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Research the bicarbonate buffering system found in the bloodstream. Write a paragraph or two discussing this system and how your breathing rate can cause acidosis and alkalosis.

The bicarbonate buffering system comprises weak carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions. Its function is to regulate the pH of the blood. When any acidic substance enters the blood, hydrogen ions are neutralized by the formation of carbonic acid and water. Given that carbonic acid is already part of the buffer...

Consider the following situation: a. A cell contains 3 Na+, 7 K+, and 10 H2O molecules. b. The extracellular fluid contains 7 Na+, 3 K+, and 10 H2O molecules. c. All ions create equal osmotic pressure. d. The cell membrane is impermeable to the diffusion of both Na+ and K+ but is completely permeable to H2O. If 3 Na+ move from the ICF out if the ECF, then a. Is the ECF now isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic to the ICF? b. How must the Na+ have gotten outside the cell? c. If osmosis is also going to occur, in which direction will the net movement of water be?

If three sodium ions move from the ICF into the ECF, the ECF is now hypertonic to the ICF. The sodium ion got out of the cell through the sodium-potassium pump, which is a membrane-associated protein channel that uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions against their concentration gradient....

Explain why dislocations move more easily in metallic bonded, compared to ionic or covalently bonded crystals and why this requires a far lower stress than the theoretical strength of a crystal.

Covalently bonded crystals’ dislocation motion is limited due to the high strength and the highly directional nature of bonds (between the core and localized bonds). In the ionic bonded crystal, the same is less directional (between positive ions and negative ions), and any slip is restricted, but while in metallically...

Why do some creatures form fossils and others don’t?

It is important to keep in mind that only those creatures that have solid elements in their bodies (e.g., a skeleton, a shield, etc.) can form fossils. According to the mechanism of fossils creation, it is necessary that the cavity created by the decayed solid elements of the organism should...

a. What atmospheric gas is produced by the interaction of sunlight and nitric oxide (NO)? b. Are forests more or less dense in the Pacific Northwest region than 200 years ago? c. Explain the effects of acid rain on the forests in this region.

a. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2). b. As compared to 200 years ago, the forests in the Pacific Northwest have become denser. c. Acidic rainfall results from the burning of fossil fuels and mainly coal. This leads to the emission of sulfur into the atmosphere in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2)....

118 different elements have been recognized in chemistry. Out of those only 25 are involved in our body structures and functions. Which are the most and least important ones and why?

I believe that the most important chemical elements found in the human body are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. This is because these elements make up the vast share of substances and components that are essential for our body to function. For example, hydrogen allows for the creation of hydrogen...

What is smog? List the gasses.

Smog can be defined as a mixture of gases and very small solid or liquid particles, also known as particulate matter. Smog consists of such gases as ozone, oxides of nitrogen, Sulphur dioxide, and NOx.

What role does dancing play in Pride & Prejudice?

In “Pride and Prejudice”, dance performs as the setting for some social rituals. Like that of courtship, for example. Dance enables people to learn and socialize with each other. It goes this way both in the novel and in real life. Especially when it comes to the Victorian era. It...

a. Explain the use of Kroger-Vink notation to describe the formation of and interactions between point defects in solids. What rules must be followed in constructing defect chemical equations? b. Using the Kroger-Vink notation, write defect chemical equations representing the following reduction/oxidation reactions: 1. The reduction of TiO2, with the formation of oxygen vacancies and electrons. 2. The reduction of TiO2, with the formation of titanium interstitials and electrons. 3. The oxidation of TiO2, with the formation of titanium vacancies and electron holes. 4. The oxidation of TiO2, with the formation of oxygen interstitials and electron holes. c. For each of the reactions (1) to (4) above, explain whether the electronic conductivity is expected to change as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. d. 1. Construct defect chemical equations to describe the dissolution of Sb2O5 in TiO2, with charge compensation by either titanium vacancies of free electrons. 2. In a similar way, write defect chemical equations to describe the dissolution of MgO in TiO2, with charge compensation by either oxygen vacancies or electron holes.

a. The anion (more electronegative) component in an ionic compound is typically a nonmetallic element and designated as X. The cation (more electropositive) component is a metallic element and designated as M. A vacant lattice site is designated as V. Atoms or ions can occupy cation (M) sites, anion (X)...

a. Outline the principles of Pauling’s 5 rules for predicting the crystal structures of ionic solids. b. Show how Pauling’s rules can be used, together with the data give in Tables 1 and 2, to explain the crystal structure of Na2O, which is based on an fcc array of oxide ions. Draw a schematic diagram showing a unit cell of this structure. Explain which interstitial sites are occupied by the Na+ ions. c. Sketch a plan view of the Na2O unit cell, marking on your diagram the height of all ions present. d. Calculate a theoretical value for the density of Na2O, given that the relative atomic masses of sodium and oxygen are 22.99 and 16.00 respectively.

a. The rules of Pauling’s relating crystal structures are: bonding strength, coordination of the polyhedral, linkage for polyhedral, cation evasion, environment homogeneity. b. Na2O When two sodium atoms combine to form a molecule, they share two electrons. Each atom then has a complete shell of eight electrons. The electron structure...

Uncovered lightbulbs may expose food to which type of hazard?

Uncovered lightbulbs may expose food to physical and chemical hazard. Explanation: Food safety is concerns with a variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, and physical. Biological hazards occur due to bacteria, viruses, parasites, and mold in products, which lead to foodborne illness. Chemical hazards happen when toxic chemicals or allergens...

Which of the following is true about energy drinks and mixers a) Carbonation generally slows the rate of alcohol absorption b) A sweet taste can hide the taste of alcohol c) Caffeine helps keep the person aware of how intoxicated he or she is d) All of the above?

A sweet taste can hide the taste of alcohol so answer B is the correct one. Explanation: Most of the energy drinks that people use as mixers are very sweet because they contain a lot of artificial sweeteners. These help to hide the taste of alcohol and makes drinking easier...

Why are proteins considered polymers but lipids not?

Proteins are polymers because they consist of long sequences of amino acids. Lipids have a single structure formed by glycerol and three fatty acids. Explanation: A monomer is a molecule that can attach itself to other monomers, thus forming a more complex structure. A large molecule that is composed of...