Minerals are found in various foods, but grains and dairy products are the most common sources.
For example, bread is rich in sodium and potassium, as are beans and some fruits. Sodium and potassium support water-salt metabolism and promote ATPase channels. Magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium regulate plastic metabolism in bone tissue. Magnesium and calcium can act as antagonists; for example, only magnesium leads to glutathione accumulation. Dairy products are rich in calcium and magnesium, and phosphorus is found in grain foods.
Sodium deficiency leads to increased renin and aldosterone, hence low blood pressure. Potassium deficiency leads to abnormal heart rhythm, muscle weakness, and increased irritability. Calcium deficiency, especially in the elderly, is accompanied by the development of osteoporosis and increased bone fragility. Insufficient magnesium intake leads to nervousness and restlessness, and reduced phosphorus leads to reduced cognitive function.