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How does NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide) get in the air?

This gas enters the air mainly from the combustion of automotive fuels: this includes emissions from cars driving on city roads every day. The variety of vehicle types exacerbates this effect: automobile emissions come from cars and trucks. Moreover, nitrogen dioxide also enters the air through the heavy use of...

What are the harmful effects of NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide)?

The adverse effects of carbon dioxide should be classified into harm to humans and harm to nature. Harm to humans is expressed through the suppression of the respiratory system, which can result in aggravated asthma and symptomatic manifestations of respiratory tract irritation in patients. In addition, gas molecules can interact...

How does SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide) get in the air?

Sulfur dioxide sources for air pollution are large and small power plants, which emit large amounts of harmful gases from the combustion of natural fuels. Metallurgy also has a negative effect in this context since there is often the formation of sulfur dioxide when pure metals are extracted from the...

What are the harmful effects of SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide)?

For humans, the prominent harm from sulfur dioxide is to the respiratory system, as the gas is harmful and causes irritation to the respiratory organs. At the same time, the interaction of sulfur dioxide with other atmospheric substances leads to pollution by particulate matter deposited on the lungs when breathing....

How does PM (Particulate Matter) get in the air?

A distinction should be made between several sources of particulate matter. Some of it enters the air directly at construction sites, where large amounts of dust are raised due to repair work. On the other hand, particles are formed in the atmosphere due to natural chemical reactions between pollutants.

What are the harmful effects of PM (Particulate Matter)?

The critical problem with particulate matter is its microscopic size, which causes it to enter the body when breathing and settle in the lungs. Some can enter the bloodstream through the alveoli if they are small enough in diameter. Moreover, particulate matter lowers visibility.

Explain the unique aspects of the water molecule and of water as it pertains to the planet Earth. Then review the physical variations of water across the globe and with depth, and explain those variations.

The water molecule has a structure that allows it to have unique properties. For example, a water molecule is polar, which creates a weak force of attraction between oxygen and hydrogen atoms that is called a hydrogen bond. Such hydrogenic bonds allow water to transform into liquid, solid, and gaseous...

Summarize some of the findings in the research “Essential oils: Sources of antimicrobials and food preservatives” by Pandey et al. How do you think ancient cultures discovered the power of natural compounds to preserve food? Why has there been such a change in the way spices and/or essential oils are used in food preservation?

The paper “Essential oils: Sources of antimicrobials and food preservatives” by Pandey et al. discusses and summarizes the scientific findings regarding essential oils used in the food industry as preservatives. Specifically, the authors concentrate on the qualities of essential oils to serve as antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, and fungicidal food preservatives....

What is the difference between the oxidation of a metal that’s caused by components of the atmosphere and the corrosion of a metal that’s caused by components of the atmosphere? Give an example of oxidation of this kind that accelerates corrosion and that protects against corrosion.

Metals can undergo oxidation from components of the atmosphere. As well, components of the atmosphere can cause corrosion on metals. During corrosion, a metal gains electrons, while during the oxidation of metals by atmospheric components, the metal loses electrons. For example, aluminum undergoes oxidation to form a layer of aluminum...

Suppose there were one sodium cation and one chlorine atom in a (very) small box, and you added one electron to this (very) small box. Both the sodium cation and the chlorine atom need only one more electron to achieve an electron octet in their valence shell. Where would the electron go: to the sodium cation or the chlorine atom?

Suppose there were one sodium cation and one chlorine atom in a (very) small box, and you added one electron to this (very) small box. The added atom goes to the chlorine atom. This is because for chorine to achieve stability, it requires one electron, while the sodium cation requires...

Name and describe four types of water pollution. Explain how each damages aquatic life.

There are different types of water pollution, including nutrients pollution, surface water pollution, oxygen depletion, and groundwater pollution, among others. Groundwater pollution refers to the pollution of water as a result of the application of chemicals and other pesticides to the soils, which happens when it rains. These chemicals poison...

In Directive Annex V, five processes for producing ethanol from wheat are considered. The default values for GHG emission reductions are between 16 and 69%. Explain why? What is the difference between the different production pathways?

The default GHG emission reductions differ among the various processes. However, the BIOGRACE excel file shows that the emissions in all these processes are equivalent apart from the ethanol plant. For instance, in the production of steam from lignite, a large amount of emissions is realized thereby lowering the GHG...

What is the current outlook for nationwide air quality? Which regions currently have a poor air quality forecast? Look up the current data or forecast for your area. Summarize your findings.

National-wide, the air quality is moderate with a 51-100 air quality index. The regions with poor air quality forecast in the United States of America are California, Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington, and Oregon. The current air quality in Ohio, where I am currently staying, is 48.2, which is unhealthy, and it...

Discuss, why iodine-131 is the radionuclide that usually results in the largest risk from short-lived radionuclides to the public as a result of a reactor accident or other nuclear criticality accident with releases to the environment.

When the short-lived iodine splits, there is the formation of thyroid cells. When these cells collect or combine into one, they form iodide, which is as radioactive as the initial component material. The particles that result from these lines, form unstable radioiodine, which can cause delayed effects and chronic and...

Discuss: Why Do Generic Drugs Cost Less?

Discuss generic drugs. What does it mean for something to be ‘generic’? In the pharmaceutical industry, what does it mean for something to be a generic drug? Why do generic drugs cost less? Compared to the ‘name’ brands, comment on their effectiveness, and any potential problems that come from using...

How Do Circumstances Influence Chemical Experiments?

Design a series of experiments that demonstrate the effect of temperature, concentration, and surface area on reaction rates. Describe what temperature, surface area, and concentration are. Explain how differences in temperature, concentration, and suffice area affect reaction rates. Explain what Collison theory is and how it relates to the experiment.

Insufficient Iodine and its Effect on the Thyroid

Find an article that links chemistry to a current issue in healthcare or the environment. There are many “Chemistry in Everyday Life” topics, write a brief summary of the article. Focus on Insufficient Iodine and its Effect on the Thyroid. Find an article that links a topic we’ve covered in...

Investigate Water as a Solvent

Observe what happens to two different solutes when added to water and then filtered. In 1st person past tense, write a summary of what you actually did in performing the experiment. Be sure to include any modifications. You should include enough detail so that someone could reproduce the experiment based...

Briefly define the following airborne materials, and provide two examples of how each is generated: dust, fumes, smoke, aerosols, mists, gases, and vapors.

The following are definitions for airborne various materials: dust, fumes, smoke, aerosols, mists, gases, and vapors. Dust – solid particles produced by applying significant mechanical force to separate them from an object, such as wooden dust from drilling or sawing or minuscule pieces of metal from hammering or friction. Fumes...

Describe turbidity, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. How are they different? What is the usefulness of knowing the concentration of each of them?

Despite the fact that the tap water undergoes significant filtering prior to its release into the system, people need to know what contaminants it can contain, what they can cause, and what their origin is. Turbidity is an observable determinant of water quality, which represents the number of particles that...

What were the key differences between Keynes theory of income determination and that of the classical economists? Why did Keynes think that the market system could break down?

The main difference is about the national income and the level of full employment. According to the Keynesian theory of income determination, the national income determination equilibrium may be reached at less than full employment. Also, the level of total spending is not always equal to total income. Hence, workers...

Discuss systems reengineering and how it is performed.

People generally use different forms of information in their day-to-day life. Their accessibility to information through digital media is also gaining much importance in various fields like office, library, and industries. In developing a system, it should be kept in mind that it is designed to satisfy the needs of...

Research the bicarbonate buffering system found in the bloodstream. Write a paragraph or two discussing this system and how your breathing rate can cause acidosis and alkalosis.

The bicarbonate buffering system comprises weak carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions. Its function is to regulate the pH of the blood. When any acidic substance enters the blood, hydrogen ions are neutralized by the formation of carbonic acid and water. Given that carbonic acid is already part of the buffer...

Consider the following situation: a. A cell contains 3 Na+, 7 K+, and 10 H2O molecules. b. The extracellular fluid contains 7 Na+, 3 K+, and 10 H2O molecules. c. All ions create equal osmotic pressure. d. The cell membrane is impermeable to the diffusion of both Na+ and K+ but is completely permeable to H2O. If 3 Na+ move from the ICF out if the ECF, then a. Is the ECF now isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic to the ICF? b. How must the Na+ have gotten outside the cell? c. If osmosis is also going to occur, in which direction will the net movement of water be?

If three sodium ions move from the ICF into the ECF, the ECF is now hypertonic to the ICF. The sodium ion got out of the cell through the sodium-potassium pump, which is a membrane-associated protein channel that uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions against their concentration gradient....

Explain why dislocations move more easily in metallic bonded, compared to ionic or covalently bonded crystals and why this requires a far lower stress than the theoretical strength of a crystal.

Covalently bonded crystals’ dislocation motion is limited due to the high strength and the highly directional nature of bonds (between the core and localized bonds). In the ionic bonded crystal, the same is less directional (between positive ions and negative ions), and any slip is restricted, but while in metallically...

Why do some creatures form fossils and others don’t?

It is important to keep in mind that only those creatures that have solid elements in their bodies (e.g., a skeleton, a shield, etc.) can form fossils. According to the mechanism of fossils creation, it is necessary that the cavity created by the decayed solid elements of the organism should...

a. What atmospheric gas is produced by the interaction of sunlight and nitric oxide (NO)? b. Are forests more or less dense in the Pacific Northwest region than 200 years ago? c. Explain the effects of acid rain on the forests in this region.

a. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2). b. As compared to 200 years ago, the forests in the Pacific Northwest have become denser. c. Acidic rainfall results from the burning of fossil fuels and mainly coal. This leads to the emission of sulfur into the atmosphere in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2)....

118 different elements have been recognized in chemistry. Out of those only 25 are involved in our body structures and functions. Which are the most and least important ones and why?

I believe that the most important chemical elements found in the human body are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. This is because these elements make up the vast share of substances and components that are essential for our body to function. For example, hydrogen allows for the creation of hydrogen...

What is smog? List the gasses.

Smog can be defined as a mixture of gases and very small solid or liquid particles, also known as particulate matter. Smog consists of such gases as ozone, oxides of nitrogen, Sulphur dioxide, and NOx.

What role does dancing play in Pride & Prejudice?

In “Pride and Prejudice”, dance performs as the setting for some social rituals. Like that of courtship, for example. Dance enables people to learn and socialize with each other. It goes this way both in the novel and in real life. Especially when it comes to the Victorian era. It...

a. Explain the use of Kroger-Vink notation to describe the formation of and interactions between point defects in solids. What rules must be followed in constructing defect chemical equations? b. Using the Kroger-Vink notation, write defect chemical equations representing the following reduction/oxidation reactions: 1. The reduction of TiO2, with the formation of oxygen vacancies and electrons. 2. The reduction of TiO2, with the formation of titanium interstitials and electrons. 3. The oxidation of TiO2, with the formation of titanium vacancies and electron holes. 4. The oxidation of TiO2, with the formation of oxygen interstitials and electron holes. c. For each of the reactions (1) to (4) above, explain whether the electronic conductivity is expected to change as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. d. 1. Construct defect chemical equations to describe the dissolution of Sb2O5 in TiO2, with charge compensation by either titanium vacancies of free electrons. 2. In a similar way, write defect chemical equations to describe the dissolution of MgO in TiO2, with charge compensation by either oxygen vacancies or electron holes.

a. The anion (more electronegative) component in an ionic compound is typically a nonmetallic element and designated as X. The cation (more electropositive) component is a metallic element and designated as M. A vacant lattice site is designated as V. Atoms or ions can occupy cation (M) sites, anion (X)...

a. Outline the principles of Pauling’s 5 rules for predicting the crystal structures of ionic solids. b. Show how Pauling’s rules can be used, together with the data give in Tables 1 and 2, to explain the crystal structure of Na2O, which is based on an fcc array of oxide ions. Draw a schematic diagram showing a unit cell of this structure. Explain which interstitial sites are occupied by the Na+ ions. c. Sketch a plan view of the Na2O unit cell, marking on your diagram the height of all ions present. d. Calculate a theoretical value for the density of Na2O, given that the relative atomic masses of sodium and oxygen are 22.99 and 16.00 respectively.

a. The rules of Pauling’s relating crystal structures are: bonding strength, coordination of the polyhedral, linkage for polyhedral, cation evasion, environment homogeneity. b. Na2O When two sodium atoms combine to form a molecule, they share two electrons. Each atom then has a complete shell of eight electrons. The electron structure...

Uncovered lightbulbs may expose food to which type of hazard?

Uncovered lightbulbs may expose food to physical and chemical hazard. Explanation: Food safety is concerns with a variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, and physical. Biological hazards occur due to bacteria, viruses, parasites, and mold in products, which lead to foodborne illness. Chemical hazards happen when toxic chemicals or allergens...

Which of the following is true about energy drinks and mixers a) Carbonation generally slows the rate of alcohol absorption b) A sweet taste can hide the taste of alcohol c) Caffeine helps keep the person aware of how intoxicated he or she is d) All of the above?

A sweet taste can hide the taste of alcohol so answer B is the correct one. Explanation: Most of the energy drinks that people use as mixers are very sweet because they contain a lot of artificial sweeteners. These help to hide the taste of alcohol and makes drinking easier...

Why are proteins considered polymers but lipids not?

Proteins are polymers because they consist of long sequences of amino acids. Lipids have a single structure formed by glycerol and three fatty acids. Explanation: A monomer is a molecule that can attach itself to other monomers, thus forming a more complex structure. A large molecule that is composed of...