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Why did different people interpret the events at Chauri Chaura differently? What about people-race, class, gender, or other factors- caused them to have different views of the events?

The work “Event, Metaphor, Memory: Chauri Chaura, 1922-1992” by Shahid Amin unveils the history behind the Chauri Chaura incident and its impact on Indian nationalism. But Chauri Chaura incident is interpreted by different historians in different forms. Some historians argue that the incident must be considered as the outburst of...

Discuss America in 1492.

In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain and discovered the “New World.” Columbus led three ships Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria, on August 3, 1492. He was set to sail west, aiming for Asia or the Indies, where tales of gold, pearls, and spice originated. He stopped in the Canary...

Discuss Trades in the Era of Asian Hegemony.

The era of Asian hegemony is attributed to the rise of Japan as an empire in Asia. In the late 1800s, a group of revolutionary samurai from Choshu, Satsuma, and Tosa from south-western Japan toppled the Shogunate. This followed the creation of a new Westernized form of government in Japan....

Discuss the European Middle Age.

European history, according to Flavio Biondo, is divided into three time zones: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Modern Times. The years included begins from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the start of the Early Modern Period (16th century). This...

Do you believe E. A. Ritter, the writer of “Shaka Zulu,” was objective? Why or why not? How can you use the language in this text to determine the writer’s feelings about Shaka?

There are several European writers that provided narratives about Shaka. Shaka’s reign, as well as the story, was revised by recent scholarly studies. Nathaniel Isaacs, aided by Henry Francis Fynn, are two of the earlier eyewitness on the Shaka adventures. They are white adventurer-traders who met Shaka in his last...

Who was Zwide? How did Zwide’s actions affect Shaka’s future?

After his father died in 1816, Shaka Zulu started his crusade to obtain power over other Zulu clans. Due to his childhood experience, it became his obsession to get even with his enemies as a child—many experienced fatal punishments in his conquest. If Shaka’s enemies could not name a time...

What is Zululand and what is the origin of Shaka Zulu?

Zululand is a portion of northern KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. It extends from the Indian Ocean coast to Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north. The origin of Shaka Zulu is traced back to the story of an illegitimate son of the chieftain Senzangakona to...

What were the economic effects of the plagues? For example, how did they affect people’s household and disposable incomes? Their business enterprises? Was everyone in places hit by the plagues affected equally?

The plagues made it possible for poor working-class types to move up in ranks for the first time in their lives. So many workers died in the cities that people living in the country areas became more highly sought after for their services, thus rendering them higher wage earners than...

What are the differences between the Holy Roman Empire, the Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Western Roman Empire, and the Byzantine Empire, and which do you think will be most important in this course?

The Holy Roman Empire was a political entity that existed in much of Europe (specifically Germany) from 962 – 1806. The Roman Empire was a nearly five-hundred-year stage of Roman rule, during which Rome controlled most of what is today called Europe. The Western Roman Empire was the western section...

What is Europe? What is a European?

Europe is a continent located between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; it is made up of 49 countries, ranging from Germany, France, and England to smaller countries like Estonia and Vatican City. A “European” is one who lives within one of the countries of the E.U; this can mean very...

Describe and evaluate Native Americans’ perspectives on life. This may be from a particular tribe or more generally. You may include such aspects of the environment, health, the family, religion and diet.

Native American’s culture and perception of life issues have gone through many changes since the onset of European contact. On an environmental perspective, Native Americans of the Colorado region have attitudes and values that define their perspective on environmental issues like forests, water, agriculture, mining and pollution, settlement among others....

Explain Rituals of consumption during 18th century.

Tea drinking as a ritual of consumption played a significant role to the Anglo- Americans during the 18th Century after tea was introduced by Dutch traders. America thereby turned into one of the largest consumer of tea in the world. The consumption of tea was a ritual that was elitist...

Describe the James Oglethorpe Biography

He was a British philanthropist and Colonialist. He was born in the year 1696 in London and he was educated at Oxford University. In 1722 he was elected to the House of Commons and he was very interested in prisons reforms and alleviated the conditions of prisoners especially those prisoned...

Explain King George’s War

It was the third of the four North American wars and was waged by the French and the British from the year 1744 to the year 1748. The two European countries had irreconcilable differences over the control of North America. The treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle marked the end of the war...

Explain German Immigrants History

By the year 1700, many Germans were migrating to other European nations, Western Hemisphere, and Australia seeking an easier life due to extremely violent conditions. In 1709 about 3000 Germans crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Europe and arrived in New York. Many other Germans followed and most of them lived...

Explain Scotch-Irish Immigrants History

It was the most numerous and widespread immigration to America by non-English immigrants. They mostly settled in New England. Later they were encouraged to settle in Massachusetts in order to create a barrier against the Indians. The migration was motivated by both economic and religious reasons. The migration to America...

Explain African Immigrants History

These were people from Africa who migrated to America. The migration was either forced or free. In the Transatlantic Trade Africans were taken to America to be sold as slaves. The most important was the so called Middle Passage from African to America, where the Africans were much traumatized because...

Explain the 18th-century colonial population growth

In 18th century colonial America, there was a diverse and complex society. In the entire North America which included The South, The North, and the Mid-Atlantic, social classes were quite different from each other because of the natural environment and social policy.

How did European politics, economics and society change between 1450 and 1650? Did new political orders emerge? Did new social orders emerge? Did new economic orders emerge? How and why did they emerge?

During 1450-1650, the Papacy lost its authority and power over the life of the state (in the 17th century). The new social order was marked by the strong power of the ruler and the military strength of the sovereign. The political order was marked by the emergence of nation-states. Such...

Regarding the book “Founding Brothers” by Ellis, how did the friendship illuminate issues related to the meaning of the American Revolution? Put another way, what did the revolution mean to whom?

Ellis supposes that Adams could have understood that Jefferson would take a bigger place in history as far as his name is remembered as the name of the person who compiled the Declaration of Independence in 1776. That is why the initiative for restoring the friendship, which came from Adams,...

What did the farewell have to do with foreign policy?

It was a letter to the nation by George Washington, who refused from the third term as a president and formulated the basics of the future foreign policies of the US after his resignation. The main initiatives expressed by Washington were directed at being neutral from the European events and...

According to proslavery forces, what practical impediments precluded abolition?

According to the position of the proslavery forces, the need for the development of the country was the main reason that could not allow the abolition of slavery. Drawing from this and being afraid of the possible reaction of the financially powerful Southern States, Congress adopted the decision never to...

What did the American Revolution mean for the institution of slavery?

American Revolution, and in particular one of its ideologists Benjamin Franklin, tried to emancipate the slaves claiming that all people are equal before God. The Revolution was a chance for slavery to end the centuries of suffering, but the political interests of certain forces, namely the Southern states where all...

Why did the dinner discussed in “Founding Brothers” by Ellis matter?

As a result of the talk, Madison became the supporter of Hamilton, who in his turn promised to do his best to adopt the building of the national capital of the country in the South represented by Madison. The importance of the dinner must not be underestimated as far as...

Why did the duel matter in the history of the early American republic?

The duel mattered because it was not just the attempt to clear up the relations between two people but the reflection of the conflict and uncertainty that were the dominant qualities of the society in the early Republic. The struggle of the forces that were united during the War of...

What distinguished the American Revolution from others?

The major peculiarity of the American Revolution was the fact that it differed significantly from all other revolutions in its aim and in the way in which it was formed. Usually, a revolution appears as a planned rebellion against the regime that does not satisfy the needs and does not...

While Roman artists tended to adopt the style of Greek and Hellenistic craftsmen, especially in sculpture, the Romans tended to use art for a very different purpose and to express a different set of values. Discuss the ways in which Roman artistic values differed from Greek values. Discuss at least three examples from the arts lecture to illustrate your points.

Throughout history, art has been used to articulate the cultural values and the structure of the society of the various civilizations. The Romans were very much realistic in their artistic works. Through art, they produced things like paintings, sculptures, pottery, mosaic work, and other forms of art. These works of...

The Hellenistic age represents a radical departure from the naturalism and idealism of the Classical period. What were the political, social, and intellectual forces that contributed to changing trends in the arts? Choose three examples of art from the art lecture and explain how they illustrate a rapidly changing cultural outlook in the Hellenistic age.

During the classical period, the fact that the Romans were dominating proved to be very influential in art and architecture. The philosophies of naturalism and idealism shaped the culture and all aspects of life in this period. From an intellectual point of view, there emerged the need to articulate the...

What were the intellectual values that drove the development of art and architecture in Classical Greece? Choose three examples and explain how these reflect the classical ideal that evolved in the fifth century.

Classical Greece refers to the time in the history of the Greeks when they were advanced in terms of culture and other aspects of their social, political, and economic affairs. During the classical period, Greece had many scientists, philosophers, and artists who influenced the life of the Greeks in terms...

Egyptian art was a practical craft that was expected to be able to magically create a reality for the deceased in the afterlife. Discuss how the Egyptians understood the function of art and images for the benefit of the dead. Next discuss thoroughly at least three examples of art or architecture from the arts lecture and explain how their significance to Egyptian religion and how they were expected to function.

In ancient Egypt, the dead were accorded respect just like the living. Symbolism was a very dominant style in the culture of the Egyptians and it was affected using the various forms of art. Art was used by the Egyptians to reflect the relationship between the living and the dead....

How does Mesopotamian art and architecture illustrate the close relationship between the state (kingship and the city) and the gods and demonstrate that the state was essentially a religious institution? Discuss carefully (do not just list) three examples to illustrate your point.

Art, architecture, and traditions are among the oldest in the history of mankind. It is also in these lands of Tigris and Euphrates that the earliest civilization in the world emerged. Art and architecture formed a very significant component of the culture of the people in Mesopotamia in terms of...

The Roman legacy to the Western tradition was the vision of a world state bound together by common law and effective government. What were the major political, cultural, and intellectual achievements of the Roman Republic? What impact did Roman expansion, particularly in Greece, have on Roman culture? What conditions led to the collapse of the Republic? Use examples from the primary source readings (Roman Law, Plutarch’s Gaius Gracchus, Suetonius’ Julius Caesar, Cicero’s On the Laws, and Tacitus’ Annals) to illustrate your points.

The Roman empire is said to have been the most successful in ancient times as a result of good political, economic, social, and cultural organization.The Roman Empire achieved civilization because of a strong army, which provided the backbone for conquering more lands and acquiring wealth and other forms of civilization....

To what does the term Hellenistic Age refer and in what ways is that period distinct from the Hellenic Age? How did Alexander the Great’s conquests change the ancient world? What new political, social, and intellectual trends and outlooks emerged in the Hellenistic Age? How are the various those trends illustrated by the trends and outlooks illustrated in each of the readings from Epicurus, Plutarch’s Alexander, Cato the Elder, and Marcus Aurileus?

The development of art and architecture in classical Greece was due to political, cultural, and intellectual factors. Intellectual factors are mainly concerned with the minds and philosophies that drove the people to come up with various forms of art. During the period, the Greeks called them classic because their way...

Perry asserts that the Greeks were the first to consistently apply reason to the study of the physical world and all human activities. Discuss how Greek philosophy, art, literature, and historical thought exemplify the Greek movement toward a rational analysis of the world and the human condition. Use examples from the primary source readings on Homer, Plato and Aristotle, Thucydides’ Melian Dialogue, Sophocles’ Antigone.

In the history of mankind, the Greeks were the first people to apply reason in the study of the physical world and human beings through their art architecture, philosophy, historical thought so they become the first ever to think rationally. The Greek architecture consisted of buildings that were found in...

The Hebrews arose out the cultural milieu of the ancient Near East. Explain the unique features of the Hebrew/Jewish religious tradition as it evolved in the ancient Near East, and discuss important events that may have contributed to the development of Hebrew religion. Your answer should address the importance of each of the following: the nature of God; the idea of covenant; the nature of the law; the influence of the Prophets; and the dignity of the individual. Demonstrate an understanding of the readings by using examples from the source readings of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus or Deuteronomy, Amos or Isaiah, and the Psalms or Job to illustrate your points.

Judaism was the religion of the Jewish people. It was a monotheistic belief system based on the ethics and principles that are found in the Jewish bible. According to history, the religion began when God had a covenant with Abraham. The Hebrews considered their belief to be a divine revelation...

Were women’s roles in the home, society, and workforce during the Industrial Revolution an influence on their push for more rights? How and why?

The industrial revolution had a significant impact on the position of the American woman, allowing her to participate more actively in the social and political life of the country. Despite the predominant preservation of the domestic nature of women’s lives, they gradually became more independent. Women were ready to do...

Discuss the role of women’s organizations in the late 1800s. What were their strengths and weaknesses? Were all women receptive to vociferous advocacy? Was it proper for a woman to speak her mind?

The patriarchal structure of most communities suggested that women and men perform different social functions, and accordingly gave them different sets of rights and obligations. Women were usually dependent on their father or husband, and therefore their property and civil rights, including the right to vote and to be elected,...

Would you argue that Mao ruled the country as a “Red Emperor?”

Mao Zedong was focused on eliminating almost all the elements of the previous regime and the social order to promote the principles of Marxism and Socialism in the country. As a result, Mao and his supporters were able to start the Cultural Revolution and overcome the barriers to creating a...

Describe the significance of the Contras in relation to Latin American Revolution.

The Contras was a counterrevolutionary movement that opposed the socialist Sandinistas. It was supported mainly by the US, as the members of the Contras’ groups were trained and armed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The US was involved in many conflicts in the Latin American region, encouraging the military...

Describe the significance of Fidel Castro in relation to Latin American Revolution.

Fidel Castro was a Cuban politician who started a revolutionary movement to overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. After making Batista leave the country in 1959, Fidel Castro took power and continued to govern Cuba until 2008. Under his rule, the revolution was declared to be Marxist-Leninist, and Castro repressed...

Analyze one revolution in Latin America. To what degree did the success of the revolution depend on the leader? What ideologies/actions did the leader employ to bring about success?

The revolution in Guatemala (1944-1954) can be viewed as an example of a revolt in which a comparably strong position of a leader could not contribute to positive outcomes for guerillas. In the case of this revolution, the problem was in the impact and intentions of other powerful forces like...

Discuss an example of war without revolution. How can a society experience organized violence without producing political, economic or social upheaval? What elements of revolution are missing from your example that illustrates your conclusions?

Among civil wars, it is rather problematic to find an example of a conflict not associated with revolutionary transformations. An example of the war without a revolution in World War II because not all countries involved in this military conflict experienced significant changes in their political regimes. Furthermore, World War...

What opportunities does China have to learn from the progress made in quality in Japan and the West over the past half-century?

Some of the most important lessons China can learn from Japan and the West are associated with total quality management and employees’ empowerment. Japanese and Western companies have learned to benefit from the distribution of power among employees and flat hierarchy that contribute to employees’ high performance, motivation, and commitment....

In the Plunkett article “Of Hype and Type: The Media Making of Queen Victoria 1837 -1845,” there is a quote from Queen Victoria comparing herself to common women of the time. Do you agree or disagree with her premise? Explain your answer.

In her quote, Queen Victoria compared herself to common women so that the latter had an opportunity to lead a private life while all aspects of her life were a matter of public interest. In particular, she complains: “Every lady in the country has a private home but myself. The...

How do you like Anne Cooper Funderberg’s book “Chocolate, Strawberry and Vanilla: A History of American Ice Cream”? Did you notice that this book was very different from the others we read? If yes, then how. If not, then what are the similar and comparable themes?

The book “Chocolate, Strawberry and Vanilla: A History of American Ice Cream” was interesting, and I liked it. As Funderburg, the author of the book, notes, the history of cookery is generally omitted from scholarly discussions, and the book suggests that the opposite approach may be justified. Learning about the...

It takes individual effort and time to develop effective writing skills, especially in a field like history with specific style conventions. Do you think of yourself as a writer? How do you intend to develop your own skills during your time? What suggestions can you provide your peers? How does history writing differ from writing in other academic disciplines?

As well as any other sphere of research or study, history requires accurate reflection of its events and the description of key stages of some processes that would be both precise and not boring to read. In this respect, every historian is a writer who makes sure that what they...

Discuss the differences between literary and academic history writing. What problems do academic historians have with popular historians’ writing and presentation of history? Do you agree with their critiques? Do you think a balance can be struck between the literary style of popular history and the standards and conventions of academic history?

Both academic and popular historians make a considerable contribution to the development of people’s interest in history. However, the approaches employed by each of the two groups of researchers are quite dissimilar. Academic authors investigating and writing about historical events need to base their works on certain practices and conventions....

Compare the differences between the technological advancements and industrial development in Eastern and Western Europe from 1963-1980. How did this impact the economic strength of the two?

In 1963-1980, the industrial development in Western and Eastern Europe was quite disparate. While Western European countries experience economic improvements, Easter Europe was struggling due to the complications brought about by the communist regime. Several countries did not manage to provide their citizens with the most necessary things. People were...

Pop Culture exploded in 1960s Western Europe. Why might the Eastern European authorities have been concerned about things like this? What were some of the pop culture trends and why did these phenomena offer a threat to authorities? Which trends produced lasting changes?

One of the most widely known explosions of the 1960s in Western Europe was that of pop culture. The development of radio increased the opportunities for sharing information, which led to young people’s growing interest in popular trends. New possibilities were opening for Europeans due to “rising seas of new...

Read “Reflections on the Civil War” by McCardell. List, critique, and compare some of the differing scholarly historical interpretations covered on this debate. Develop your own interpretative statement on the debate and critique each other’s interpretations.

The debate over the title that might serve as a synonym to Civil War involves numerous historical interpretations. The differences in suggested definitions depend on which side of the conflict one supports or which of the causes one finds the most justified. Hence, apart from the title ‘the Civil War,’...

How do you think you should balance a Christian worldview or a general moral sense of justice with proper historical detachment in describing and explaining the past? Devise some guidelines and give an example of how you might enact them when discussing a morally “dark” act in the past.

The highest level of professionalism in any sphere incorporates the ability to remain morally detached from the subject one is investigating or interpreting. No matter how a researcher feels about some issue, it is necessary to reflect only the objective information and not give way to one’s subjective feelings or...

Read “The Good, the Bad, and the Phony: Six Famous Historians and Their Critics.” What are the major errors assessed by the critics of these famous historians? How did they violate certain ethical standards of history as a discipline, specifically regarding documentation? Explain how the charges of plagiarism might have been avoided through adherence to the complex requirements of source credit and through more careful research methods.

The major errors assessed by the critics in the famous historians involve the issues of plagiarism, fabrication, incompetence, and shallowness. Each of the six distinguished connoisseurs who had relished readers’ and scholars’ appreciation for decades made some unforgivable mistakes that could not be easily forgotten in the academic world. For...

What were the advantages and disadvantages of decolonization on Britain, France, and their colonies? Why did colonization unravel so quickly after WWII?

During WWII, colonies were highly important for the allies because they allowed enhancing human resources and keeping additional military bases. However, after the war, numerous nationalist rebellions in colonies rose. As a result of losing such insurgencies, Britain and France, once-powerful empires, had no choice but to grant independence to...

At Yalta and Potsdam, influence in Europe began to be divided among the Allied Powers. What happened after these initial meetings that contributed to further division and the eventual Cold War?

When World War II ended, the Allies’ main concern shifted from defeating Hitler to dividing the power on the territories that had been liberated. The two major decision-makers in the process were the Soviet Union and the Western allies, the USA being the most influential of them. As a result...

The Staunton Vindicator newspaper, available on the Valley of the Shadow site, was a prosecession, proslavery Southern newspaper. Pull out and post one selection that could be used to support an argument that the maintenance of slavery was major motivation and one selection that emphasizes states’ rights as the major cause.

When discussing the main cause of the Civil War, researchers largely focus on two aspects: slavery and states’ rights. The Staunton Vindicator newspaper offers the reflection of the main events in the State of Virginia before the war, which allows pointing out issues illustrating both identified problems. The newspaper issue...

Pick one primary source from the Valley of the Shadow database and apply your process of source criticism. In what research context would this source be helpful and appropriate, and what kind of use would render it a poor or inappropriate source?

Prior to exploiting resources in one’s research work, it is crucial to undertake the task of assessing their credibility and usefulness. The process of evaluation requires a thorough review and analysis of the work. Taking a primary source from the Valley of the Shadow database will allow demonstrating the process...

Do some background reading on the causes of the American Civil War. Pick one historical factor that influenced the context and causation of the war and write a paragraph describing and emphasizing its role in particular leading up to the war. Which one do you think played a bigger role? Was its importance overstated? Was there interplay between the two emphasized factors?

Finding the reasons for significant historical events is not an easy matter. Such a process requires substantial evidence and its analysis, as well as the process of evaluating each cause and considering its importance as related to others. The American Civil War was one of the most crucial events in...

What caused the European nations to get to the point where they viewed war as virtuous pursuit? Contrast the European countries’ outlook on war before and after WWI. Give specific examples of their attitudes before and after the war.

The views of Europeans regarding WWI before and after the conflict differed significantly. In 1914, many intelligent Europeans and representatives of upper social classes were inclined to discuss WWI as a “virtuous pursuit” because of their specific beliefs and assumptions related to the war. One of the causes to make...

Explain the concept of “Total War.” Give examples of what aspects of WWI qualified it to be the first “Total War.” Why is it significant that war had changed in this way?

Total war is a specific form of a worldwide conflict when all nations’ resources are used to guarantee a country’s victory in this war. Thus, the focus is on the active mobilization of all human and material resources to address the military needs of a nation during wartime. Additionally, the...