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In the study “Risk Factors for Autism: Perinatal Factors, Parental Psychiatric History, and Socioeconomic Status” conducted by Larsson et al., how much statistical power did the researchers have to detect a statistically significant association between the risk of autism and low Apgar score at five minutes? Provide support for your answer by including the alpha and effect sizes. Also, reference the statistical calculator used.

An Apgar score is the test that is done on newborns 5 minutes after birth. The score is determined by five factors that include Pulse (Heart rate), appearance (skin coloration), Respiration (Breathing rate and effort), Grimace response (reflex irritability), and Activity (Muscle tone). Each score is rated on a scale...

In the context of the study “Risk Factors for Autism: Perinatal Factors, Parental Psychiatric History, and Socioeconomic Status” conducted by Larsson et al., if a researcher received a large grant to conduct further studies on the association between psychiatric history and autism risk, what recommendations would you make regarding study design, sampling method, and sample size? Why?

In case the researcher gets enough funds to carry out further research on the association between psychiatric and autism, the researcher should consider using a larger sample size in order to increase the reliability of the results of the study. A larger sample size means a greater representation that gives...

Compare the different processes of pharmacokinetics to include absorption, bioavailability, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and the factors that influence each one. Furthermore, explain pharmacodynamics and its importance in your prescribing practices.

substance in the organism, whereas bioavailability is a subcategory of the former concept. It is based on the portion of the drug that reaches the final circulatory system. Both of them are highly dependent on the nature of the chemical. Distribution is the process of transferring the drug through the...

What are the departments utilizing the data stored in the healthcare delivery system?

Health informatics plays a crucial role in facilitating improved patient services. Through this means, healthcare delivery systems are used to enhance relationships between health institutions and their patients. Usually, health experts such as doctors, nurses, hospital administrators, physical therapists, and lab personnel preserve their records using the health care delivery...

How is the data accessed in healthcare delivery systems?

Data stored in health care systems’ databases can be accessed using either sequential or random access. Essentially, this entails the process of storing, retrieving, and manipulating data contained in the database. In this regard, data access considers the authorization given to individuals within a health care system that allows them...

How does the IT department ensure that the various applications and systems interface and share information in Healthcare Delivery Systems?

IT departments ensure that various applications and systems have similar interfaces and the ability to share information. Most of the database languages have standardized methods and formats of data access with similar interfaces. In addition, they are mostly idiosyncratic and specific in the manner they handle data. As a result,...

In the study “Risk Factors for Autism: Perinatal Factors, Parental Psychiatric History, and Socioeconomic Status” conducted by Larsson et al., did the researchers have sufficient statistical power to detect an association between autism risk and preeclampsia? Provide support for your answer by including alpha and effect sizes.

The researcher did not have sufficient statistical power to detect a relationship between autism risk and preeclampsia because the information available about preeclampsia was only available for short time intervals. The Phi coefficient should range between -1 and + 1. Positive 1 indicates a strong association between the binary valuables,...

Identify the research design used by Larsson et al. (2005) in “Risk Factors for Autism: Perinatal Factors, Parental Psychiatric History, and Socioeconomic Status.” Is this research design appropriate for this study? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this study?

A research design entails a framework within which research is conducted. Epidemiologic research is the type of study that entails collecting important data about causes, prevention as well as disease treatments. Researchers use different study designs to gather the required information. They use Experimental designs or observable studies like cohort...

Compare and contrast the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in humans and poultry. Do birds and humans exhibit similar symptoms?

H5N1 is highly contagious between birds of different species. H5N1 easily mutates creating variants which are capable of infecting birds across different species. There are some of these variants which infect human beings. The avian virus is transmitted between birds by binding to galactose receptors located in their respiratory tract....

How to define the term “types of paralysis” and create a sentence with it?

Paralysis is mainly associated with spine injuries and can be categorized into three distinct types. The first type is called spastic paralysis, which affects the movement of the joints. The muscles normally experience some withdrawal, and reflexes increase, exhibiting some contraction. The second type is known as flaccid paralysis, which...

What defines the term “chronic, acute, progressive conditions”.

These terms are extremely interrelated and may at times be used interchangeably. A chronic condition is a form of ailment that lasts in the human body for a long period. This type of ailment cannot be cured or prevented by any form of medication. Certain behavior, excessive smoking, and poor...

What is the Oklahoma State Department of Health?

It is a federal health agency located in Oklahoma. It is responsible for preventing acute and chronic diseases, injuries, disorders. There are several departments there. Each offers a wide range of services, such as immunization, maternity education, family planning. Its mission is to help the citizens of Oklahoma remain healthy...

What is the Center for Disease Control?

The center for Disease Control is a federal agency aimed at researching, analyzing, and preventing various kinds of diseases. It studies public health trends. Their mission is to lengthen human life by preventing illnesses and diseases.

What is US Public Health Service?

“The US public health care system is an interwoven local, state, and national governmental agency designed to look at broad community-based health issues and protect the general public from hazards that result from living in populated urban areas”. It is responsible for preventing epidemics and the spread of disease, reducing...

What is the National Institute of Health?

NIH is the national institute where extraordinary discoveries and researches are conducted. The aim is to improve health and save people’s lives. Researchers there try to investigate more information about human organisms. The consequences and effects of various diseases, ways of fighting them are studied there.

How is the Public Health System in the USA structured and funded?

Public Health System contains the following elements: information resources, human resources, organizational resources, and physical resources. The primary mission of the Public Health System is to make people healthy. What concerns funding, researcher Lister states that: Funding for public health comes from various sources, including local, state, and federal government...

Research and explain the Spanish flu pandemic of 1917-1919. How it began and ended?

Spanish flu occurred for the first time in 1918. This disease caused a significant number of deaths. “In 1918, many people died within just a few days from hemorrhagic pulmonary edema.” (Dronamraju 181). The symptoms of N1H1 resemble symptoms of influenza, though there is one crucial distinction. The choice of...

What caused the bubonic plague in the Middle Ages?

Bubonic plague or ‘Black Death’ is a fatal bacterial infection transmitted to people by fleas from rats. Researcher Hazen points out that: ‘During the Middle Ages neither name nor treatment for it was not known. When it struck, its victims died almost immediately. It originated in southern Italy in 1347...

What defines the term “other health impairments”?

Other health impairment is a medical condition that makes an individual has limited strength. It normally affects someone’s alertness to his or her surrounding environment. It is caused because of chronic health issues like asthma, diabetes, hemophilia, leukemia, and sickle cell anemia. This condition highly affects the level of child...

What defines the term “traumatic brain injury”?

Some external physical force causes an injury to the human brain. This injury leads to a full or partial disability. At times, this is referred to as a psychosocial impairment. It also badly affects children’s educational capabilities. Head injuries that lead to impairments in certain areas like memory, sensory and...

What defines the term “physical disabilities”?

The term “physical disabilities” is broad in meaning in different contexts. It generally refers to the inability of a person to perform an act. Disability in itself normally refers to the state of being incapacitated to do all that is in the power of an average human being. In the...

It is common for stakeholders to essentially ask, “How can you prove that our program had an effect?” What would be your standard, simple, “sound bite” response to this question?

The question of whether the health program they are investing in is effective is an essential matter for most stakeholders. They might not know much about statistics and different types of analysis, so it is imperative to be able to demonstrate them the results in a simple and convincing way....

Critically review the following controversial paper published (and later retracted) by Wakefield et al, which implicated MMR vaccine as a possible etiologic contributor to autism, etc. What are potential sources of bias and other limitations in the study: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children by Wakefield et al?

Biasness in a research study is known to cause a distortion between the exposure and outcome. Bias in a study results from errors in design method employed, method of data collection, as well as data analysis. According to a critical review of the controversial paper published (and later retracted) by...

There has been much concern over the increase in the spread of HIV infections. Evidence from several studies suggests that the spread of HIV transmission can be reduced by distributing clean needles and syringes. What is your opinion about this? Do you know if a user of an illicit drug can get this service in your community or what services do exist to prevent the spread of disease through needles and syringes? How do you think drugs should be regulated. What process should be required before a drug is released for public use? Would you feel differently if you had a serious illness and were waiting on a new drug to be released?

HIV transmission among drug users is a major challenge to fight against HIV Aids. Sharing needles and syringes is one of the reasons for the increase of HIV infections in drug users. To address the issue, needle and syringes exchange programs have been started in some communities with the aim...

Stimulants and addressing concerns with stimulant medication regarding children and adolescents with ADHD. What are your thoughts on prescribing stimulant medication (Ritalin, Adderal, and others) to children?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder in teenagers and children. The use of stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderal are the common form of treating ADHD. There have been questions on the use of stimulants to treat the disorder. The major fear is that the use of...

What drugs do you think are the most addictive physically and which are the most addictive psychologically. Give specific reasons for your thoughts. Do you think you could become addicted?

Addiction to drugs can be classified as physical and psychological addiction. Physical addiction is characterized by withdrawal symptoms when the drug is not used. The most physically addictive drugs include heroin, alcohol, and Nicotine. Psychological addiction is a behavioral phenomenon where an individual seeks to obtain a certain effect from...

Thinking in terms of the codes of ethics that physicians should adhere to, do you feel this concern regarding cost cutting is legitimate, and why or why not? Justify your answers with appropriate research and reasoning.

In the health care delivery industry, professionals adhere to standards of ethics that are formulated principally for the advantage of the patients. Physicians are key players in this industry, and hence they ought to understand their role to the patients by following these ethical standards. The American Medical Association (AMA)...

In the U.S. healthcare system, disparities such as socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic can be found. What do you feel are the most important disparities that need to be addressed in the healthcare industry?

In the U.S, there exist differences in the access of the quality health care especially among the minority groups and non-minorities that amounts to healthcare disparities. The root causes of these disparities are varied and as such resolving them, needs interventions of many stakeholders. Recent research efforts that focused on...

What is the controversy over dieting?

Dieting becomes a factor in the daily life of everyone who wishes to control his and her weight. But there are many incorrect popular beliefs regarding dieting, especially regarding how and what to eat. Many people do believe that they must eat the less possible and substitute fats with carbohydrates...

Has the “Stiff” book by Mary Roach added to your anatomy education? Please explain your answer. Have you enjoyed the book? Would you recommend it to other anatomy students?

I can surely say that this book added to my studies of anatomy because of much anatomical information the book contains – I saw many interesting facts about dead bodies, and the sincere way Roach speaks about the parts of human bodies and their possible application after death open many...

Explain do you think could one remain more psychologically and emotionally balanced in their dealings with cadavers by humanizing them, as Mary Roach in her “Stiff” frequently does, or by objectifying them?

It is impossible to find a universal means for everyone to deal with cadavers and remain psychologically and emotionally stable. Some people prefer to humanize them – through sympathy and sincere interest in their lives while they are still living beings. Such people try to get rid of the superstitious...

Many research studies that make use of cadavers raise questions about maintaining the dignity of the deceased. Do you think that the humanitarian benefits of experimenting on cadavers can outweigh any potential breach of respect for the dead? Why or why not?

Dignity of the dead bodies indisputably has to be respected – nobody would want their bodies to be used as the research material in law enforcement authorities where the bodies are tortured, shot, or torn to pieces by bombs to prove the credibility of a certain crime or possible consequences...

What is informed consent in healthcare?

Informed consent is the process by which a fully informed patient can participate in choices about her health care. It originates from the legal and ethical right the patient has to direct what happens to her body and from the ethical duty of the physician to involve the patient in...

What are the major structures and functions of the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain?

The Hindbrain or rhombencephalon is located a little over the spinal cord and is a developmental classification of parts of the vertebrates as forming part of the central nervous system. The hindbrain functions collectively in coordinating sleep patterns, equilibrium, posture, and motor activity as also regulates some unconscious but vital...

Discuss the signs and symptoms of amnesia and its possible causes, mechanisms.

In amnesia, there is damage or degeneration of brain cells, which cannot be replaced. There are two main types of amnesia: anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia is characterized by difficulty in learning new information after the onset of amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is characterized by difficulty in recalling events and...

Describe the localization of language in the brain.

The mind and the brain work in a dichotomous relationship. “The mental processing of speech and the written words is dependent on the frequency by which these two are used by the brain”. Under similar circumstances, words that are commonly used by people are processed a lot faster by the...

Tell how the Tylenol crisis was resolved.

The crisis was one the best managed case in history:  Johnson & Johnson reacted by notifying health and government officials immediately, and then they put out a recall for all capsules in the Chicago area. No distinction was made for lots or size. They simply recalled all product that was...

What is the future of research in autism?

It is apparent that most findings of autism are based on particular observations made on specific cases and conclusions based heavily on the perception by members of the family. This creates a conflict of interest in that the genetic composition of the members of the family may have a certain...

Is the male brain different from the female brain?

Scientists have been unable to explicitly state the difference in male and female behavior, saying the differences are due to person and not gender. However, there have been minor differences in their brains through the contribution of the difference has not also been explicitly linked to differences in behavior or...

Why do autism studies lean more toward males?

A number of authors agree that there is no definite agreeable cause of autism. However, research has shown that our genetic composition plays a great role in determining the chances of developing that condition that affects development in certain areas of our lives. This is supported by the fact that...

What are the differences between a male’s brain and a female’s brain?

Studies have shown that newborn males have a slightly larger brain size than newborn females, with the difference ranging between 12 and 20%. This means that boys will more often than not in ordinary circumstances have a larger head circumference by 2%. Differences in female and male brains are more...

What is the percentage rate of autism in America?

The high prevalence rate of the condition in the US has prompted intense research on its causes and possible cure. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in 2007 reported that sample surveys conducted between 2000 and 2002 on eight-year-olds showed that there was one autism case in every 150...

Discuss the major brain structures involved in vision analysis/comprehension.

Each lateral geniculate body is located laterally at the dorsal end of the thalamus.  The optic tract terminates at the lateral geniculate body, and from here, the visual signals are relayed to the visual cortex. The lateral geniculate body plays a role in two important processes, a fusion of vision...

Discuss the structures/mechanism of vision.

The optics of the eye can be considered under the cornea, lens, pupil, and retina.  Most of the refractive power of the eye is provided by the anterior surface of the cornea. The lens provides about 15 diopters of refractive power.  The pupil controls the amount of light that enters...

Discuss the major techniques of brain research, pros and cons associated with each.

The traditional study of brain-behavior relationships has been using two basic approaches: the use of experimental animals and the use of human subjects (normal & brain damaged). In order to study the functions of specific brain areas, the following different methods have been used: Anatomy-the description of the structure of...

Discuss neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and their action.

Neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, GABA, glycine, and glutamate.  Neuromodulators include: norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, TRH, ACTH, vasopressin, LHRH, CCK, VIP, substance P, and enkephalins. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter, but it can also have inhibitory effects. Acetylcholine is found at numerous synapses within the nervous system and is an important chemical...

Why do drugs vary in their effectiveness?

Drugs of different types vary in their efficacy. For example, anti-infective drugs vary in their effectiveness against microbes, i.e., they have different spectrums of the activity or may destroy only microbes of a particular class. While some drugs have a broad spectrum of effectiveness, others have a narrow range of...

What is the function of each major structure of the brain?

Cerebrum-the precentral gyrus and the area near the frontal lobe control the motor functions of the body. The remainder of the frontal lobe plays a part in intelligence, concentration, memory, temper, and personality. The postcentral gyrus and areas just behind and below it receive and process sensations from various parts...

Describe major structures of the brain and where they are located

The major structures of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, pons, and medulla.  The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres. The surface of the cerebral cortex is comprised of gray matter, while the interior is comprised mostly of white matter. The two cerebral hemispheres are connected to each other by...

How do neurons communicate?

Nervous signals are transmitted either electrically or chemically. While electrical signals operate inside the neuron, chemical mechanisms operate between different neurons, i.e., at the synapses.  The electrical discharge starts at the cell body and then travels down the axon to the various synaptic connections. In the inactive state, the interior...

Describe basic internal structures/functions found in a neuron.

The internal structures inside a neuron include the cell surface, nucleus, and the cytoplasm and its organelles (rough endoplasmic reticulum, polyribosomes, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus). Cell surface-the surface or limiting membrane of the neuron plays a role in the initiation and transmission of signals. The plasma membrane is a double...

Describe basic structures/functions of a neuron.

The neuron has a central bulbous part called the cell body or soma, which is about 10-80 µm in size. It has many extensions called dendrites, which project outwards. In addition, a single tubular fiber called axon also extends from the cell body. The axon splits at its end into...

What use is the physiological psychology topic to a clinical psychologist?

Clinical psychologists believe that the methods of experimental and physiological psychology and the information obtained from them can be applied to study human patients and to derive new data about the human nervous system. Physiological psychology helps the clinical psychologist to generate new theories of brain function and explain brain-behavior...

Define physiological psychology

Physiological psychology explains behavior from a biological point of view. According to a physiological psychologist, only the accepted facts and theories of biology can help to understand human behavior. The purpose is to reveal the relationship between behavior and the underlying physiological mechanisms. Some of the investigations that a physiological...

Describe the five steps of the exploration stage of Hill’s cognitive-experiential dream model.

The steps of the exploration stage of Hill’s cognitive-experiential dream model are the following: Have the client retell dreams in the first-person present tense. Have the client explore feelings in dreams and upon waking. Explore major images sequentially using DRAW Describe Reexperience feelings Associate Waking life triggers Summarize the exploration...

How will employees in the medical office have to be trained regarding privacy?

The privacy laws have been set in place to provide all reasonable protections to the patients’ privacy (US Department of Health and Human Services). However, medical professionals are also required to perform their duties. In order to balance both of these requirements, medical care professionals will need to be trained...

Are there requirements for covered entities to have written privacy policies? If so, what requirements have to be addressed in the policy?

Any organization that is responsible for medical information is required to create written policies detailing how this information will be protected and disseminated. These policies must include the creation of a job description that describes the roles and responsibilities of the individual that is responsible for the protection of a...

Why are the spinal nerves mixed nerves?

Spinal nerves are called mixed nerves because they are comprised of both dorsal and ventral roots and carry the motor, sensory, and autonomic signals to and from the body.

What are the functions of the astrocytes and the Schwann cells?

The functions of astrocytes involve the support of endothelial cells, nutrition of the nervous tissue, management of the extracellular ion balance, and repairing tissue damage of the brain and the spinal cord. The purpose of the Schwann cells involves the production of the myelin sheath around the neural cord, which...

Please describe the Horizontal plane, and the Sagittal plane.

The horizontal and sagittal planes are both anatomical planes of motion of the human body. The horizontal plane goes parallel to the ground and separates the superior anatomical locations (chest cavity, cranial cavity, etc.) from the inferior (legs, feet). The sagittal plane is vertical to the ground that goes through...

Name at least four of the diagnostic criteria for sepsis.

a. Pre-sepsis characterized by feverish waves alternating with periods of apyrexia.b. Evident or suspected source of inflammation.c. Lactic acidosis, especially in shock patients.d. Hypotension is occurring despite adequate fluid resuscitation.

Define multiple organ dysfunction syndromes.

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is associated with severe organ dysfunction during acute disease, indicating the inability to maintain homeostasis without a therapeutic intervention.

Define septic shock.

Septic shock is a form of severe sepsis with persistent hypotension, which, despite infusion therapies, requires the utilization of vasopressors to increase blood pressure.

Define sepsis.

Sepsis is a secondary infectious disease caused by the ingress of pathogenic flora from the primary local injury to the bloodstream. The clinical picture of sepsis consists of intoxication syndrome (fever, pale color of the skin), thrombohemorrhagic syndrome (hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes, or conjunctiva), and metastatic lesions of...

Define systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a pathophysiologic response to infection, pancreatitis, trauma, and other injuries. The mentioned clinical parameter aims at the early specification of sepsis signs and their subsequent treatment.

Name at least six nursing considerations with parenteral nutrition.

The preparation of PN solutions should occur in aseptic conditions to prevent catheter-related sepsis (CRS).Replace amino acid/dextrose fluids and extensions after every 72-hour period.Replace lipid sets after a 24-hour period.Promptly initiate IV antibiotic administration on detecting signs of infections.Flush the catheters with 0.9% NaCl between treatments to prevent occlusion.Secure all...

What are three complications that can occur with parenteral nutrition?

Infections related to central venous catheters – catheter-related sepsis (CRS).Catheter occlusion due to a blood clot or medication precipitate, venous clots, or extraneous pressure on veins.PN-associated metabolic bone disease, which is characterized by fragile bones and low bone mineral density. Its etiology is linked to surplus nutrients – calciferol, phosphorus,...

Briefly describe parenteral nutrition and four indications for its use.

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is the administration of nutrients to a patient via the intravenous route. The reason for using PN is to treat malnourishment when oral nutrition or enteral nutrition is impossible. Parenteral nutritional support is also used when nutrition via the two routes is inadequate. Its aims are to...

Name five nursing considerations for enteral nutrition.

Obtain valid consent from the patient prior to EN initiation.EN tubes should be flushed at 4 to 6-hour intervals daily and before and after passing feeds or medications to prevent contamination.Dispose feeds, used feed reservoirs, and syringes after a 24-hour period.Use commercial pre-filled systems prepared for hanging because they are...

Briefly describe enteral nutrition, at least four indications for its use, and four common locations for enteral feeding.

Enteral nutrition (EN) refers to the direct delivery of nutrients into the gastrointestinal tract via feeding tubes. EN feeding tubes are useful in administering boluses and medications and in gastric aspiration. Indications Poor oral intake, especially after gastrointestinal surgery Swallowing disorders, such as dysphagia Esophageal abnormalities and obstructions Anorexia (critically...

Briefly describe (three to five sentences) the role nutrition plays in maintaining health.

A nutrient-rich diet is required for optimal health outcomes and wellness. A state of wellness is where an individual is free of morbid conditions or dysfunctions. The etiology of nutrient deficiency diseases and chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes) is associated with over-nutrition or malnutrition. A balanced diet with the right amount...

Describe the classification, usage and side effects of Psychopharmacological agents that are reported to be classified into seven major categories.

Firstly, these are antianxiety agents commonly used for treating anxiety disorders and symptoms. The names of drugs belonging to this class are benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax), and other medications including buspirone (BuSpar) and paroxetine (Paxil). Antidepressant drugs are intended for treating major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and bipolar disorder....

Name six pigmentary disorders and describe them a bit.

6 pigment disorders are: Albinism which is a rare, inherited disorder is characterized by a total or partial lack of melanin in the skin. Melasma in which dark brown, patches of pigments occur on the face. Vitiligo Smooth in which white patches occur on the skin. Pigment loss is caused...

What is the meaning of allergy?

An allergy is a reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances thereby causing skin irritations.