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How has Digital Media influenced how children interact with one another? How life was before digital and social media? Include whether the change has been positive, or negative.

As an ever-developing technology, digital media has rapidly changed our world. From daily routines and work to entertainment and leisure, digital media surrounds us. It shapes us, just as we shape it. It exerts great influence on the young, fragile minds of our children, and the next generation is going...

How has Digital Media influenced the field of education? Include a historical and global perspective of the US and at least two additional countries. Include whether the change has been positive or negative.

Digital media has ingrained itself deeply into every aspect of our lives. The field of education, of course, is one of the main users of digital media. Bit by bit, educational strategies are moving away from papers, pens, and printed books and towards computers and electronic libraries. However, as we...

Increased digital communication may pose a threat to intellectual property. How do you think the Internet is affecting intellectual property laws?

The effect of the internet on the IP stipulations is evident. The internet allows people to access varied information related to varied technologies. It thus helps the pirates in accessing the required information and then continue with their malicious intentions. Internet thus interferes with the aspects of IP laws. Another...

Discuss Bluetooth and its new technologies.

Bluetooth is a short-range radio frequency technology that is designed to connect phones, laptops, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), and other portable devices with none or little input from the user. It is a high-speed, low-power wireless link that is capable of transmitting voice and data. This micro-wave radio frequency is...

List the benefits of telecommuting versus traditional desk-bound office work.

Telecommuting allows flexibility where a worker can accomplish tasks away from the office environment at their own time and pace as long as deadlines are met. This works for workers who are self-motivated and can carry out assigned tasks with minimum supervision. Overhead expenses are cut on commuting and daycare....

Explain the difference between application software and support software.

Application software (end-user programs) refers to software that processes data for the user, such as spreadsheets, word processors, and database programs. Application software is usually bulky compared to system software due to its numerous functions. Example: A stock ordering system. Support software (also system software) refers to software used to...

Suggest three high-speed internet connection options for homeowners.

A dial-up connection is a type of internet connection available for homeowners and is usually offered by ISPs. To connect to the internet, the computer dials a phone number to first connect to the local server. The hardware expenses are less because the connections use a standard modem, in many...

Explain structure and benefits of transaction processing systems.

A transaction processing system can be described as a type of information system that gets the information, keeps it, processes, and retrieves the data. This information system ensures the availability of data since there is rapid processing of transactions. These systems are made to integrate broad safeguards and failure recovery...

Describe components of a decision support system (DSS).

Decision support systems are designed to allow analysts to retrieve data quickly and easily. There are three major components of a decision support system: a data system, a decision-making system, and the user interface. The data system is the knowledge base that acts as a data warehouse from which information...

Based on the features of the new Abu Dhabi energy bill, how likely is it that households that currently have below-average energy consumption will increase or reduce their energy consumption? Please explain with reference to specific features of the new energy bill.

It is most likely that houses with below-average consumption may have an increase in their level of consumption. The bill suggests putting in place a mechanism that would regulate the installation of standard coolers in homes. This means that homes that previously had no coolers or had those that consumed...

Identify specific Abu Dhabi or UAE factors that could limit the effectiveness of Opower’s energy bill format if used with the objective of lowering household energy consumption.

The environment in Abu Dhabi is generally different from that in the USA due to the fact that the two countries are inhabited by people of different cultures. Most people in the UAE like getting involved in artistic events, which include music festivals, artistic concerts, and other religious festivals. These...

Outline the primary logic and elements of the concept of Key Escrow. Include the proponents’ and opponent’s positions, the science and method of implementation, types, and names of the specific implementations, and the success or failure of the concept from its inception to today.

Escrow Key is an agreement by virtue of which a depositor complies to relocate property to an escrow agent for the goal of fulfilling a depositor’s responsibility to transfer it to a different party in whose interest the property is deposited to the recipient or beneficiary. The escrow agent agrees...

In the United States, Opower has only been able to reduce energy consumption by slightly more than 2% per household for households that are provided with Opower’s energy bill. Given the current household energy consumption in Abu Dhabi, why might this percentage be higher or lower than for households in the US?

The energy consumption in Abu Dhabi cannot be reduced by a higher percentage than that in the USA because of the fact that the region is known to be a major producer of oil. There is, therefore, a tendency for people to use high quantities of energy because of the...

What is the average energy consumption per household type in Abu Dhabi, and how does the consumption compare relative to international countries such as the US and Singapore?

Abu Dhabi has an overall energy consumption of about 41000 kWh per year. The consumption recorded for flats ranges from 7250 to 12350 kWh per year. The consumption in the villas maybe four times higher than that of the flats, especially when one considers the average bills paid annually. This...

What are the challenges in the Opower case for energy efficiency programs in general?

The provision of energy efficiency programs has many challenges. First, there is a lot of skepticism from the utility companies, especially if the programs being suggested have never been tried or used before. This, therefore, creates doubt among the utility-producing companies, who usually doubt the efficiency or viability of the...

Think about what digital literacy means to you. What role has technology played in your life so far? What is your comfort level with technology?

Digital literacy is the ability to effectively and safely use modern digital technologies in work and study, in professional and personal development. Nowadays, a large number of services exist online. People do not need to waste time waiting in the queue. Online services are comfort, convenience, and time-saving. Thanks to...

Discuss the newest member of the public-key algorithms called Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). Include ECC’s pros and cons, what ECC is, how computations are done and estimate ECC’s security. Be sure to identify any protocols that can be realized using elliptic and which ones are used today.

Elliptic cryptography is a section of cryptography that studies asymmetric systems of encryptions on the basis of elliptic curvatures on the finite fields. The primary advantage of using the elliptic encryption approach is the fact that current sub-exponential algorithms are fully capable to decode it. RSA and its derivatives are...

Discuss the WWII Navajo Code Talkers from how the concept was generated, how the original idea matured, the training, overcoming challenges with the language and military jargon, successes and failures, their contribution to the American war effort, and how professional encryption leaders view the program as a type of encryption.

Navajo code talkers are communication operators using natural language code for verbal data transmission. The most systematic preparations were made during the First and Second World Wars by Native American radio cryptographers, which is known in connection with the removal of the secrecy bar in 1968. They used the unknowingness...

Outline the principle behind and security properties of Message Authentication Codes (MACs). In addition, describe how MACs can be realized with hash functions and block ciphers. Include an overview of hash algorithms and their properties.

An important class of cryptographic algorithms is Message Authentication Codes (MAC) algorithms. Such algorithms are designed to ensure message integrity and authentication of their source. To do this, the MAC produced by such an algorithm is added to the message – a binary set depending on the message and on...

Describe the discovery of Public-Key Cryptography in the 1970s called RSA. Include how RSA works; practical aspects such as computing parameters, relying on prime factorization, speeding up the process, and using padding; and a security assessment of RSA. Lastly, posit if RSA will continue to be the most widely used public-key scheme in the future.

RSA or Rivest-Shamir-Adleman is one of the initial public-key cryptosystems, which are used to secure data transfer. In systems with asynchronous encryption, there are two keys: the public key, which is transmitted in clear form over the communication channel, and the private key, which is used to encrypt messages on...

Discuss the practical importance of the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP). The security of many cryptographic asymmetric schemes including the Diffie-Hellman key exchange (DHKE) and Elgamal encryption scheme (EES) is based upon DLP. Include how the DHKE protocol works, the underlying 1-way function (DLP), and any security implications. Lastly, describe how EES relates to DHKE.

The basic practical implication of the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) is the fact that no classical approach can compute discrete logarithms, which makes them secure and safe. It is important to note that both Diffie-Hellman key exchange (DHKE) and Elgamal encryption scheme (EES) are based on the DLP concept. Key...

What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of the major imaging methods?

Of the different imaging methods, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides immense value in enabling the provision of high levels of resolution images. The technology entails the use of powerful magnets to get results because of which metal objects have to be removed from the vicinity. Exposure to the powerful magnetic...

The “Going to “Great Lengths” to Prevent the Escape of Genes That Produce Specialty Chemicals” paper by Norman C. Ellstrand mentions “terminator” genes. What exactly is “terminator” technology?

The terminator gene is a particular genetic sequence incorporated into a seed’s DNA which, when turned on by a man-made chemical catalyst, the sequence renders the seed and crop it produces sterile. In other words, the farmers will not be able to use the seed of the crop for further...

What was the trend in the PC industry, and how did Apple Inc. adapt to them? Were these dynamics of the PC market favorable or unfavorable for Apple?

The PC industry was born in the mid-1970s and since then has expanded rapidly. Since its beginnings, the PC market has witnessed several booms. An essential feature of this industry was innovation and new product development. Hardware components were changing fast, and technology was improving rapidly. One company had no...

Describe the impact and influence of the EPA on foam system design?

Environmental Protection Agency – EPA has placed some restrictions on the use of foam for fire fighting. One of the reasons is that the foam has fluorine and alkylphenol ethoxylates, hydrochlorofluorocarbon – HCFC, dichlorodifluoromethane as one of the constituents. These chemicals cause ozone depletion and the EPA has placed a...

Sam likes to surf the Web for fun, to buy things, and to research for his classes. DSL is available at a cost of $60 per month for 1.5 Mbps down and 384 Kbps up. Cable modem service is available for a cost of $50 per month for 1.5 Mbps down and 640 Kbps up. Wireless DSL is available in his apartment building for $45 per month for 1.5 Mbps down and 256 Kbps up. Explain the differences in these services and make a recommendation.

Sam uses the internet for fun, games, and education. The following services are available to Sam. The DSL has a 384 Kbps up. The cable has a 640 Kbps up, and the wireless has a 256 Kbps up. All three of the connections have the same downstream at 1.5 Mbps....

Cathy runs a part-time business out of her apartment. She buys and sells collectibles and has recently discovered the Web with its many auction sites. She has begun buying and selling on the Web by bidding on collectibles at lesser-known sites and selling them at a profit and more well-known sites. She downloads and uploads lots of graphics (pictures of the items she’s buying and selling). She is getting frustrated with the slow Internet access she has with her 56-Kbps dial-up modem and asks you for advice. DSL is available at a cost of $60 per month for 1.5 Mbps down and 384 Kbps up. Cable modem service is available for a cost of $50 per month for 1.5 Mbps down and 640 Kbps up. Wireless DSL is available in her apartment building for $45 per month for 1.5 Mbps down and 256 Kbps up. Explain the differences in these services and make a recommendation.

Cathy currently has a 56-Kbps dial-up modem, and the internet is way too slow. She is stuck in the stone age of internet access. Her options are DSL at $60 per month, a cable modem service at $50 per month, or a wireless connection for $45 per month. To use...

Describe synchronous optical networking (SONET). How does it differ from synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)?

“The synchronous optical network (SONET) is the American standard (ANSI) for high-speed dedicated-circuit services. The ITU-T recently standardized an almost identical service that easily interconnects with SONET, under the name synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH).” SONET has different optical carrier levels that start with a minimum of 51.84 Mbps. The OC...

Compare and contrast ring architecture, star architecture, and mesh architecture.

Ring, star, and mesh are the “three basic architectures used in dedicated-circuit networking.” Imagine that you’re five years old again and you’re learning to draw, so you have a ‘connect the dots book.’ The first dot is in New York, the second in Illinois, the third in Oregon, the fourth...

Describe how asymmetric encryption and decryption work.

With symmetric encryption, the key used for encryption has to be shared over the internet. This creates a high risk in terms of the security of the encrypted data and the possibility of the key falling into the wrong hands. As a result in order to waive such risks, asymmetric...

Describe how symmetric encryption and decryption work.

Encryption is the method by which data can be coded and securely transferred from one location to another. The unauthorized access of the data, as well as protection of data, is the main objective in encryption and decryption of data. The encrypted information is referred to as ciphertext. When it...

Describe the objects in object-oriented design. Discuss why and when are they used.

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming model that employs objects and their relations to design applications and computer programs. It is based on a number of processes, including encapsulation, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. In Object-oriented design software engineers approach models system as a group of interacting objects. Each object represents...

Discuss why human factors should or should not be included into the design of the input systems. Explain why it is or is not important to test the system on users.

Human factors is a branch in the scientific field that tries to understand the interaction among humans and other elements of machines, principals, professions data and methods employed in designing in order to optimize human well being, and overall machine performances. The human factors should be put into consideration when...

If a computer app beats you every time you play chess, is the computer smarter than you? Does your computer think? Explain why or why not in detail.

Although computers were created by humans, the creators are not necessarily smarter than their creations. Certainly, the computer’s “brain” works faster than that of a human, and they can solve problems faster because they are not distracted by emotions or some outside factors. In the game of chess, the computer...

Define Sociotechnical Systems Analysis.

Sociotechnical systems analysis is a subdivision of modern technological activity and is frequently related to making technics.

What is “Concurrent Engineering” as it pertains to the development of a new automobile?

Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to the process of product development, which is aimed to meet client’s expectations. As for the development of a new automobile, concurrent engineering allowed shortening this long process due to the simultaneousness of actions provided by collaboration and co-operation typical of this approach.

Find the definition of the key term “QR code”.

QR code is an abbreviation for “quick response,” which is a barcode with a matrix of dots that can be scanned to convert it into a string of characters which usually leads to the opening of a specific URL.

Find the definition of the key term “PDF”.

PDF is an abbreviation for portable document format, a multi-platform file format developed by Adobe Systems. It is used to portray a document that can be edited in a variety of ways, popular for its universality.

Outline and describe how you would research technology advancements in a field of your choice such as manufacturing technology, electronic communication technology or information technology.

Rapid advancement in technology in general has proved to be key driving force not only for the technology field, but for almost all related fields. The Information Technology in particular has proved to be the prime mover for rapid advancements taking place in almost all spheres of human life. For...

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless data transmission technology that may help bridge the gap between urban and rural broadband speeds (e.g. in Australia). Discuss WiMAX including how it works, speed and range, WiMAX equipment, and comparison with 3G.

WiMAX is a wireless broadband communication technology that uses an OFDMA modulation scheme and IP networking and data transport protocol. The standards implemented for mobile WiMAX deployment are IEEE 802.16e-2005 and WiMAX Forum Network Working Group specification. WiMAX provides fixed and mobile wireless broadband connectivity with a base station without...

Compare and contrast two-tiered, three-tiered, and n-tiered client server architectures. What are the technical differences, and what advantages and disadvantages does each offer?

Tiers are the logical components of an application that can be executed on the same or different physical or virtual servers. Two-Tiered Client-Server Architecture In 2-tier architecture the front-end user agent connects with the back-end database server without any intermediary. Since there is a dedicated session between the client and...

What is the purpose of a data communications standard? Describe two important data communications standards-making bodies: International Telecommunications Union – Telecommunications Group (ITU-T) and the Internet Engineering Task force (IETF). Explain their differences.

The data communication standards are the documents that contain authentic information for the implementation of new technology. The purpose of the standards is to provide one method for integrating different technologies so that they can interoperate without any error. By implementation of standards, the different or same technology products can...

How has the IS function affected the structure and the work roles of other functions in an organization? Should IT function reside in the CEO position?

IS has affected the structure and work roles of almost all the functions in an organizational infrastructure through maintaining and assessing the quality of its employees which conforms to the IT staffing, planning, recruiting, training, and retaining its staff. Limiting IT in the CEO or CTO position is outdated by...

How would you go about using the information system function for security in a corporation with regards to the Internet? Give examples of the measures and technologies you would use.

The IS function of security for any organization, particularly in an online business organization, is to manage risk, whether real or perceived. IS in context with the risk management provides the tools to help the developers decide between inaction and action-to enable you to compare the losses incurred with inaction...

How would you go about using information system to overcome the ethical problems in the company for which you manage or work? Is this the best method? Why or why not?

There are six dimensions of the ethical problems that circulate IS in our everyday lives which include employment, health, privacy, crime, working conditions, and individuality. However, overcoming ethical issues in the work environment requires IS to detect computer or cybercrime through various security management tools and technologies that detect unauthorized...

What are the factors that you would use in evaluating computer software and why?

Software requirements are often user or customer-defined and are based upon the evaluations that intranet or internet supports. These include web servers, commerce suits, catalog creation, and online marketing and order management. The system architecture is required and verified by the customer for integrating the front end with the back-end...

What factors would you use in evaluating computer hardware and why?

Computer hardware or software resources start contributing towards the first implementation phase of the SDLC which concerns the criteria set by companies in evaluating and selecting the resources. However, hardware is determined by fully functional servers that support small, medium, and large businesses with a full variety of storage options....

What are the three advantages and three disadvantages of prototyping?

The advantages of prototyping include cost-effectiveness which enables the programmer as well as the user to have full control over cost reduction, having quantifiable and regular user feedback, and helping the developers of the prototype to be subject to any future possible enhancements. However, in spite of these advances, prototyping...

How do you determine when to use prototyping on your project?

Prototyping is determined to be implemented by analyzing five feasibilities, operational, economic, technical, user-end or human, and political. All the five factors need thorough analysis before initiating or developing a prototype. Operational feasibility provides the developer of the prototype with the complete knowledge and requirements of the operational features, which...

Evaluate prototyping and why it is used.

Prototyping is used in the design phase of the SDLC, whenever a new system model is built; particularly prototypes are used to give the end-user a convenience for manipulation. Prototypes are used within organizations as a significant tool for Systems Analysis and Design (SAD). Prototypes act as tools that are...

Discuss the different organizational roles, how they were chosen to participate in a feasibility study with which you are familiar and how they interacted in the feasibility study.

The Adobe team was divided into two groups: the creative team and the technical team. The goal of the creative team was to define the look and feel, i.e. the requirements for the user interface, design the user interface, and architect the user interface. The goal of the technical team was to develop the user interface components including...

Give a real life example that supports a systems development life cycle heuristic.

Adobe Macromedia Flex application development requires the implementation of Systems Development Life Cycle for the realization of the full potential of Flex technology into the web application. The organization of the project team and the feasibility of SDLC implementation in Macromedia Strategic Services and WHITTMANHART collaboration to build a dashboard...

Is Artificial Intelligence (AI) real intelligence? Can a computer learn and replace human thinking? AI can be grouped into three areas. How are they similar or different from one another?

Artificial intelligence technologies are used to make decisions by the top-level management. Basically, AI is a field of science that is based on many disciplines such as computer science, biology, psychology, linguistics, mathematics, and engineering. With AI, computers can be developed to simulate the human thinking process and perform human...

Define what a neural network (NN) is.

A neural network is a different technology which builds intelligent programs using models which is similar or parallel to the neurons of the human brain or it may follow methods that are found in genetic algorithm and artificial life. “Neural networks are appealing because they learn by example and are...

What are the types of an expert system?

Knowledge-Based It is known as the heart of an expert system. It contains the expert knowledge of a particular domain. A knowledge-based it contains both the general knowledge and case-specific information. “Knowledge representation is the process of choosing an appropriate knowledge formalism, in which the acquired knowledge is encoded so...

Define what an expert system (ES) is.

Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science. It is based on the automation of intelligent behavior. It is also defined as the collection of problems and methodologies studied by artificial Intelligence researchers. Expert system (ES) is one of the applications of artificial intelligence’s are built to solve a wide...

The Internet is a driving force behind developments in telecommunications, networks, and other information technologies. Do you agree or disagree? Why?

The Internet has greatly boosted telecommunication, network, and information technology in general. Telecommunication is a communication process that transmits information using telephone lines. This communication process cannot take place in the absence of the Internet. For the transmission of information to take place in this system, the computer is connected...

Explain how a systems analyst would go about obtaining the requirements of a proposed system. Discuss why it is important to obtain the systems requirements. What are the potential benefits or problems of acquiring these requirements?

The fact-finding stage in the Systems Development Life Cycle plays an extremely crucial role in the success of the overall proposed system. There are several fact-finding methodologies that can be employed. Usually, covering the current and historical requirements, interviews, questionnaires, prototyping observation, and Joint requirements planning (JRP). Incomplete requirements definition...

How could a business leverage its investment in information technology to build strategic IT capabilities that serve as a barrier to entry by entrants into its markets?

Business managers can use investments in information technology to directly support a firm’s competitive strategies. Key strategies associated with information technology include locking in customers or suppliers, building switching costs, raising barriers to entry, and leveraging investment in information technology. Investments in information systems technology can help build relationships between...

Give examples of how can information technology support a company’s business processes and decision-making, and give it a competitive advantage.

For example, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG of Germany, a leading maker of high-end printing presses for printers and print media producers throughout the world developed the ability to monitor its equipment remotely using built-in sensors, networking microprocessors, and other information technologies. Thus they provided maintenance services in a cost-effective manner using...

How can information technology support a company’s business processes and decision-making, and give it a competitive advantage?

An information system is an organized combination of people, hardware, software, communication networks, data resources, and policies and procedures that stores, retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization. Information systems and technologies are very important aspects of successful businesses and organizations. They play a crucial role in improving the...

Considering AyaNova Service Management & Work Order Software, what kind of computer hardware and software are needed to support this type of business application?

The basic AyaNova requirements or the computer hardware and software that are required to support this system are as follows: MS Windows 2000, XP, 2003, Vista Microsoft.NET 2 Framework or higher. It is important to note that AyaNova is not compatible with Windows 95, 98, or ME. The backup process...

Considering AyaNova Service Management & Work Order Software, what information do the applications provide? What kind of analyses do the applications allow? What kind of knowledge does it assume that users will have?

AyaNova work order and service management software have been able to develop powerful features in order to help deal with all aspects of service and repair including automated work orders, service setting up, service calls, preventative maintenance, and searchable database all at an affordable license cost that is based on...

Considering AyaNova Service Management & Work Order Software, what business activities and/or business functions does this type of business application support?

AyaNova Service Management & Work Order Software was initially developed to support service work order software for small businesses. This system was developed to basically support complex needs such as send out technicians to produce computerized work orders, have power over service expenses, track customers, etc. AyaNova Service Management &...

Discuss the “Critical Chain” approach as a method of dealing with estimators adding personal safety factors to cost and schedule estimates. Focus on the problem it is trying to address. What are the pitfalls in its use?

The critical chain method is an advancement over the theory of constraints used for managing projects. The critical chin method basically involves taking care of the bottlenecks, i.e. the critical steps involved in the project completion. Once the critical chain of events is identified by the project management team, requisite...

Explain some of the tasks in system maintenance.

Maintenance aspects: It is necessary to consider the maintenance aspect of reengineering solutions. Maintenance could be said to be the adaptation of the software product after delivery to correct faults, to get better performance or other attributes, or to adopt the process to varying environmental requirements. It is now proposed...

Discuss systems reengineering and how it is performed.

People generally use different forms of information in their day-to-day life. Their accessibility to information through digital media is also gaining much importance in various fields like office, library, and industries. In developing a system, it should be kept in mind that it is designed to satisfy the needs of...

Discuss why human factors should or should not be included in the design of the input systems. Explain why it is or is not important to test the system on users?

People generally use different forms of information in their day-to-day life. Their accessibility to information through digital media is also gaining much importance in various fields like office, library, and industries. In developing a system, it should be kept in mind that it is designed to satisfy the needs of...