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Explain the role of the “Vienna circle” in the history of analytic philosophy.

The Vienna Circle – a group of scholars representing different branches of science – was a movement that was highly organized and even had its Manifesto. Among all other positivists, they were the most successful with integrating science into philosophy. Their ideas were made popular in educational circles in Vienna...

Compare and contrast the logical positivist to the natural language theorist.

Logical positivism is a theory that advocates the reduction of all existing knowledge to purely scientific data that can be verified by logic, experiment, or observation. It is based on the idea that all the theories that do not have scientific validation are useless because things that cannot be observed...

What are some of the moral and ethical dilemmas that ethnographers face? How would you resolve these dilemmas? What and why would be a setting you would like to observe as an ethnographer?

The basic principles of any research are confidentiality, justice, and informed consent. When performing ethnographic research, following them can be problematic. The need to observe the subjects in a natural environment presents a true dilemma. If the people are informed of the research, that can affect their behavior and make...

Identify and discuss key standards of integrity and competence as an educator.

Integrity is one of the key principles that guide (or, at least, should guide) every educator. Educators have to comply with the professional code of ethics with specific attention to confidentiality as well as discretion. This will ensure rapport which is essential for the development of proper relationships with pupils....

Why Plato finds the ascent to truth confusing and painful? The vision of reality is said to be dangerous to the eyes, “like the sun to the eclipse”, how might that help us understand the terror of the ascent?

Plato finds the ascent to truth confusing and painful because the ascent is different from what ordinary minds have learned through the experience of reality. According to this parable, the initial mind is in a cave, and what it perceives as reality are only images or shadows of what is...

Evaluate Vrasidas’s paper on constructivism and objectivism and relate it to your teaching approach. Describe the biggest challenges in using a constructivist approach to replace objectivism. Do you whether agree with the author regarding the two paradigms?

Analyzing the Vrasidas paper reveals that both constructivism and objectivism are closely related to the theory of learning and have little regard for teaching. Learning is, however, explicitly linked to teaching constructivism is generally presented as the change in understanding and conduct that arises due to one’s encounter with experiences....

Briefly explain the International Space Station’s purpose and list the name of all countries involved in building. What is the name of the last module to be added, and when will it be launched? Once completed, how long will it stay in operation and the deorbit plans for the Station?

The main aim of the international space station was to promote several scientific research, projects, and experiments that are only possible in micro-gravity. A significant example of areas being researched is the effect on the human form of life in space for a certain length of time. In this, the...

Describe the astronautics difference between Mars Pathfinders Mission and Mars Exploration Rovers mission. What is the major discovery of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission?

Mars Exploration Rover Mission and Mars Pathfinder Missions were part and parcel of NASA‘s Discovery Program to explore Mars. The main objectives were to analyze geological surroundings, the climate, and the atmosphere on the red planet, which was successful. The Pathfinders Mission acts as a technology testing point for space...

Describe the influence of groupthink to the decision-making process.

The process of decision-making is not an easy matter, as this requires some preliminary deliberations and counseling. According to Choi and Kim, groupthink is “a mode of thinking people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to...

What are some resources to inform teachers? Use a library database such as ERIC to find resources. ERIC has professional literature and resources on the education of those with diverse learning needs.

The Australian Department of Education states that inclusive schooling programs and practices need to be evidence-based. Therefore, it is safe to say that one of the best resources to inform teachers are scientific, peer-reviewed journal articles that provide practical implications. Torres-Carrión, González-González, Bernal-Bravo, and Infante-Moro conducted a systematic review on...

What role can trauma play in a child’s development? Support your response with at least one example. When responding, use an alias name if the example is from your personal experience. Discuss two ways you can help the student to ensure his or her needs are met, so they can succeed as a well-rounded individual in society.

Child development is an extremely complex process that involves a long sequence of physical, language use, cognitive, emotional, and psychological changes allowing the child to gain knowledge and master new skills needed to become more independent from adults. Traumatic experiences often have a detrimental impact on developing learners, and it...

What subsequent benefits that society would acquire on adopting a foreign Curriculum?

The various curriculums adopted in various regions are usually accompanied by subsequent benefits and loses, which can be acquired from such curriculums. In this study therefore a well established relationship between the adoption of the foreign curriculums, and the effects it will have on the current culture will be determined....

Explan the main features of Hobbes’s thinking on the commonwealth.

Hobbes defines Commonwealth as the multitude consolidated into one person, which he calls Leviathan. At this point, commonwealth can be also regarded as one person, of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants one with another, have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use...

How do Hobbes’s views on the senses influence his overall theory?

In his work Leviathan, Hobbes states that the knowledge about the surrounding world is acquired through five original senses of the body or object, “which presents the organ to each sense, either immediately, as in the taste and touch, or mediate, as in seeing, hearing, and smelling”. The sense is...

What are the main beliefs and practices of Indigenous Religions around the world?

Because many of the religions of the past were polytheistic, religions of Indigenous populations were primarily polytheistic. For instance, Shinto, which originated in Japan, confesses the existence of supernatural entities called “kami.” These beings are worshipped in special places called “kamidana.” The same attributes can be given to Heathenry, which...

Is the international system moving away from US hegemonic power (a uni-polar system) to a new system of international order? Why or why not, and what type of system might we expect to emerge?

Polarity in international relations refers to various types of power distribution in the international arena. A hegemonic power (a uni-polar system) is a pattern of power distribution that concentrates power in the hands of a single super nation. From the time of World War II, the US has hegemonically been...

Why is it essential that a research study include a clear purpose and research question? What are the characteristics of well-written research questions and hypotheses? Provide an example of a well-written research question and hypothesis. Explain why they are well-written.

Research should have a clear purpose as it should give benefits for both the writer and the reader. For the reader, a comprehensible purpose enables one to understand the area of study and what the research proposes to improve on the subject. On the other hand, it is a benefit...

Countries with written constitutions such as the US generally feature an assortment of checks and balances to guard against excessive concentration of unconstrained political power. Conversely, Great Britain, with its mostly unwritten constitution appears to lack these constraints. What checks and balances, or other constraints, formal or informal, exist in the British political system to prevent the emergence of concentrated and unconstrained (i.e., oppressive) political power?

In the British political system, a row of checks and balances and other constraints, both formal and informal, exist to prevent the emergence of concentrated and unconstrained political power. In particular, they are the state system of power separation, the role that the monarch plays in the process, and the...

Where is a governmental policy formulated in Britain? Is it at the Prime Ministerial level? The level of the cabinet ministers? The senior civil service? Or is policy made by interest groups? Or is it some combination of there?

In Britain, laws are adopted in Parliament at Westminster as it is the highest body of legislative power in the country. In recent years the tendency has been established for the European Union’s impact on law adaption in Britain. However, this tendency is still not powerful enough to take it...

As an advisor with the objective of minimizing the impact on homeland security, what plan would you implement to close Guantanamo?

Before the announcement of the president’s order of closing Guantanamo Bay, the latter was heavily criticized by human rights organizations, which were later joined by former detainees and academics. Although it is stated that the closure of Guantanamo would have little impact on US detention practices elsewhere, the controversies resulting...

Compare and contrast the teachings and practices of Confucianism and Taoism.

Confucianism justified and sanctified social inequality, stood guard over monarchy as the only form of the appropriate government. It was intended to strengthen religious and ideological means the right of the hereditary aristocracy to political domination. In extreme opposition to Confucianism was Taoism – philosophers with a bold mindset, advocates...

What are the essential ideas and activities of Taoism?

Taoism is one of the oldest religions on Earth, and its origins are rooted in archaic shamanistic practices. The main idea of Taoism is the universal equality of people, equal rights to life, and freedom. These ideas immediately attracted many supporters from the lower strata of the population to the...

Explain Confucius’ vision of the ideal society.

The most significant philosopher in China and the author of the first social utopian project was Confucius. He believed that an ideal society should be built by analogy with the family. Society, according to Confucius, should resemble a large family, where the ruler, as a father, takes care of his...

Compare and contrast the main beliefs and practices of Hinduism and Buddhism.

Buddhism and Hinduism are two closely related religions, having a number of lateral aspects, and differences in theory and practice. Buddha adopted many of the terms already used in the philosophical discussions of his era. However, many of these terms were given a different interpretation. For instance, in the Samaññaphala...

In detail, discuss the nature, aspects, and meanings of religion.

Religion plays a huge role in all social fields and it has a regulatory, communicative, integrative, educational, and compensatory function in society. From a regulatory perspective, it establishes complex social processes and affects the behavior of people and their life in society. The communicative function is the unification of people...

How would you differentiate for a gifted child? What would need to be done for a gifted child who has mastered the majority of the standards for that grade level? Explain why it is not enough just to give the child additional work.

This post will discuss differentiation with reference to teaching science to gifted first-graders. Science lessons for first-graders cover multiple topics, including studying wildlife diversity and a variety of animal habitats. To differentiate for a gifted child, I would increase tasks’ complexity. Instead of simply connecting the pictures of animals and...

If you had a very limited budget but were committed to collecting and using some type of qualitative data to get at the perceptions of program participants, what might be your best option?

When preparing to collect and analyze qualitative data, several issues should be considered. One of them is the cost of the research, as in most cases it will require quite some budget: paying for the interviewers and collectors of the data, the software, specialists to decode and analyze the information....

Whose philosophy is better justified, Plato’s or Hobbes’?

Comparing Plato’s philosophy and Hobbes’ perception of the world, the concepts presented by both are rather controversial. In particular, the most contradicting questions are the philosophers’ deliberations on the human nature and knowledge, on the definition of justice, on politics, and on the social and ethical issues. Considering their vision...

Steven Pinker, a well-known Harvard cognitive scientist, remarks that “language is so tightly woven into human experience that it is scarcely possible to imagine life without it”. What do you think life would be like if humans lost or never had the capacity to acquire language? Use points from the text readings to support your comments.

Language learning is best achieved when the concept of functional contextualism is introduced. The importance of predicting and, in some cases, influencing any psychological events which include thoughts, feelings, and behaviors lies in the fact that language learning becomes a faster process. These thoughts are usually reinforced to achieve optimum...

What problems does the U.S. Census Bureau face in their Field Data Collection Project?

These problems are closely associated with the matters of information system implementation and the values of the traditional accounting system. Thus, while the company requires an innovative accounting system, all the practices and principles of accounting require rearrangement in order to fit the electronic system. Moreover, Census Bureau needs consultation...

Which methods for systems development are available in a project of creating the united accounting system?

The project of creating the united accounting system for considering both accounts receivable and accounts payable generally requires the additional considerations of the financial statements and the financial flows of the company. Consequently, it should be emphasized that the matters of traditional accounting are not applicable. Originally, the accounting system...

What are factors that terrorist groups might consider when selecting targets?

Terrorists take into consideration a number of core factors before selecting a target to launch their terrorist acts. These factors include recognition, Coercion, intimidation, and provocation. The consideration of the recognition is based on the terrorist belief that high visibility targets will attract the biggest media attention and thus magnify...

What are examples of the most likely terrorist targets?

Critical infrastructures that have the capacity to disrupt the normal running of government affairs form the most likely targets for terrorists. These include the military bases, police departments, and telecommunication channels that have a direct consequence on the security of the nation. Other important targets to the terrorists would be...

What Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design strategies would you use for a typical hospital? Consider the area around the buildings as well. Be sure to refer to the CPTED principles.

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design principles focus on the relationship between the physical environment and behavioral tendencies with respect to crime. CPTED principles provide the necessary physical security assessments and professional certifications within the built environment. The principles and coupled to design systems that ensure the physical environment of a...

How do you create a report of the findings of a comprehensive physical security risk assessment of only one of the facilities listed below? Be sure to address each of the basic elements of the assessment process. It should be a facility which you have visited in the past. Examples: a large art gallery (not a storefront gallery); a large auto dealer (such as CarMax); a sizeable religious place of worship.

The church is the place of worship for Christians. Christian beliefs are based on faith which hopes for better things and trust in the power of God for sustenance. Congregations meet for prayers to seek divine interventions to the problems. The Physical Security of the church as a place where...

Mark Hamilton Lytle, the author of “The Gentle Subversive,” spends the first half of his book – (titled Spring and Summer) – telling about Rachel Carson’s life prior to the writing of “Silent Spring.” Find and explain two instances in the first part of the book where fairly detailed information that dealt with Rachel Carson as a child, student or investigator, was helpful to you, as a reader to understand and better appreciate two fairly detailed sections in the second part of the book that dealt with the writing of “Silent Spring” and its impacts.

The book titled The Gentle Subversive by Mark Hamilton Lytle is a perfect account of the life and professional development of the famous American scientist and environmentalist Rachel Carson. Moreover, this book is a skilful piece of literature that allows for a better understanding of Carson’s scientific progress in the...

What are the origins of the meaning terrorism? How and why has this changed overtime? According to your readings, discuss in detail why terrorism is difficult to define today. In your own words, how would you define terrorism and how would you distinguish the term from any other criminal act?

The word terrorism is linked to the Latin word, ‘terrere’, which means to scare. Terrorism can be defined as the menace or the use of compulsive violence against civilians or a government that is aimed at inspiring fear, intimidating people, causing death or bodily harm or damage of property. Acts...

In “Going to “Great Lengths” to Prevent the Escape of Genes That Produce Specialty Chemicals,” Norman C. Ellstrand brings up several ethical considerations. Сomment on the following consideration: “Do farmers of one crop have an obligation not to genetically contaminate the crops of other farmers who don’t want their crops contaminated?”

Farmers of one crop have an obligation not to genetically contaminate the crops of other farmers who don’t want their crops contaminated. In the essay, the author also clearly defines the responsibilities of various professionals. It is possible to estimate the damage that can be caused by the harmful chemicals...

Why do we need a theory on tourism security?

Beyond any kind of economic activity, a failure or success that characterizes a given tourism destination shall greatly hinge upon the ability of such a destination to provide to its visitors an environment that is both secure and safe. Seeing that tourism is an industry with a global reach, and...

How many years would a radio signal take to reach the nearest large galaxy from our own, the Andromeda galaxy? If a powerful RF signal was sent to Andromeda in the year 2030, that said” Hello is anyone Home”, what is the earliest year upon which we would hear a response?

Andromeda galaxy is over two million miles away from the earth. A signal sent from the earth at the speed of light (about 300,000 kilometers per second) will take a minimum of two million years to reach Andromeda. From these deductions, in the event that a powerful signal saying for...

Evidence is strong that the formation of the Sun (and its family of planets) happened by the same processes responsible for the formation of many star systems we observe. Explain this assertion and the implications. What is the cosmological principle?

A star is a self-luminous celestial body consisting of a mass of gas held together by its own gravity. The glowing light is due to nuclear reactions occurring within the star’s core. The sun generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. Assertion and implications: “The cosmological...

What are Dark Matter and Dark Energy? Why were Dark Matter and Dark Energy postulated to exist? Explain why Dark Matter and Dark Energy present opposing factors with respect to the expansion of the Universe.

Dark matter is a form of matter, which does not emit or absorb light but appears to have mass, postulated to occur due to the unexplained movement of stars within galaxies. Dark energy is form of energy that helps to speed up earth’s expansion, thought to exist due to the...

It is advantageous to develop a directional hypothesis whenever we are sure of the predicted direction. How will you justify this statement?

Whenever one understands the direction to be followed in research, it is imperative to develop a directional hypothesis. This is especially in instances where there is an adequate literature review that is inclined to a specific direction. Directional hypothesis gives clear information on what the research outcomes are expected to...

What aspects of NASA practice revealed in the aftermath of the Columbia disaster suggest that the changes sought in the aftermath of the Challenger disaster were not consolidated?

 Despite the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) making numerous reforms after the Challenger accident, there was still evidence of some faults in the corrective actions taken. For instance, the organization continued with its past trend with limited effort to change the past performance of the shuttle to avoid later...

Al Jazeera: Why It Is the Best Topic for a Research Essay?

There are numerous topics that can be the basis for research essays. Al Jazeera happens to be one of them, and for this case, it is the one that I recommend as the topic of choice. Al Jazeera is a respectable television station in the Arab world. It is based...

In her introduction to Stiff, Mary Roach remarks that “death makes us helplessly polite.” Why is it that we’re compelled to use polite language when discussing death? Why are we often afraid to discuss it in the way Roach has done here? What are your thoughts on this?

Death has also been a mystery for all nations, religions, and societies – there is a huge amount of variants of what happens to the human body and soul after death, but nobody knows for sure. As everyone understands, nobody has ever returned from that side of the world, so...

Review how the United States and countries in Asia and Europe are addressing climate change. What similarities and differences do you see in the attitudes of each country’s government and leaders, industries and citizens?

The developed nations such as the USA, China, Japan, India and some of the European countries are the greatest producers of polluted gas causing the greenhouse effects. This is due to the fact that their heavy industrial base relies on carbon-based energy sources such as coal and methane. Therefore, for...

Based upon your expanded understanding of political geography, speculate on the future of geopolitical reality in the next fifty years. If your great-grandchild was Secretary of State in the US, what concerns would they have regarding contemporary” international relations?

The coming decade of the 21st century would perhaps require an extraordinary focus on Asia which includes China, India, and several other southeast Asian nations. The cumulative population of these nations and regional powers would be more than the combined population of all others nations and are among the most...

What is the definition of traditional trespass to personal property?

When one person enters into the rightful property of another without authorization or permission, it could be termed as trespass to personal property. “Trespassing as it relates to real estate law means entering onto land without the consent of the landowner.”

Explain the concept of “reincarnation.” Link your explanation to a specific religious tradition. Briefly define the concept of a “near-death experience. Is it the Christian version of reincarnation?

The reincarnation concept is perceived as an aspect that explains the origin and destiny of man. The term reincarnation refers to one being made flesh once again after death. According to the religious belief, a fresh personality is established in each living in a place called the physical world, though...

What are the key policy orientations of Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao?

Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao have emphasized the need for development that is sustainable. The need, therefore, was to adopt a scientific approach to balance economic and social development that was also environmentally friendly. Both the leaders realized that the untrammeled growth of ‘economic development at any cost’ of the...

How did interdependency and the federal government having superior-taxing power contributed to a larger policy role for the national government? Do you think these factors will increase or decrease in importance in the future? What will this trend mean for the future of American federalism?

According to the US constitution, Congress has the right to lay and collect taxes, duties, imports and excises. The Sixteenth Amendment allowed Congress the power to levy an income tax without apportioning it among states or having to base it on the results of the census undertaken. In the US...

How are Americans’ beliefs about liberty, equality, and self-government related to their preference for constitutionalism? For capitalism? For democracy?

Americans’ beliefs about liberty, equality, and self-government are rooted in their history. The first settlers, mostly the intrepid British arrived on board the ‘Mayflower’ in Provincetown, Massachusetts on November 21, 1620 A.D. These early settlers were actually religious refugees fleeing religious persecution in Europe. They were people who disliked the...

Why does James Rachels believe is Ethical Subjectivism such a popular position? What arguments does he make against both Simple Subjectivism and Emotivism?

For James Rachels, our opinions about what is moral are value-laden and subjective. He discusses the concept of moral subjectivity, building on and challenging the legacy of previous philosophers, notably Hume’s. Rachel qualifies Hume’s theory that sentiment is the source of moral judgment as a form of simple subjectivism (SS)....

Discuss the major speech problems, their signs and symptoms, and possible causes, mechanisms.

Speech disorders include articulation (phonological), stuttering (fluency), and voice disorders. A phonological or articulation involves errors in sound production, use, representation or organization. There is the substitution of one sound for another, omissions of sounds or distortion of sound. The severity varies from mild to severe and is more common...

What areas, mechanisms are involved in speech production and comprehension?

Traditionally, according to Broca’s-Wernicke’s areas theory, speech production is localized to the third frontal convolution of the neocortex.However, imaging studies (PET) in neurologically intact subjects have shown a more complex picture. When they were asked either to read or to repeat isolated spoken words, the primary motor cortex, the premotor...

Given that they reach different conclusions, Hume and Rachels cannot both be right. Where exactly in their respective arguments do they disagree? Which position is supported by the strongest and most compelling argument?

James Rachels’s philosophical contribution seems to be the strongest. Hume’s senses-centered explanations assume that we all have the same vision of morality. He almost provides an organic explanation of what morality is. However, there is no consensus about morality. Its perception differs from one person to another and above all...

A common bureaucratic reform in state politics is privatization. What is privatization and what are several factors that contribute to a successful privatization effort?

Everyone is frustrated with bureaucracy. Bureaucracy means inflexibility, doing everything by the book, and being unable to see the big picture. When someone uses the term bureaucrat, one can be sure that it is not a compliment. Bureaucracy is not only confined to the government. This phenomenon is also evident...

Do you think psychology makes a significant difference in people’s lives?

Yes, psychology makes a significant difference in people’s lives. The application of psychology in real life can be seen through the following examples: psychological tests offer an objective quantifiable means of assessing human talents, abilities, strengths, and weaknesses; the concept of positive reinforcement has found wide application in schools and...

How do you think the profession of psychology is doing at “giving psychology away?”

Most psychological phenomena—memory, consciousness, emotions, mental disorders, stereotyping, and perception—can be fully explained only by using multiple paradigms, and psychology departments are organized by subfields of the discipline: biological, clinical, social, developmental, and social.  Each paradigm has its own specialized language and methodology, and this made psychology a complex subject. ...

Describe the biological foundations of psychology.

The biological foundations of psychology are important because Psychological life depends on biological life for its very existence. This means that the way we behave is influenced greatly by the nature of the body. The aspects of human biology directly relevant to understanding behavior are the brain and nervous system,...

Identify the major schools of thought in psychology and examine their major underlying assumptions.

Among the earliest schools of thought in psychology were structuralism and functionalism. Structuralism, developed by Edward Titchener, attempted to use introspection to uncover the basic elements of consciousness and the way they combine with one another into ideas (that is, the structure of consciousness). Functionalism looked for explanations of psychological processes in their role, or function,...

Should anything be done to change the relationship between media and society?

In order to understand the relationship between the media and society first, we should understand the basic meaning of the media. Today’s media includes TV channels, newspapers, magazines, the World Wide Web radio, books, etc. Due to the availability of a lot of media, its influence on the people is...

What is the greatest benefit of the media for society?

The greatest benefit of the media for society is that they make our voice reach everywhere and highlight the problems. It is because of the presence of media that we are more aware of social and current issues. They expose corruptions, which was unnoticed by the authorities. We get a...

How powerful is the media’s impact on society?

I think the media plays a very important role in today’s society. Media is the fourth pillar of democracy. Each day people interact with different forms of media. Thus, media is the channel of communication on which people depend. All around the world, people use media frequently and media has...

What do you believe to be the biggest problem with the media today?

In my opinion, the biggest problem with today’s media is that they are too much interfering in people’s personal lives. The media has forgotten its boundaries. They prefer to focus more on a celebrity’s life rather than social causes. Some news channels even can go to any extent to sensationalize...

Explain KKN American Style

I agree with Simon Johnson that although KKN or korrupsi, kollusi, nepotism, i.e., corruption, collusion, nepotism, respectively, earlier seemed to be a problem faced by only some third world nations, like Korea, Thailand, Indonesia or Russia, now even America is facing the same problems and crisis situations. Although it is...