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What is the general idea of the article “The effect of study preparation on test anxiety and performance: a quasi-experimental study” by Yusefzadeh et al.?

Students tend to prepare for tests during the period immediately before the exam and on their eve. They also report high levels of test anxiety, especially in health care education, which is highly stressful. Schedule-based study preparation may help them reduce their apprehension and improve their performance.

Perform brainstorming based on the article “Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and College Exam Grades” by Jennifer Barrows et al.

a. Test anxiety reduces a student’s grade in single tests depending on its severity.b. Self-efficacy improves a person’s self-opinion and confidence and lets them perform better academically.c. Both factors can affect a student’s test performance simultaneously, and there is a negative relationship between the two.d. Self-efficacy does not moderate the...

Hobbes believes that there is no such thing as justice until the Leviathan is established. This means that justice does not exist independently of an authority to define and enforce it. Explain why you agree or disagree with this view.

I can’t entirely agree with this perspective because justice can be established in society or community by its members by themselves without the need for authority. Justice established and enforced by an authority is not always necessarily representative of the concept of justice but rather the will of an authority....

Should social or moral worth ever be taken into account in deciding who should get a transplant? Suppose the question is whether to give a transplant to a Nobel laureate or to a hard-working, honest truck driver. Assuming that all other factors are equal, which one should get the transplant? Why?

It isn’t easy to consider such aspects of morality, merit, and ethics since the scenario can as easily affect a loved one. This overarching perception will differ depending on the actors involved. I believe that social and moral worth should be taken into consideration but to an extent. If a...

Don’t we reward athletes, doctors, lawyers, and business executives according to their merit and not by democratic vote? Should our leaders be chosen the same way, as Plato suggests? Why or why not?

Selecting political leaders based on merit is a highly valuable suggestion since the democratic process has proven to be highly ideological or partisan. Democracy, particularly its modern forms, is an inherently flawed process. Voting is driven by significant bias, impulsive decision-making and often lacks evaluation of candidates it is meant...

To determine citizens’ aptitudes and talents, Plato favored testing them while they are young. Is it possible to discover the best career for someone this way? What about people who discover or develop their true talents later in life? Is Plato too optimistic about the ease of discovering a person’s true calling?

Plato’s approach does have some merit since testing citizens early on can help identify very talented individuals or highlight characteristics in young people that can be trained to make them better professionals. While Plato’s vision does depend on people following their calls in life, it can be argued that realistically...

Explain Plato’s Utopian vision for a just society. In your view, what would be some of the beneficial or harmful effects of a society based solely on merit, as Plato proposed?

Plato’s Just society would be a perfectly balanced utopia on all levels. Society would be divided into three classes of guardians, auxiliaries, and craftsmen, with each performing key duties and loving their jobs while remaining equal in status. Plato’s idea of a just society consists of individuals fulfilling their role...

Hobbes believes that there is no such thing as justice until the Leviathan is established. This means that justice does not exist independently of an authority to define and enforce it. Explain why you agree or disagree with this view.

I agree that justice does not exist outside of the authority structure. First of all, it is doubtful that justice can be objective since different people have drastically dissimilar views on what is right and wrong regarding punishments. Without authorities to produce and enforce rules, society will likely adhere to...

Should social or moral worth ever be taken into account in deciding who should get a transplant? Suppose the question is whether to give a transplant to a Nobel laureate or to a hard-working, honest truck driver. Assuming that all other factors are equal, which one should get the transplant? Why?

To me, it is appropriate to consider social and moral worth when making decisions concerning transplants in case of disasters, crises, and similar difficult situations involving massive risks. For instance, if some society’s survival depends on a particular invention, it is reasonable to give preference to a person who works...

Don’t we reward athletes, doctors, lawyers, and business executives according to their merit and not by democratic vote? Should our leaders be chosen the same way, as Plato suggests? Why or why not?

In many instances, we reward professionals representing our society and fulfill important functions according to their merit and actual achievements instead of summarizing all people’s opinions about such specialists and their abilities. As Plato suggests, children with the leadership potential can become the representatives of the guardians (the upper class)...

To determine citizens’ aptitudes and talents, Plato favored testing them while they are young. Is it possible to discover the best career for someone this way? What about people who discover or develop their true talents later in life? Is Plato too optimistic about the ease of discovering a person’s true calling?

Plato’s proposition concerning testing can help to understand one’s natural talents better and detect prerequisites to success in some activities. However, the results of such tests are unlikely to be enough to make the best career choices possible. The reason for their limited effectiveness is that a person’s key areas...

Explain Plato’s Utopian vision for a just society. In your view, what would be some of the beneficial or harmful effects of a society based solely on merit, as Plato proposed?

According to Plato’s famous idea, a just society can be built emphasizing merit and reason. The existence of Plato’s just society is impossible without attempts to make people adhere to accepted standards. It limits citizens’ opportunity to express their individual perspectives and differentiate themselves from the crowd since Plato sees...

Explain why the minimum wage varies from place to place within the United States.

It goes without saying that different American states have different economic conditions, costs of living, and local governance systems. All these factors have a massive influence on the minimum wage rates across the country. The District of Columbia has the highest minimum wage of $13.25, while almost 20 states have...

Courtney Reagan’s article “Target Raises Its Minimum Wage to $13 an Hour, with Goal of Reaching $15 by End of 2020” talks about retailers being are “creative, offering things like giveaways like $5,000 vacations, charity donations and gift cards” to their employees. Do you think it is a sustainable strategy for their business? Explain your answer.

As the unemployment rate in the United States currently remains at historically low levels, for multiple companies, the recruiting and retaining of qualified workers became highly essential. Various logistic companies and retailers invest in competitive wages and career development for their employees. Some of the retailers offer expensive vacations, gift...

Critically analyze the impact of a hike in wages at Target on the employees.

In June, Target’s minimum hourly wage for all new and current employees is increasing to $13. This pay rise is a part of the company’s goal to reach $15 an hour in 2020. In 2017, Target announced its three-year plan to increase the minimum hourly wage from $10 to $15,...

Explore the normal functions of the bones and bone cells so that you can describe what factors may contribute to osteoporosis. Mention the name of the bone cells and their function in modeling and remodeling the bone tissue. What factors can increase or decrease the action of the bone cells, and what is the result? How does the body maintain the balance between bone resorption and bone formation? Based on the causal factors of osteoporosis you have detected, which are preventable or curable? Is hormonal replacement therapy the solution?

Bones, which comprise the greater part of the skeletal system, are generally in a state of constant renewal. This renewal happens through the processes of modeling when the bone is formed at one site and broken in another, and remodeling when the bone tissue is broken and formed again in...

Describe the general structures and functions of the integumentary and skeletal systems and how they work together to maintain homeostasis.

Integumentary and skeletal systems are interconnected and both essential for maintaining bone health. The inability to maintain homeostasis between them may lead to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis. In osteoporosis, the normal functioning of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is impaired due to several factors, leading to increased bone fragility and, while...

Go beyond naming bones and their location. How would you incorporate this information to educate and potentially improve the health of a female client in your care?

Women’s health is a relatively new field that raises a variety of questions about the promotion of positive health outcomes, effective education, and prevention of diseases among female patients. Despite the fact that many people like to think that the skeletal systems of men and women are almost similar, it...

Why are melanin and keratin important?

Melanin and keratin are found in the outer layer of the skin and contribute to the development of skin and hair. Melanin is a pigment that is produced by a melanocyte cell to determine the tone of hair and skin. Keratin is a protein that is produced by a keratinocyte...

Our forty-six-year-old friend is showing symptoms of the classic “mid-life crisis,” buying a trendy new sports car, flirting dangerously, and alluding to leaving his wife. What advice do you have for us to speak with him?

You need to inform the man that “having a stable marriage has also been found to contribute to well-being throughout adulthood.” Everything he may feel is typical of his age because he suffers from realizing changes in his physical state and health. It is advisable to initiate conversations about his...

Our two-year-old granddaughter refuses to wear the clothes we pick for her every morning, making getting dressed a twenty-minute pitched battle. What techniques, if any, should we use to stop this behavior?

It is important for a two-year girl to “develop a sense of independence.” You need just allow her to choose clothes she wants to wear and provide her with more independence when dressing if she wants. Conflicts can be the result of her eagerness to address her personal wishes. These...

My sister’s teenager has decided not to attend college in favor of joining the stage crew for a touring rock band. What advice can I give my sister?

Teenagers are more interested in the opinion of their respected peers. Thus, “peer relationships become a central focus in adolescents’ lives.” At this age, teenagers think they can make significant decisions, but the level of their reasoning is still low. It is possible to recommend the discussion of the situation...

A well-intentioned, but meddling, relative came to visit our house the weekend before our child’s first birthday, in April. My relative cautioned me that I must be spoiling my child, because my son hid behind my leg and clung to me when she tried to give him a hug, and he did not do this when she visited us at New Year’s. How can I explain to her what is happening with our child?

It is possible to explain that a kind of fear of strangers is typical of children of that age. Thus, “babies may demonstrate this by crying and turning away from a stranger, by clinging to a caregiver.” Infants require more caregivers’ attention than other children, according to Piaget’s theory, and...

What factors influence the percent of VO2max at which the lactate threshold occurs? That is, for some people, the lactate threshold occurs at 50% of their max, while for others, it occurs at 75% of their max. What causes these differences? In addition to listing the factors, explain how they would increase or decrease the threshold.

VO2max is the maximum volume of oxygen the body can deliver to muscles at work per minute. The lactate threshold along VO2max is considered the most responsive physiological indicator to endurance training and physical efficiency. Therefore, dependent on the level of training, the lactate threshold occurs at different levels. For...

The patient is a 36-year-old mother who recently delivered a child 9 months ago. She has been using condoms for birth control for the last 7 months. Today she is requesting a more convenient method of birth control. She is not sure of her current pregnancy plans, however, she does not wish to discuss sterilization or an IUD.

From the given medical history, one can understand that the patient does not have any serious restrictions against the use of birth control pills. It means that the client can be recommended various methods of contraception that might be convenient for her. First of all, so-called combination pills can be...

Explain Hume’s view on art and the standard of taste. Do you agree with Hume that some people are more keenly attuned to art objects and that their aesthetic sensibilities are more “delicate”? Or, is he just being a snob?

As an aesthetics theorist, Hume suggested that the evaluation of beauty and art is inherently subjective, and this reasonable premise resulted in some questionable conclusions. From this perspective, art is defined by the subjective response that it evokes in humans, and Hume stated that some humans could be described as...

Critique Arthur Danto’s institutional theory of art. One criticism of it is that if people in the artworld define what is and is not art, then there seems to be no way for the decision-makers to decide among themselves what is art. Is this a fair criticism? Why or why not?

The institutional theory of art, which emerged from Danto’s ideas, highlights an essential aspect of art and its framing. In particular, this theory emphasizes the role of the art world, which consists of art-related environments, theories about art, and the communities of people who are involved in art. Asavei states...

Explain Hume’s view on art and the standard of taste. Do you agree with Hume that some people are more keenly attuned to art objects and that their aesthetic sensibilities are more “delicate”? Or, is he just being a snob?

Hume’s theory of taste presumes there is an objective value to pieces of art defined by a standard of taste, and some individuals are more keenly aware of what constitutes good or bad art. This theory could have earned him a deserved reputation of a snob if he perceived taste...

Critique Arthur Danto’s institutional theory of art. One criticism of it is that if people in the artworld define what is and is not art, then there seems to be no way for the decision-makers to decide among themselves what is art. Is this a fair criticism? Why or why not?

Arthur Danto’s institutional theory of art holds that social institutions – namely, the “art world” – are the ultimate authority in judging what constitutes a piece of art. Some object to this notion by pointing out that it only leads to ad hoc conclusions on whether something is art or...

Consider the following situation: suppose a chip maker technician makes printed circuit boards of uniform quality for a company making computer chips. The employer knows from considerable past experience that the following relationship holds between the wage rate and the output per hour. Fill in the column on unit labor cost. Put an asterisk next to the wage rate(s) that minimizes unit labor cost.

Unit labor cost was calculated by dividing wage by output per hour. The wage rate of $18 minimizes unit labor cost. Wage Output per hour Unit labor cost, $ $10 15 0,6667 $12 30 0,4 $14 42 0,3333 $16 52 0,3077 $18* 60 0,3 $20 66 0,303 $22 70 0,3143...

What tendency within capitalism is Smith referring to in the following quotation? Explain why it may come about. People of the same trade seldom meet together even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public or contrivance to raise prices. – Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Book IV, Chapter VII, p.145, para. c27.

Smith refers to collusion, which occurs when two companies in an oligopoly make an agreement to fix their prices to maximize their profits. This usually happens when there are a few companies in the industry. If one company raises its prices, customers will go to its competitor. But if two...

Keynes’s “The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” discusses the need to evaluate an investment project by taking account of the expected rate of profit on that investment. What does Keynes’s comment seem to tell us about our ability to make such an evaluation – and what would seem to be the implications of what he says?

Keynes states that our ability to make a long-term evaluation of investment is very poor because we do not have the necessary knowledge. Implications of what he says may be the need to use the concepts of net present value and future present value when evaluating the yield from an...

What are the three major forms of capitalist competition? Discuss each, making specific reference to their impacts on the determinants of the profit rate.

Three major forms of capitalist competition are price competition, breakthroughs, and monopoly power. In price competition, companies attempt to attract customers by offering products equivalent to those of their competitors but at a lower price. Thus, companies that use price competition strategy decrease the price of output by decreasing either...

A company has a profit rate of 10%. The value of its capital goods (machinery) is $100,000, which was entirely used up over the year. Its 10 workers were paid $15 an hour, and each did 1000 hours of work during the year. What were the total sales of this company? What is the total profit made?

The rate of profit is calculated by dividing the total profit by the value of the capital goods owned by a company: r=R/K In turn, the total profit R can be calculated using the following formula: R=PzZ – PmM – wH where PzZ is total sales, PmM is the cost...

What are the three central assumptions of neoclassical economics?

The first assumption is that people have rational preferences among outcomes. The second assumption is that while each person maximizes utility, companies tend to maximize their profits. The third assumption is that individuals act separately and are guided by credible and full information in their decisions.

Distinguish between Pareto optimality and efficiency.

There is no difference between Pareto optimality and Pareto efficiency, and these terms can be used interchangeably. Pareto optimality, or Pareto efficiency, is when there is no way of redistributing the goods in a more efficient way without making someone worse off.

Mariana has accumulated some savings. She decides to start her own business as an artisanal soap maker. Draw a five-circle diagram that illustrates her business’ organization and processes. Give a detailed description of what your circles are showing.

Mariana will start an online business positioned in her apartment. For the first time, she will produce soap in small quantities, so there will be no need to take a loan. Her savings will be enough to buy the required variable materials (fats, alkali, fragrance, and essential oils) and fixed...

Consider the market for oranges. Using supply and demand graphs, explain clearly what is the effect on equilibrium price and quantity traded of oranges under the following five scenarios. a. The orange crop freezes. b. A scientific study is published proving that orange juice is good for people. c. Immigration authorities detain undocumented workers who had been working in the orange harvest. d. There is an economic boom in Florida. e. At last, robots are successfully designed and programmed to harvest oranges at a cost below that of human workers.

a. If the orange crop freezes, supply decreases from S1 to S2, and demand D remains unchanged. As a result, the equilibrium price will increase, and the equilibrium quantity will decrease (shown below). b. If a scientific study has proven that orange juice is good for people, demand will increase...

Define accumulation. Explain why accumulation might occur at a rapid rate under some circumstances or in some historical periods, and at a slow rate during other periods of history.

Accumulation is an investment that is aimed at increasing profit and includes gathering, processing, and exploiting the inputs that are required in capitalist production and in selling the output. It is generally considered that accumulation forms the basis of capitalism. Accumulation depends on a number of factors, including a change...

Indira Gandhi, the late Indian prime minister, said in 1982 an address to the World Health Assembly, “The idea of a better-ordered world is one in which medical discoveries will be free of patents and there will be no profiteering from life and death.” Patents are property rights over intellectual discoveries. What do you think of Gandhi’s statement?

I think that Gandhi’s statement contradicts the very essence of property rights. People who made a medical discovery would like to be empowered to control their intellectual property and decide who uses it. Depriving a person of his or her right to that intellectual property would be unfair as it...

In a small village, 101 people live together. The only thing that the people produce is grain. The overlord “employs” one hundred ordinary men and women, all of whom use an identical production process to make identical bushels of grain. Given the methods available to the overlord to control workers, workers’ motivation, and other determinants of the intensity of labor, to produce a bushel of grain requires 10 hours of effort from each person and 1/10th of a bushel of grain (as seed). Each week, the community does 1000 hours of work in the fields (10 hours per person). The overlord makes sure that everyone is paid the same, .05 bushels per hour worked, which is .5 bushels per bushel produced. This amount is consumed by each worker and his/her family in daily living. a. What are the total, necessary, and surplus products produced in this society per week? b. Is there an exploiting class in this example?

a. Firstly, one needs to calculate the total product, which is the number of bushels of grain that are produced each week. Given that the community does 1000 hours of work each week and it takes 10 hours for each worker to make 1 bushel, the total number of bushels...

Describe the ways in which capitalism brought about rapid and dramatic change. In particular, give at least three examples of its effect on work and production.

It is possible to say that capitalism changed almost every aspect of society. Firstly, capitalism has spurred continuous technological innovations and scientific advancements. With the proliferation of capitalism, old ideas and tools quickly became obsolete and were replaced by new tools and new ideas. For example, at the beginning of...

Discuss impacts of creative accounting scandals in the USA & bank failures and accounting during the financial crisis of 2008-2009.

Major creative accounting scandals in the United States during the financial crisis of 2008-2009 are associated with Lehman Brothers, the Madoff Investment Securities, and Bear Stearns. Each of the cases of creative accounting mentioned above had a significant impact on the market. Lehman Brothers scandal triggered much of the distress,...

Discuss creative accounting scandals in the USA & bank failures and accounting during the financial crisis of 2008-2009.

Major creative accounting scandals in the United States during the financial crisis of 2008-2009 are associated with Lehman Brothers, the Madoff Investment Securities, and Bear Stearns. Each of these institutions used creative accounting to present its financial performance in a better light for the investment community. Lehman Brothers extensively used...

Explain investigating theft acts.

Theft act investigative methods are applied when investigative concealment techniques appear to be ineffective. Theft act investigations are activities that focus on the direct investigation of the fraud act. The most common types of such investigations are invigilation, surveillance, searching computers for electronic evidence, and gaining physical evidence. When using...

What are liability, asset, and inadequate disclosure frauds?

The common methods to understate liabilities include understating such records as accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and future obligations, as well as omitting contingent liabilities and recognizing unearned revenue as earned revenue. Accounts payable can be understated by underrecording purchases or making it seem that liabilities have been covered. Usually, understated...

What are revenue and inventory-related financial statement fraud?

Revenue-related financial statement fraud occurs when fictitious revenues are recorded or actual revenues are recorded prematurely. A number of different ways in which revenue is recognized may be exploited for fraud. Revenue-related financial statement fraud can be detected by creating a transaction diagram representing a flow of the company’s transactions...

What is financial statement fraud?

Financial statement fraud occurs when the company’s statements of financial position are deliberately altered to mislead the readers of the financial information. As a rule, financial statement fraud involves falsifying balance sheets, statements of income, and statements of cash flows. It is propagated by a company’s management to receive desired...

What are conversion investigation methods?

Under a conversion method, the correlation between a suspect’s improvement of lifestyle and the related fraudulent activity is investigated, as well as how a perpetrator spent stolen funds. The main reasons for performing a conversion investigation are to evaluate the extent of embezzlement and gather evidence to obtain a suspect’s...

What is impression management?

Impression management is the concept that is employed to study how management shapes an audience’s impression of an organization. The audience usually includes stakeholders, shareholders, potential investors, and the media. In a typical impression management process, a manager may regulate or control information that is disclosed to the audience to...

What are the methods of creative accounting and fraud?

The main principles of creative accounting include three financial statements: the balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows. The leading creative accounting methods are to increase income, decrease expenses, increase assets, decrease liabilities, and increase operating cash flows. Increasing income is a good way to increase the profit...

What are the motivations to indulge in creative accounting and fraud?

There are several reasons why companies get involved in creative accounting and fraud. Firstly, there may be a need to create evidence that a firm is a great investment opportunity for stakeholders. If the company’s sales are lower than expected or liabilities have significantly increased, the business entity may be...

Hume thinks that all knowledge must be traced back to perceptions; otherwise, assertions of knowledge are meaningless. From this, he concludes that all theological and metaphysical speculations are worthless. Do you agree with him? Why or why not?

David Hume’s ideas are related to the field of epistemology. He proposed to seek the grounds of knowledge by analyzing closely the ideas, opinions, superstitions, and other mental constructs that allowed the formation of that knowledge. By doing so, it is possible to explain why people believe what they believe,...

Suppose someone claims that he can easily refute Berkeley’s idealism by simply kicking a rock or eating an apple. Does this demonstration show that Berkeley’s view is false? Explain.

It is very hard to refute Berkeley’s idealist ideas and certainly impossible to do so by throwing a rock or eating an apple. The philosopher did not claim that solid objects are merely hallucinations or the products of imagination. While material objects are inseparable from the mind and the spirit,...

Explain Locke’s view that we can have knowledge of an external world despite our being directly aware only of sense data. Do you agree with him, or do you side with his critics who say that we can know only the contents of our minds?

John Locke stated that the knowledge of the external world is possible through sensory experience. Yet, there is a limited number of things that one can actually know about the external reality in this way. For example, a person can know that they and their mind exist and that other...

What does Kant mean by “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind?” Do you agree that at least some of your perceptions are conceptualized?

Kant’s sententious slogan that “thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind” implies the togetherness of principle. In other words, Kant means that there should be a correlation between reality and abstract thought. Therefore, while the mind relies on what is delivered to it by the sensory system...

Hume thinks that all knowledge must be traced back to perceptions; otherwise, assertions of knowledge are meaningless. From this, he concludes that all theological and metaphysical speculations are worthless. Do you agree with him? Why or why not?

I do not agree with Hume’s argument that without perception all theological and metaphysical speculations are worthless. First, the idea that knowledge can only be acquired through perception is philosophically limited because it is not justifiable. Hume implies that the mind cannot think beyond the inputs of sensory faculties. However,...

Suppose someone claims that he can easily refute Berkeley’s idealism by simply kicking a rock or eating an apple. Does this demonstration show that Berkeley’s view is false? Explain.

Kicking a rock does not show that Berkeley’s view of knowledge is false. I think Berkeley was making a case against Locke’s claim that all that we know are mental pictures of certain objects as opposed to the objects themselves. He says, “the supposition that things are distinct from ideas...

Why does Berkeley deny the existence of material objects? Explain his view of subjective idealism. Do you accept or reject his theory? Why or why not?

Berkeley denies the existence of material objects because he believes that such objects exist only in the mind of perceivers. In other words, material objects cannot exist without being perceived in the first place. This approach underscores the doctrine of subjective idealism, which denies the existence of materials objects outside...

Explain Locke’s view that we can have knowledge of an external world despite our being directly aware only of sense data. Do you agree with him, or do you side with his critics who say that we can know only the contents of our minds?

Locke’s argument that despite being directly aware only of sense-data we can have knowledge of the external world is based on the fundamental nature of reality. This knowledge is based on reality as opposed to mere imaginations. For example, we know that the sun exists because that is the reality...

This is your first position as a nurse manager. The holidays are rapidly approaching, and the hospital policy states that each unit will negotiate holiday coverage individually. You are already getting requests via e-mail and on Post-it notes for holiday time. Several staff members have come to you stating that they “never” seem to get their requests for holidays. Discussion among the staff members is creating dissension and conflict. a. Discuss the potential impact of this problem on you and the unit staff. b. Describe a minimum of one positive consequence and one negative consequence of this conflict. c. Select a model of conflict resolution and explain how you, as a nurse manager, might resolve this conflict.

a. Any situation which can potentially turn into a conflict is dangerous for any staff unity. However, even with the best management system, such situations are inevitable due to some basic human instincts. Regarding the case with holiday coverage, trying to find a compromise between all the staff members has...

Research the bicarbonate buffering system found in the bloodstream. Write a paragraph or two discussing this system and how your breathing rate can cause acidosis and alkalosis.

The bicarbonate buffering system comprises weak carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions. Its function is to regulate the pH of the blood. When any acidic substance enters the blood, hydrogen ions are neutralized by the formation of carbonic acid and water. Given that carbonic acid is already part of the buffer...