspectives, including tectonic settings, fossils, etc.  If it is in a pressurized compacted setting, it is very much likely that the hanging wall has moved in an upward direction,...

The wind is included along with gravity, water, and ices as an agent of erosion. In many national parks and other areas of natural beauty, statements are often made that credit wind as having sculpted the landscape. Briefly discuss the importance of wind as an agent of erosion and explain why such statements are probably inaccurate

To a certain extent, the wind does contribute to soil erosion, especially in dry, arid regions, devoid of rainfalls except for occasional cloudbursts. Erosion is said to be a condition whereby rocks and other materials on the surface of the Earth get disintegrated and fragmented due to a variety of...

When examining the geology of a region for potential aquifers, what characteristics or factors would you consider? Also, what areas (based on natural and human factors) would you avoid?

The main aspects that need to be considered would be the demand and levels of productivity of proposed aquifers. Besides this, other factors that are relevant are the total area of the proposed aquifers, the demand for it, the quality and proposed quantity of water that could be diverted to...

Describe the roles of weathering in different climates. Consider the various processes involved in mechanical and chemical weathering. What are some of the factors that influence or control the weathering of earth materials? Also, discuss which of these factors would be most important and why?

Weathering refers to a set of processes by which surface rocks break up into smaller fragments or gets dissolved during contact with water and atmospheric pressures. The various processes involved in mechanical or physical weathering could be seen in terms of wearing off action, which results in cleansing action on...