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Explain some of the tasks in system maintenance.

Maintenance aspects: It is necessary to consider the maintenance aspect of reengineering solutions. Maintenance could be said to be the adaptation of the software product after delivery to correct faults, to get better performance or other attributes, or to adopt the process to varying environmental requirements. It is now proposed...

Discuss systems reengineering and how it is performed.

People generally use different forms of information in their day-to-day life. Their accessibility to information through digital media is also gaining much importance in various fields like office, library, and industries. In developing a system, it should be kept in mind that it is designed to satisfy the needs of...

Discuss why human factors should or should not be included in the design of the input systems. Explain why it is or is not important to test the system on users?

People generally use different forms of information in their day-to-day life. Their accessibility to information through digital media is also gaining much importance in various fields like office, library, and industries. In developing a system, it should be kept in mind that it is designed to satisfy the needs of...

Explain why it is important to use frames.

In designing a website, frames refer to the usage of the compound and independently convenient segments of a web presence. Frames can be used to produce good web page designs, which form the most important unavoidable part of the page layouts. It divides the entire screen into different areas to...

How much money is invested annually in development? As a proporation of sales? What operating system platforms are the target of the Exxon Mobil company’s software products? Is there a plan to port any company products to another plan?

Exxon Mobil uses Microsoft Windows, UNIX, and also LINUX-based platforms to run its software applications. The company spent nearly 700 million USD on development in 2006. “Exxon’s I.T. spend is about 0.16% of sales, compared to an average of 0.15% of sales for Chevron, Shell and BP.” Its main focus...

Who are the key development personnel involved with the creation and evaluation of software products? What is the tenure and educational background?

Software development personnel Developing software for large corporations like Exxon Mobil is a long and complicated matter. It usually requires a large team of personnel from various fields in the software industry. The type of personnel required in such a case is given below. Software analyst This person is considered...

Describe usability analysis. Explain if there is a relationship between usability analyses to technical feasibility tests. Describe the candidate systems matrix.

Usability analysis is defined as an examination of the information system’s human-computer interaction (HCI). HCI study is the area of the juncture of social sciences streams like psychology and social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers have analyzed and designed detailed...

Describe encapsulation, give examples, and describe how it is performed.

Encapsulation is a technique for minimizing interdependencies among separately written modules by defining strict external interfaces. The external interface of a module serves as a contract between the module and its clients and thus between the designer of the module and other designers. This definition by Snyder highlights module encapsulation....

Compare and contrast two notation standards for object modeling.

Object-oriented modeling (OOM) is a practical and useful programming language that aids in modular design and programming reuse. It is based on the following characteristics: Designers define new types of objects. Operations are defined for objects. The operations thus designed are generic in form. Class definitions share common components using...

Discuss data collection method Data Collection Tools.

Data collection methods entail the collection of evidence based on facts or figures where a valid conclusion may be drawn from. Data can be either quantitative or qualitative. The qualitative data is the data obtained from observations, tales or attributes while the qualitative data signifies the data that can be...

Explain how genetic programming can be used to solve problems.

Genetic programming may be used to evolve solutions to problems, and it is a way of finding an S-expression that best solves the problem. Genetic algorithms can be applied for solving number series problems since math functions are easily converted into a tree-form and vice versa. Genetic programming generates useful...

Explain how Kohonen map works.

A classic example of an unsupervised learning method is the one used in a self-organizing feature map or Kohonen map neural network. The network can learn to classify input data without being given any training information and classifications to be applied. For instance, it can cluster similar documents downloaded from...

Explain how the backpropagation algorithm works.

The backpropagation is an algorithm designed to compute the gradient of the cost function, and instead of using the simple step function, the method is about applying the sigmoid one. The method is a backward propagation of errors since its purpose is calculating “weight updates that minimize the error function...

Explain how the nearest neighbor algorithm works.

The nearest neighbor algorithm is one that employs instance-based learning – it stores the training data to use for the determination of classification for pieces of data as it encounters them. The algorithm computes the Euclidean distance between the instances to help it compare them with the training data to...

What is unsupervised learning? Give one example of unsupervised learning.

Unsupervised learning is the opposite of supervised one, and it means that the machine has only input data and no corresponding output options. It has to identify the classification criteria without any human help and provide output results. An example of an unsupervised learning method application is where data needs...

What is supervised learning? Give one example of supervised learning.

Supervised learning is about learning from pre-classified training data that consists of some training examples, and then inferring a function. The algorithm is called so because it resembles the learning processes supervised by a teacher. An example of the supervised machine learning algorithm is visual recognition, which is when a...

What is the purpose of Rete algorithm? Describe how it works.

Expert system tools use the Rete algorithm for efficiently applying many patterns or rules to objects to decrease the number of comparisons as it allows checking facts only against relevant rules. The algorithm is a search tree each path from the root node to a leaf representing “the left-hand side...

Draw three game trees, each having at least 6 plies (one ply is one level in a game tree), label +1, 0, -1 for the leaves and label all the nodes with +1, 0, -1 values using minimax search. Design three game trees in such a way that each tree demonstrates exactly one of the following cases: a. the first player has a forced win; b. the first player has a forced draw; c. the second player has a forced win.

a. The first player has a forced win. b. The first player has a forced draw. c. The second player has a forced win.

Explain alpha-beta pruning. Use examples.

Alpha-beta pruning is an altered version of the minimax algorithm, and it allows the removal of parts of the game tree that are useless to examine. With pruning, searching for a good move becomes more efficient. The main idea of alpha-beta pruning is that if one step is worse than...

Explain minimax search. Use examples.

Minimax algorithm is a basic adversarial decision-making algorithm. It is usually used in two-player games based on turns, and it aims to find the optimal next move. The assumption is the opponent’s playing rationally and trying to win the computer. A basic example is a chess play when a computer...

Explain frames in the networking context. Give one example.

Frame-based representation helps to express the idea of inheritance since frames (or nodes) are connected by relations. They can be either instance frames or class frames. They are “an object-oriented representation that can be used to build expert systems.” A frame has slots and slot values, with frame name being,...

Can machines think?

There have long been heated debates on whether machines can think, and there is still no definite answer to that question. I believe that at the current level of development, computers cannot think, and I am not sure if they will ever have the ability to do so. However, mimicking...

What should be the definitions of “intelligence” and “artificial intelligence”?

The word “intelligence” has lots of definitions, but in general, it is a mental ability for understanding, learning, reasoning, emotional knowledge, and problem-solving, which includes such functions as language, memory, attention, and perception. Artificial intelligence, on the other hand, is the simulation of human intelligence demonstrated by machines, and it...

What should managers do after IT outages and crises?

After dealing with a crisis, the authorities need to count their losses and review the IT system management strategy to avoid future problems. First, the managers need to become aware of all the damage that was dealt with by the internal and external stakeholders. The information about the causes of...

What should managers do during IT outages and crises to get things back on track?

The formula for dealing with a crisis is simple: managers have to locate the problem and eliminate it while ensuring that the organization can operate properly. The first priority is to create a command center and establish briefing sessions to fight the crisis. After that, managers should elaborate and implement...

What are some of the non-technical issues that arise during IT failures and outages?

The IT outages can cause a series of non-technical problems that may lead to severe consequences. IT failures are usually connected with customer safety issues and exposure of protected information. This is especially evident in healthcare, where the inoperability of the network system may obstruct the natural exchange of information...

What should companies do to avoid IT outages and crises?

There are various strategies to prevent IT outages and crises, both technological and procedural. The technical methods of evading the possible problems include incorporating component redundancy, alternative access methods, and extensive testing of old software to be able to support new demands. In case of a system overload, component redundancy...

What impact will each of the three branches (Sound Money, Web 3, and Open Finance) have on society? Explain which one you think is most likely to mature first, and what the key roadblocks are.

The rapid development of blockchain technology will become a catalyst for the growth of innovation in all spheres of human life, thus creating the basis for the emergence of a self-determined identity. For example, Web 3 is expected to completely change the work of social networks. Using blockchain, it will...

Describe an existing product or service that might benefit from integrating Sound Money, Web 3, or Open Finance. What would be the opportunities and costs or risks?

The integration of Instagram with Web 3 is likely to benefit this product by providing the opportunity to strengthen privacy and regulate advertising. The key problem is that Instagram users see what companies want them to observe since the way of advertising seems to be flawed. Today, a rapidly developing...

What are the outcomes of adopting crypto by governments in the future?

When the states begin to accumulate bitcoins in their foreign currency reserves, significant changes will occur. Bitcoin’s market capitalization is still too small to be considered an asset suitable for these purposes. The emergence of the first state to officially add bitcoin to its reserves is likely to encourage other...

What is crypto tokenization’s impact on clarifying rights and assets?

Active digitalization not only transformed payment systems into a new dimension but also made it possible to digitize the various assets and rights that are associated with them, which is called tokenization. One can tokenize stocks, fiat currencies, real estate, et cetera, and this phenomenon is a bridge between cryptocurrency...

Think about the data that different companies (tech or non-tech) have about you, personally. Imagine all of this information was leaked to the web due to security flaws. In this scenario, if you could have gone back in time, what are the top 5 recommendations would you make to the companies to ensure such information stayed private?

If any company lost my personal information, I would face some unpleasant aspects of such an incident. In particular, I would have to change all of my individual access codes, although I do not store any compromising information. Given that companies have access to only working information, I would not...

What do you think are the 5 strongest points made by the article “Why Privacy Matters Even if You Have ‘Nothing to Hide'” by Solove? Describe each in 3 sentences.

One of the strongest points of the article by Solove is quoting. For instance, the author cites Henry James and mentions the significance of the protection of personal data. Links to various publications and online resources are also valuable. Another strong point is the systematization of the presented problems. Solove...

In the case “The iPremier Company: Denial of Service Attack” by Applegate, how well did the luxury goods retailer perform during the attack? What should they have done differently, before or during the event? What should they do in the aftermath of the event? What, if anything, should they say to customers, investors, and the public about what has happened?

In the case proposed by Applegate, the retailer working with luxury goods performed well when responding to the attack. The analysis of firewall security was the step that contributed to the subsequent enhanced protection and response. However, initially, the company’s management should have paid more attention to information security issues....

Describe evidence that Internet addiction exists based on your personal experience followed by a summary of expert opinion offered in our text. In that context, discuss factors that contribute to Internet addiction.

Nowadays, the vast majority of people utilize various information technologies to access the Internet on a daily basis. Whereas the Internet can be used for a great variety of practical purposes, including work and education, many individuals spend an excessive amount of time online. Many also have a lack of...

In your own words, describe early milestones in information storage and retrieval, beginning with the Greek alphabet and proceeding to the advent of Ted Nelson’s creation of the hypertext system.

In antiquity, information was passed from one person and one community to another mostly orally. However, the situation had changed with the invention of alphabets and writing systems, which marked the development of information storage and retrieval. Libraries became the first places to store information and comprised a large number...

Identify principles and examples of effective project management and discuss how these can contribute to different elements or definitions of project success.

Since the effectiveness of project management is usually judged based on project success, there is a number of essential principles that must be followed. First of all, it is crucial to create a comprehensive project plan that would reflect every aspect of the proposed project. These aspects should include cost,...

Discuss different approaches to the measurement of project success.

Project management is usually defined as the application of tools, skills, knowledge, and techniques to facilitate the effectiveness of project activities required to meet project goals. Project management is used to prevent delays in projects and ensure that all goals with regard to quality, costs, and functions of the end...

Critically evaluate how solar energy can be used as a source of energy supply.

While solar power is utilized much in home heating, electricity, solar cooking panels, etc., replacing the transportation fuel is still underexplored. While huge, relatively slow vehicles like ships could utilize solar power with large onboard solar panels, small faster vehicles such as cars cannot use such onboard solar panels. The...

Explain the technology behind solar energy.

Sun is the primary source of clean and abundant energy. It is estimated that 120,000 TW of radiation is deposited by the sun on the surface of the Earth. This will be more than enough for all energy requirements by human beings. The sun is the only natural power source...

How useful is geothermal energy? Give reason for your answer.

Geothermal energy is the energy that is stored as heat under the solid surface of earth. Though the energy released from a volcanic cannot be controlled and collected, scientists have formulated methods to tap this energy. This heat can be collected from rare places from the earth’s crust in the...

Critically analyse the level of demand for energy in the world.

Technological advancement starting from the industrial revolution has increased the demand for energy. If we look at the history of man’s usage of energy, sun was the first energy source which provided light and heat to early humans. The discovery of fire resulted in the possibility of burning wood for...

Identify one recent innovation. Explain how the innovations used knowledge to apply tools, materials, processes, and techniques to come up with new solutions to problems.

An example of one recent innovation is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine for the detection of illnesses and the analysis of data. This innovation uses the existing body of knowledge developed by scientists and researches regarding a variety of illnesses and conditions, including rare cases that can...

Why do firms in high technology industries need to develop technology strategies? Give example of two firm’s technology strategies in detail.

Technology strategies are tailored to the use of information technology and other resources to fulfill the objectives of an organization (Tune, 2017). The businesses operating in the high technology industry rely on technology as the basis of their business model. Since technological developments can happen relatively quickly, for instance, one...

What are the types of innovation? Provide example of each type.

Satell (2017) defines four types of innovation – breakthroughs, sustaining, basic research, and disruptive. Disruptive and it implies a completely new product, approach to operations, or service that changes the existing models within an industry. An example is Apple, which introduced a breakthrough innovation with its smartphone since mobile phone...

Define technological innovation and answer why is it important to firms?

Technological innovation is a vital aspect of operations and development for any business because it provides new opportunities and allows them to create better, more efficient products or services as well as adjust operations for better efficiency. In general, this concept refers to a multidimensional strategy of generating an idea...

How can the product process development be optimized through learning from each project?

Every project undertaken is an opportunity to learn and improve on some specified areas. Close monitoring should be executed throughout all projects, and after completion, evaluation should be done to identify areas of improvement. This approach mimics the product development process. Normally, products undergo a development cycle whereby they are...

Give a rundown of key challenges for Santa Cruz Bicycles.

In the case of SCB, software implementation was not the key challenge. Change management is understood as the process of “renewing an organization’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of customers,” and together, all initiatives from the case meet this definition (Hornstein, 2015, p. 294). Basically, the...

Represent factors of Santa Cruz Bicycles’ success.

Firstly, many of these factors are directly linked to the implementation of the PLM system. It provided the team with new opportunities, including the reduced time needed to run one model and analyze its weaknesses. Due to new software, the team did not need to spend more than a few...

Describe Santa Cruz Bicycles company and its innovations.

Santa Cruz Bicycles (SCB) managed to put innovative approaches to process management into work in a successful manner due to new prototyping tools. The case does not present sufficient details concerning the implementation of the new system. However, based on what is known, the team’s ability to increase the speed...

Describe the implementation of the PLM system and new simulation technologies.

The implementation of the PLM system and new simulation technologies can be understood as a radical transformation defines as the actions involving fundamental changes in the way of conducting business (Inigo, Albareda, & Ritala, 2017). It is because the listed innovations are not linked to local changes, such as improvements...

Define the rewarding system at IT company.

Disregard of the professional field, reward programs encourage more people to become active users of a website and be more careful when it comes to the quality of the content that they produce (Hwang, Baloglu, & Tanford, 2019). In her interview, Alice Chou explains the decision with reference to an...

Describe monitoring a website’s traffic as a way to understand a company’s target customers.

Websites and social media accounts are gradually becoming the key source of information about products and services. Therefore, monitoring a website’s traffic is among the ways to better understand a company’s target customers, their needs, intentions, and factors that change their opinions concerning products (Ghaleb, 2015). Alice Chou is likely...

Describe IBM’s implementation of My Developer Works.

Just like other organizations, IBM manages to analyze changes in working practices that stem from the development of new technology and uses them to improve its social image and increase profits. The implementation of My Developer Works helped the business to take full advantage of two tendencies: the growing popularity...

What did you learn by reading and analyzing Yildirim & Korkmaz’s article “Challenge of millennials in project management”?

Due to this article, I managed to realize that the representatives of different generations may treat project management in different ways. Generation Y employees tend to be rather proactive and are often ready to take the initiative, but they require an appropriate environment for high productivity. These professionals value communication...

What are the implications/recommendations for future research in Yildirim & Korkmaz’s “Challenge of millennials in project management”?

Yildirim and Korkmaz mentioned that it was significant to focus on the “relationships between the demographics like gender, profession, education, income level or position of Generation Y professionals and their attitudes/perceptions in project management” because they seemed to be rather influencing but were not considered initially. Moreover, it might be...

What were the limitations of Yildirim & Korkmaz’s study “Challenge of millennials in project management”? How can the limitations be improved in potential future studies?

The researchers did not mention any limitations of their study in the article. However, they do not discuss the answers of different groups of employees separately, which may affect findings. It can be advantageous to analyze the information provided by employees, managers, and leaders to identify differences or at least...

What results were presented to answer the research questions/hypotheses in Yildirim & Korkmaz’s “Challenge of millennials in project management”?

Due to the conducted research study, Yildirim and Korkmaz managed to find out that project managers and leaders were expected to have good communicational skills. Their honesty, leadership, and sensitivity were also significant. Preferred project types were total contract value that was rather profitable and included social responsibility. The highest...

What type of research was conducted (e.g., experimental, mixed methods, qualitative) in Yildirim & Korkmaz’s “Challenge of millennials in project management”?

The article developed by Yildirim and Korkmaz consisted of both qualitative and quantitative data. However, qualitative information was mainly present at the beginning of the paper for the provision of general knowledge that was needed to understand the rest of the work. Additionally, it allowed developing a set of motivators...

What did you learn by reading and analyzing Truong & Jitbaipoon’s article “How can agile methodologies be used to enhance the success of information technology projects?”?

The article provides helpful insights into the ways research related to measurement validation can and should be implemented. I have read various articles concerning the effectiveness of various tools and measurements, but I had limited knowledge of the ways these instruments are validated. I also identified some gaps and limitations...

What are the implications/recommendations for future research in Truong & Jitbaipoon’s “How can agile methodologies be used to enhance the success of information technology projects?”

The major implication of this research is the availability of a sound measurement tool to evaluate important factors affecting the successfulness of agile projects. Truong and Jitbaipoon also stress that the model is consistent with the existing research on the matter. Practitioners can benefit from the use of this model,...

What were the limitations of Truong & Jitbaipoon’s study “How can agile methodologies be used to enhance the success of information technology projects?”? How can the limitations be improved in potential future studies?

Truong and Jitbaipoon identified a number of limitations of their study. The researchers stress that the small sample size is one of the primary limitations as it can result in error covariance of the model. In addition, the removal of some questions related to Agile Team Capability is also seen...

What conclusions were drawn in Truong & Jitbaipoon’s “How can agile methodologies be used to enhance the success of information technology projects?”

The researchers noted that hypotheses one, two, and four were supported while hypothesis 3 was not supported. Truong and Jitbaipoon concluded that the link between IT development agility and agile culture was not apparent. Nevertheless, the results of this study showed quite a close relationship between the two variables, so...

What type of research was conducted (e.g., experimental, mixed methods, qualitative) in Truong & Jitbaipoon’s “How can agile methodologies be used to enhance the success of information technology projects?”

To test the hypotheses, a quantitative research design was utilized. Truong and Jitbaipoon employed a pilot survey study to validate the research tools that could be used for further research. The sample size was rather small (32 people) but sufficient for a pilot study. Software developers from different regions across...

What research questions were addressed and/or hypotheses tested in Truong & Jitbaipoon’s “How can agile methodologies be used to enhance the success of information technology projects?”

Truong and Jitbaipoon developed a structural model to address the research problem. This model involved four major variables: IT Project Success, Agile Team Capability, Agile Culture, and IT Development Agility. The researchers tested four hypotheses that were formulated as follows: Hypothesis 1: “Agile team capability positively influences IT project success.”...

What was the research problem of Truong & Jitbaipoon’s “How can agile methodologies be used to enhance the success of information technology projects?”

Agile methodologies have been used extensively when implementing IT projects. Researchers pay considerable attention to these strategies, but the major focus is on implementing these practices and the factors affecting their success. However, insufficient evidence is available for the interrelationships of these factors and the validation tools to measure them....

Can hacking be ethical?

While hacking is invariably harmful from an organizational standpoint, its evaluation from an ethical perspective depends on a specific situation. Theoretically, hacking may be ethical if it benefits a greater number of people in a more profound way than it harms. For example, if a hacker reveals that a candidate...

Why has computer and network safety become critical for most organizations?

Computer and network safety is now crucial for most organizations. It happens because of the advances in information and communication technologies that allow using information obtained from the organization swiftly and efficiently, which may harm the organization’s interest. Hacking is one of the ways to get such information, and while...

What are some of the inputs to smartphone devices (what is inside them)?

The primary input devices for smartphones include touch-screen interfaces, microphones, Bluetooth modules, cameras, and fingerprint scanners. All of these devices are located inside of the smartphone and are used to provide input into the phone in order to receive specific output from the device. Touch-screen interface provides the majority of...

Explain bots and hacking. Which is more dangerous? Why?

Bots are another kind of threat to network security like viruses, worms, Trojan horses. It is a type of malware which allows an attacker to gain complete control over the affected computer. It is actually a program that can operate as an agent for a user or another program. A...

Visit scholar.google.com. Access this specialized search engine, and use it to research “Casual Dining Market.” Conduct the same search using the same key words using the regular Google window. Compare the results obtained through Scholar to the search from the main Google window. What similarities and differences did you see?

The similarities between the search results between a conventional Google search engine and scholar one primarily concern the trustworthiness of the results. Scholar engine generates results that have been published in books, scientific journals, and other research platforms. Usual Google search shows websites that are well advertised and not necessarily...

Describe your own online learning environment. How have you dealt with the technology of this learning style and online culture?

An online learning environment entails the conveyance of information electronically. It is essentially a computer-based and network-supported technology that enables the transfer of knowledge and skills, which include web-based, computer-based, digital collaboration, and virtual classroom actions. I have adopted a learning environment that uses a computer that is network-supported, simply...

a. What would be your primary concerns regarding cyberbullying if you managed MySpace? b. What steps would you take based on these concerns?

a. I would ensure that considerable action is taken against those indicted for cyberbullying offenses and bar them from holding future accounts and accessing services from the company. I would ensure that personal information is given before an individual is allowed to access the company’s social services. This information should...

Describe what you think are the social issues facing MySpace.

Information conversed through MySpace can inflict emotional distress to the users who are victimized by the bullies. Some MySpace users create fake accounts to intimate and bully others; this is inappropriate and is mentally disturbing. MySpace has been used to spread unsocial behaviors rather than the social purpose it was...

Describe what you think are the ethical issues facing MySpace.

MySpace is faced with a cyberbullying issue. Cyberbullying is whereby bullies use the internet to bully or threaten their peers; individuals use social networking sites, such as MySpace, to intimate their victims. The case of Lori Drew. MySpace users are violating its rules that forbid the creation of fake accounts...

Does the Tucson data mining project inappropriately violate the privacy of Internet users? Or is it an acceptable tradeoff to more intelligently combat terrorism? Please explain why you think so.

I think the Tucson data mining project inappropriately violates the privacy of internet users. The new technology cannot combat terrorism effectively due to the everyday evolution of technology, and many people communicate through pseudonyms or anonymous names, and it can be difficult to find the exact accurate information of an...

a. What ethical issues are present in the field of IT? b. What social issues are present? c. What political issues are present? d. What security issues are present?

a. It is ethically wrong to intrude into people’s private life and morally wrong to tap people’s personal messages. b. The new anti-terrorism technology intrudes into an individual’s private life on the internet and in other places. Innocent people may have their private conversations exposed. Mistakes in interpreting the results...