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How could a well-run peasant home contribute to a prosperous family?

Most people were peasants who worked on and with the land. Nearly 90% of the population in Western Europe worked the fields, orchards, and woodlots for a living. These men and women worked for others and had few prospects of becoming independent. Their lives were filled with hard and sweaty...

What innovations in the middle Ages may have improved agricultural productivity?

Manorial agriculture was well-developed in the middle Ages. Productivity was improved with the invention of the iron-tipped plow in the twelfth century. This new equipment could plow even the heaviest soils, and it opened up whole new regions to grain productivity. Another major achievement was the introduction of the padded...

How did Gothic churches try to convey the majesty of God?

The Gothic churches still remain the most impressive example of late medieval art forms. The Gothic churches demonstrate the ability to project a vision of life into the concrete artistic format. The beauty and great power are presented in the architecture of the Gothic churches. The churches were the most...

What did the United States’ conquest and occupation of the Philippians look like?

February 4, 1899, went down in the history of the Philippines as the beginning of a war with the United States. The barely born Philippine Republic entered into an unequal struggle with the most potent imperialist power, possessing multiple military and economic superiority. From the course and nature of military...

How might Mongol rule have spread the plague during the 14th century? How did rulers like Hayam Wuruk in Java and Ibn Tughluq in India profit from the decline of Mongol power? Why did the fading of the Mongol threat lead to political instability in Japan?

Rats were plague carriers that accompanied Mongol troops during their military campaigns, and they brought the plague to China. As the Mongols managed to establish their rule in the greater part of Eurasia, they encouraged long-distance trade and caravans brought the plague to different regions. With the decline of Mongol...

Explain the economic changes in the United States since 1970 and their impact on consumerism and the American workforce. How has this been a period of rising inequality, economic distress, and constraints on working Americans?

The 1970s relates to the postwar era that marked the end of economic expansion and consumer prosperity and setting in of the recession. The US experienced a bottleneck competition from overseas, which led to the decline of the American Industry. After the war, there was a rise in movements calling...

Describe the merits and demerits of machine age.

The machine age which has been coupled with the use of computers has aptly brought mixed fortunes. We all acknowledge that it is out of human intelligence that computers came into being. One major positive implication of the growing technology is that information can be stored, processed, retrieved and transmitted...

Why does Plutarch emphasize Alexander’s self-discipline?

Plutarch repeatedly emphasizes Alexander’s self-restraint to demonstrate his exceptional moral virtue. Indeed, Alexander never associated with any of the women from his conquered territories. What is more, he tended to ignore his female prisoners, eager to demonstrate “has chastity and self-control”. In such a manner, Alexander aspired to display his...

According to Plutarch, was Alexander an educated man?

Alexander was highly educated and literate, and Plutarch provides several proofs for this fact. First of all, his father paid much attention to his training. Philip understood that his son’s education “was too important to be entrusted to the ordinary run of teachers”. Instead of limiting Alexander’s training to general...

Please discuss your thoughts on the actions taken by the colonists between 1760-1775 in the Pre-Revolutionary Era. Be sure to keep in mind that not all colonists were rebelling against the mother country. Would you have been a loyalist or a patriot? What would your actions have been if you lived during this time and why?

The Pre-revolution of 1760-1775 was a 15-year upheaval before the American Revolution against England’s colony and policies. The revolution was a great milestone in ending slavery and establishing a more stable republic guided by policies and legislation acceptable to all. The revolt began after the end of the Seven Year...

What were the Roosevelts roles as an imperialist?

At the beginning of the 20th century, the world entered the era of imperialism or monopoly capitalism. And as an advantage, the president of the United States was one of the main ideologists of imperialism. Roosevelt was the first to say that the United States’ interests go far beyond being...

Describe the era of critique and criticism of consumerism and mass society from the late 1950s through the early 1970s. How did intellectuals, the counterculture, and consumer advocates critique consumerism and usher in an era of regulation, reform, and environmental awareness?

During the 1950s, the US experienced increasing attention to the concept of consumerism and protectionism. Because of the growing consumerisms, critics emerged to counter the concept. The period during the 1950s through 60s saw the increased critique of the mass society and consumerism, arguing that it was entirely stultifying, corrosive,...

What were the European motives for expansion and colonization in the New World?

European expansion and colonization of the new world is a process motivated by a variety of factors. Overall, the evaluation of the situation shows that Europeans were motivated by such major factors as territorial expansion; the desire to spread their religious beliefs around the earth along with a goal of...

What surviving strategies were in the different colonial transplantations in Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts Bay?

Discussing the different colonial transplantations that occurred in Virginia, Maryland, and Massachusetts Bay, it is important to mention that the leaders of communities occupying these territories developed their own strategies of managing their surviving strategies. Some of them became more successful, and some appeared to be disastrous. The transplantation in...

What were the motives that prompted various European groups to migrate to America?

The beginning of European migration with Americans resulted in numerous factors such as escaping political subjugation, seeking freedom of religion, searching for opportunities they were rejected at home. In the early 16th century, economic challenges rocked England. Many people, even trained artisans, were unemployed and had poor living standards. In...

What were the differences between indentured servitude and slavery?

Throughout the seventeenth century, indentured servitude and slavery contributed significantly to the expansion of the colonial economy. Before the Indian and the French war, the American colonies mainly ruled themselves and had a relatively healthy economy. Despite their success in political matters, the colonists urgently needed help with work as...

What is the argument of Robin Osborne’s article, “Law, the Democratic Citizen and the Representation of Women in Classical Athens.”? Specifically, what claim does he make about the rationale for the Citizenship Law of Perikles and the impact of this law on funerary art in fifth-century Greece?

Robin Osborne in his article “Law, the democratic citizen and the representation of women in classical Athens”; starts by arguing that the qualification for Athenian citizenship was to be based on the descent of individuals from both an Athenian Mother and father. The reasons for the author’s argument in this...

How did the climate change and age of plagues that began during the 14th century affect Western Europe, China, and the Islamic world? Why did peasants in China and Europe embrace millenarian ideas?

The climate changes brought bad harvest and famine, and in complex with plague, it brought depopulation of many regions. Many peasants in China and Europe supported millenarian ideas as they thought that the weather was “a whiplash” while the plague was “a scourge” of God, they were divine punishment for...

What part of the globe did plague and climate cause the most harm during the 14th century? Why was geographic isolation an advantage during the age of plague? Why was Mali under Mansa Musa so rich and powerful?

Chinese empire lost about 25 million people because of the plague, so did Europe too. Geographic isolation was the perfect measure of precaution against plague as infection could not spread there. Such trading kingdoms as Ghana and Mali were prosperous when Europe was devastated as they sold such expensive goods...

What is the argument of Brent Shaw’s article, “Seasons of Death: Aspects of Mortality in Imperial Rome”? Specifically, what claim does he make about seasonal mortality in the Roman world, and what kind of sources provide him with the evidence to make this claim?

According to Brent, mortality in the imperial Roman society was seasonal and indicative that most deaths took place during the late summer term and within the early fall season. He further accounts that these deaths took place across the major age groups that include men and women below the age...

Why is it difficult or impossible to understand the medical causes of the Black Death? What did West Europeans and Muslims believe caused the plague and how did they try to treat it?

First, modern perception of diseases differs from their perception by people of the fourteenth century. They could observe different symptoms, use different words to describe them. Second, diseases also change and what we know to be plague could be different diseases in the fourteenth century. People thought poisonous vapors caused...

Who were “winners” and “losers” in the plague years? Why did many Europeans blame the Jews for the Black Death? How did the status of upper-class women change in Western Europe and Japan during the 14th century?

Jews were the losers during the age of plague as they were accused of the start of the plague by means of poisoning the wells. Still, there were also “winners” of the age of plague: wealthy women in Europe. As there was high demand for young women who could give...

Describe the British colonization of America and its results.

The British colonization of the North American region spans from the late 16th century, these colonies were located in the north, central and south America, including the Caribbean islands. These colonies had religious freedom and exhibited a unique art identity common to the states. The sprouting of democracy in America...

Why did the balance of power between settled life and pastoralism shift in favor of the settlers? In which parts of the world did pastoralism remain a predominant way of life? Why did the Moroccan conquest of Songhay under Al Mansur ultimately fail to control the pastoralists of the Sahel?

The balance of power between settled life and pastoralism was noticed to have shifted in favor of the settlers because pastoralism was blamed for depletion and desertification of resources, as well as in causing environmental degradation. At present, however, pastoralism is still a predominant way of life in some parts...

What are some of the explanations for the “age of plagues?”

Most of the explanations for the “age of plague” were supernatural. In those times, people used to blame something that they disliked for all the misfortunes. Thus, some people blamed Jew for spreading the disease for, due to misinformation, they considered them bad and thought that the Jews, in revenge,...

Much of the story of the United States in the nineteenth century can be understood by examining the consequences of the “remarkable period of industrial growth” in the late 19th century. What were the political, social, and economic consequences of that industrial growth during the last one hundred years?

Industrial growth in America began in the 1800s and continued up to the beginning of the civil war. After the war, it saw significant growth. This development had a significant effect on America with respect to political, social, and economic affairs. As most of the industries were concentrated in cities,...

How did human settlement expand its range in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? What were the motives behind this expansion? What effect did it have on ecological frontiers? On the way, colonialists viewed the natural world? Why did rulers like Hideyoshi in japan initiate detailed land surveys of their domains?

During the 16th and 17th centuries, the human settlement has significantly expanded its range. The main motive behind this expansion was colonization, especially the First colonization wave that took place between the 15th and 19th centuries. Colonization had a considerable effect on the ecological frontiers because the colonialists were largely...

What did Kennedy hope to accomplish with the New Frontier?

“New Frontier” was a slogan used by John F. Kennedy urge to Americans to support him during the presidential election in the United States in 1960. Previously, he used this slogan to lure people to vote for him and later during his acceptance speech as a democratic nominee to Democratic...

What were the main causes that led to the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran? Briefly explain how Iran’s foreign policy changed under Khomeini’s theocracy. Give one example where Iran has exercised state‐sponsored terrorism since the revolution. Discuss in detail the resurgence of religious terrorism, both in the Middle East and throughout the world since the Islamic Revolution.

For a long time, Iran was under the monarchial rule of the Safavid dynasty. The rule of Mohammad Reza Shah scuttled due to a popular revolutionary movement. During World War II, Iran declared itself neutral, but the presence of German troops in its territory contrasted this declaration. Shah later called...

In the late 19th century, it appears that the United States moved away from its “policy of isolationism”. It seems that United States foreign policy has been predicated upon the Monroe Doctrine, the Roosevelt Corollary, and Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy. How does this statement relate to U.S policies and expansionism in the Western Hemisphere and elsewhere?

In the late 19th century, United States policies and expansion in the western hemisphere and elsewhere seemed to greatly rely on Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt Corollary, and Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy. Monroe Doctrine was established in 1823 that asserted that further attempts by European nations to control states that were within America...

What led to the Depression period in the United States and how did the “New Deal” change attitudes about the role of government in the economy and the government’s responsibility for the social welfare of ordinary Americans? What economic and social welfare programs today trace their origins to New deal legislation?

Many factors led to the great depression. Among them was the combination of the numerous uneven distribution of wealth and the huge speculations of the stock market. In the 1920s, there was an uneven distribution of wealth between the rich and the middle-class, as well as between agriculture and industry....

How did the minority groups’ struggle for civil rights begin in the 1950s? Which event from this time do you think was most responsible for bringing public attention to the American Civil Rights Movement?

A civil rights movement was also defined as the fight against racial discrimination following the ruling of the case Brown V. Board of Education (1954): It held that segregated schools were unconstitutional and called for the nationwide desegregation of schools. This encouraged the African-Americans to fight for liberation. This can...

Describe the uniqueness of World War One and tell why do you think so?

The First World War was distinct from other former nineteenth century wars because of a number of reasons; the first being that it involved a vast number of nations. Austria Hungary, Germany and Turkey compromised the central powers while Italy, Russia, France, Britain, US, Romania, Greece, Portugal and Japan represented...

Define the term “The making of the modern Middle East”.

Most historians trace the making of the modern Middle East right before the 1918 fall of the Ottoman Empire all the way to the 1956 exit of European powers from the Middle Eastern region; consequently, the time span is between 1914 and 1956. 1918 marked the entry of Britain and...

Historians often consider Renaissance to be the “Birth of Modernity”. Why?

The renaissance began sometimes back between the years one thousand three hundred and fifty to one thousand five hundred and fifty or between the years one thousand three hundred and one thousand six hundred. This was an era marked by regeneration, rebirth as well as tragedy. Historians believe that this...

Find and explain two instances in the first part of Mark Hamilton Lytle “The Gentle Subversive”, where fairly detailed information that dealt with Rachel Carson as a child, student or investigator, was helpful to you, as a reader to understand and better appreciate two sections in the second part of the book that dealt with the writing of “Silent Spring” and its impacts.

The book ‘The Gentle Subversive’ by Mark Hamilton is dedicated to the disclosure of Rachel Carson’s life, illustrating the road leading to the creation of influential work ‘Silent Spring’. Hamilton managed to explore the evolution of developed Carson’s ideas as to nature, her devotion to the sea, and her description...

Summarize the main points the author makes in the chapter or essay the quote is drawn from. Discuss why he is highlighting it. “[After 1890] the Confederacy’s ‘great truth’ [white supremacy] …became national policy. States as far north as North Dakota passed new laws outlawing inter-racial marriage. Lynchings rose to their all-time peak, and not just in the South. White Americans, north and south, joined hands to restrict African-Americans’ civic and economic rights.” – James Loewen, Sundown Towns.

Chapter 2 from the book Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism by James W. Loewen demonstrates the struggle between the northern and the southern states related to the problem of African American representatives of the US. Restrictions provided toward the Black part of the American society since the...

Provide a brief history of the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization). Discuss how the PLO transformed the nature of terrorism. According to Hoffman’s five key objectives for a terrorist’s application of violence, was the PLO successful in their mission? Why or why not?

PLO is a political group with a legislative wing formed in May 1964. The organization today has worldwide recognition as the representative of the Palestinian people. PLO was founded in Cairo by the Arab league. PLO has a charter that unites it and sets out its objectives. One of the...

What were the causes, characteristics, and consequences of the Neolithic Revolution?

A neolithic revolution occurred when agriculture replaced hunting and gathering as ancient people settled. According to Hunt et al 14, the agricultural revolution describes the period around 10, 000 BC, when the rise of human settlements forced people to plant crops and rear animals as an alternative form of earning...

What are the rules of hospitality in Homer’s poem, The Odyssey?

Hospitality promotes good relations between people through love and kindness. It is a virtue that drives one to meet another person’s needs without necessarily having blood relations between them. It also seeks to strengthen social bonds among friends as well as strangers through human understanding. Hospitality enables people to welcome...

For the Tea Act and the Coercive Acts, provide a synopsis of the position taken by the British Parliament and that of the American Patriots. Indicate how each of these events contributed to the growing tension between Great Britain and the Colonies.

Originally, these two events in American-British history are closely linked to each other. The Tea Act provoked the Intolerable Acts, thus, the chain reaction was launched, which was the natural reaction for the increasing aggravation and tension between Empire and Colony. Taking into consideration the notion that American Colonies wished...

How does the subject matter of the historical document fit into the larger historical picture? Consider the social, political, economic, cultural, and diplomatic forces in the area of study.

The early nineteenth century was fuelled by technical innovation assisted by a lot of hard work. Following the War of 1812, the domestic market also gradually expanded. There occurred a ‘Market revolution’ during this period. As the market revolution was complemented by the cotton boom of the early 19th century...

How did Hu Jintao rise to power and succeed Jiang Zemin?

After the excesses of Mao Tse Tung’s reign, the Communist Party of China had initiated various measures to formalize institutionalism by which deserving party leaders who showed promise were gradually groomed up the party hierarchy to ultimately take the top appointments. Hu Jintao had been identified fairly early by Deng...

Name two presidents you think were the best and explain why.

The two best presidents: Theodore Roosevelt and his nephew, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. FDR considered Theodore Roosevelt the greatest man he had ever met because of his energy, his zeal for reform, and his vision. He rates as one of the best presidents not only because he was a war hero,...

Explain the rise of left-leaning regimes in Latin America.

From the colonial period, Latin America had always suffered from exploitation, first by the European powers and later from the autocrats who ruled the countries. American interference in Latin America through the 19th and the 20th century revolved around reinforcing its influence but never in trying to change the system...

Thirteen days that changed the world. Explain.

On 14 October 1962, a US spy plane detected the presence of missile sites in Cuba that were assessed to be SS-4 and SS-5, each with a one-megaton warhead which could target almost the entire Continental United States that were placed by the Soviet Union. The United States enforced a...

Briefly explain the reunification of Germany and the breakup of the Warsaw Pact.

The poor economic conditions in East Germany forced the East German government to allow its citizens to cross the Berlin Wall and visit West Germany in 1989. The West Germans welcomed their estranged countrymen, and the citizens of both countries literally tore down the Berlin wall paving the way for...

Explain Détente and Ostpolitik.

Detente means the ceasing of hostilities and de-escalation through diplomacy and confidence building measures. Ostpolitk is a German concept of bringing change in relations through rapprochement, normalizing relations between estranged countries as practised by erstwhile West Germany to bring about a closer relationship with East Germany and Eastern Europe.

What do NPT, SALT, START, MAD stand for?

NPT – Non-Proliferation Treaty. SALT – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. START- Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction.

The search for a Southeast Asian security system and the ASEAN grouping. Explain.

The association of South-East Asian nations comprises of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar was created to ensure peace, prosperity, stability and economic growth in South East Asia. The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a grouping of ASEAN countries plus 17 other countries aimed at...

Explain India’s quest for a third way.

India, after independence, did not want to join either the Western Bloc of the Soviet Bloc and thus espoused the cause of the Non-Aligned Movement to which most of the recently independent third world countries of Asia and Africa joined up.

Explain the disintegration of the Sino-Soviet alliance.

In 1962, ethnic Uighurs of Islamic faith from China’s Xinjiang province escaped into Russia to escape persecution by the Chinese which the Chinese authorities blamed the Russians for instigation unrest. China also contested the Ussuri river boundary created in colonial times, objecting that Russia had annexed Chinese territory. This led...

Explain the One China policy.

The One China policy states that the People Republic of China is the sole legitimate government of mainland China, Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and any other disputed territories that China may have with its neighbors.

What were the repercussions of the Korean war for the far east?

The Korean War divided the Far East into two ideologically competing blocs – the Communist Bloc comprising of the Soviet Union, China. North Korea faced off with the Western Bloc comprising of Japan and South Korea under the American umbrella.

Explain the Chinese civil war briefly.

The Chinese Civil War was fought between the American backed Nationalist forces led by Chiang Kai Shek, and the Soviet backed Communist Party of China led by Mao Tse Tung. The war began in 1927 and, after a brief interlude, continued until 1949 when the nationalist forces were defeated and...

Explain the Bay of Pigs Fiasco.

In 1961, the CIA trained a group of Cuban exiles to carry out a coup against Castro and landed them at Bay of Pigs to execute the operation. The plans had been compromised, and the invasion failed miserably.

Why did Fidel Castro turn to the Soviets?

After Castro deposed, the US-backed the Batista government in the Cuban revolution he still was not aligned with the Soviets. However, when Castro, as the Prime Minister of Cuba, went to the United States in 1959, he was denied a meeting with US President Eisenhower. This event and Castro’s socialistic...

What does the domino theory mean?

The domino theory posited that if one country fell to communist rule, then others would follow suit like a stack of dominos that commences toppling after the first domino is toppled.

Explain the policy of Vietnamization.

Vietnamization was a policy started by President Nixon aimed at American forces buying time and strengthening South Vietnamese forces so that they would be able to take on the Communist Forces.

Why did President Johnson come under so much criticism?

President Johnson came under severe criticism for exponentially increasing American troop involvement in Vietnam with over 550,000 troops by 1968 inside Vietnam, resulting in thousands of American casualties in what was perceived as an unnecessary war.

Why did President Johnson and later Nixon escalate the war?

President Johnson escalated America’s involvement in the Vietnam War as containing the Soviet Union was an overriding factor. Nixon continued the escalation as America as the leader of the ‘Free World’ and champion of democracy, could not be seen to be losing to a rag tag army of Communist forces.

What did the Geneva agreements of 1954 stipulate?

The Geneva accord of 1954 stipulated the end of the First Indo-China war, with the French agreeing to withdraw from Indo-China, creating three countries of Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.