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After reading the articles, write a substantive response stating your thoughts on the biological theories relating to human behavior and criminality. Do you support these theories? Agree with some, but reject other parts? Please also incorporate what you also learned in the chapter readings to support your answers.

The biological theories on human behavior and criminality bear much weight and addsubstantially to criminology behaviors and genetics in general. The association of genes with criminal behavior and anti-social behavior has been proven in various genetic studies. There is a possibility that people who commit crimes do so without their...

Briefly explain the harm that occurs when crime is racialized.

Many political theories have primarily been concerned with race. The political theories presumed that various racialized worldviews depended on the subordination of other individuals. Having a racial bias is harmful to justice because of prejudiced attitudes to people of a certain race or ethnicity. An example of such a harmful...

In what ways do contemporary crime statistics respond adequately and inadequately to the purpose of criminal statistics, particularly for our understanding of race, ethnicity, and crime?

Criminal statistics are used by criminologists and police departments in order to evaluate the levels of safety of certain regions to prevent further crime. Following the trends in crime can be beneficial in case they are adequate. However, there are instances where ethical or racial biases cause the statistics to...

Explain how constitutional policing forms the foundation of community policing.

It should be noted that both constitutional policing and community policing can be complementary of each, where the former can form a strong and rigid foundation for the latter. For example, constitutional policing establishes “the foundation for ethical, lawful practices that seek to protect civilians’ civil rights,” upon which community...

Discuss how everyone within an agency, from patrol officers up through chiefs may contribute to police legitimacy, creating a community more willing to cooperate with the police and to accept the outcome of their interactions with the police.

All police personnel in an agency can improve and contribute to police legitimacy through direct cooperation and collaboration with the community leaders themselves. For example, the efforts and strategies should aim toward “working with community residents to identify problems and collaborate on implementing solutions that produce meaningful results for the...

Some city officials suggest the police should reach out to community leaders, meet with civic organizations in an effort to diversify their administration to enhance and fortify relationships. Discuss the benefits and/or drawbacks this has for community policing.

The statements of such city officials are correct and relevant since community policing cannot be fully implemented without a cooperative effort from community leaders, groups, and organizations. For example, it is stated that “communities include diverse groups – racial minorities, the LGBTQ community, the mentally disabled, immigrants, and more. Community...

Citizen review boards allow citizens to play a key role in investigating and overseeing police activities. However, some argue that civilians are not qualified to judge whether a police officer followed its agency’s rules or the law. Take a pro or con stance on citizen reviewboards and explain the benefit or drawback of their use. Provide examples to support your position.

Citizen review boards can be viewed as a strategy for balancing power dynamics between police workers and civilians. However, evidence suggests that civilians, especially complainants, will never have their expectations met since their perception of the quality of police work is only affected by outcome rather than the appropriateness of...

Please define Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in your own words.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a law passed by Congress in 2002 to help protect investors from corporate financial reporting fraud. The act is characterized by a comprehensive approach to solving problems caused by fraud in the financial statements of companies whose securities are listed on stock markets. It is...

Please define Business Law in your own words.

Business Law is a set of legal norms contained in the sources of law (normative legal acts) and determining the procedure for carrying out entrepreneurial activity. Business entities should know the list of their rights and obligations, and regulatory documents regulating their activities. This information base will be needed to...

“Half of all Americans believe that immigration has an adverse impact on crime.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain why or why not.

I suppose that the given proclamation did correspond to the reality several years ago, but now, it is outdated. The newest trends in American society involve substantial empowerment of Democrats that, in turn, influence public opinion on a range of problematic social issues, including immigration. Notably, the outcomes of the...

Jot down some notes below about some contracts you are familiar with. Consider employment contracts, customer or supplier contracts from work, or even a lease. No need for great detail scouring the contract language, but be able to discuss in class how the contracts are “incomplete.”

One of the most widespread contracts in the business relations sphere is the Customer-Supplier contract, which defines many aspects and details of the product or service transmission from one side of an agreement to another. More specifically, the contract involves a concrete sum of payment from the customer to the...

Discuss the expansion of the presidency, as well as Constitutional grants and limits. How do you view the evolution of the presidency and what you have seen of our modern government?

The rise of presidential power can be divided into two parts. In the 19th century, the president’s power grew in response to the rapid increase in population and economic power. However, the rise of power was limited and was primarily related to economic growth and national defense. In the 20th...

Explain the central assumptions of biological theories of crime.

The biological theory of crime is, perhaps, one of the most dubious theoretical frameworks currently existing. The theory suggests that people do not develop a propensity to crime due to sociocultural factors but are, instead, born as criminals. The theory implies that criminals cannot control themselves and, therefore, implies that...

In your opinion, can genetics predict criminality? Explain.

Personally, I believe that genetics can define certain characteristics that may be conducive to crime. For instance, the absence of empathy, which can be a genetic trait, may condition an individual to criminal behaviors. However, overall, it seems that sociocultural influences have the greatest power in determining criminal behaviors.

What are your initial attitudes about the relationship between immigrants and violent crime? Does the data from the Cato Institute study validate or challenge your attitudes?

Initially, I thought that the presence of violent crime is determined by numerous factors. Illegal immigrants are one of those factors that can potentially cause increased violent crime due to the low-paid jobs or their absence. The data from the Cato Institute demonstrates that there are difficulties in measuring the...

How are crime and deviance similar and how are they different?

Crime and deviance are two similar concepts that have their similarities and differences. On the one hand, both crime and deviance are considered a misdemeanor or a breach of following commonly established rules. Another similarity is the negative general public’s perception of such wrong-doings. On the other hand, the difference...

Explain the field of criminology.

Crimes are addressed within the context of the field of criminology, which is a specific study aimed at investigating all the information and contexts related to crime. In particular, this study is based on a combination of several other disciplines that inform understanding of crime and criminal behavior. These disciplines...

Explain why “criminal activity is diversely created and variously interpreted.”

Criminal activity is diversely created and variously interpreted due to the multiple differences in human personality, social contexts, and cultural interpretation of crime. Firstly, the differences in contexts, political orders, and cultural backgrounds form variations in the way what is considered legal behavior and what is perceived as a crime....

Is crime the result of individual responsibility or social problems? Explain.

Crime is a multifaceted issue that involves both individual particularities of an offender and reflects the influence of the social environment serving as a bigger societal context characterized by problems. According to Abor and Oyafunke-omoniyi, multiple external factors influence the likelihood, tendency, frequency, and severity of the crime. For example,...

Outline a model sexual harassment policy.

The outline of the policy encompasses different sections that address approaches to regulation and implementation tactics. It is important for organizations to develop the framework to attain the core objective of eradicating sexual harassment in the respective working environment. The various components include purpose, scope, elements, the company’s rules, the...

How is the ethos of bravery, autonomy, and secrecy helpful to the official police mission to serve and protect? How can these ethe be harmful to good policing?

The ethos of bravery, autonomy, and secrecy are ultimate parts of the police subculture. They also provide support and an overview of other aspects and themes of police sub-culture, such as social isolation and solidarity. The police officers’ central communication circle involves other police officers, so regulations are necessary for...

Have we limited police officer autonomy too much with laws and departmental policies, or do we need this control over their behavior to make sure they do not abuse their authority?

Police officer autonomy, which is known as one of the ethe, is limited by the law in many aspects. Police officers must follow the rules and regulations provided by the instructions to keep the social structure balanced. In my personal view, the implementation of discretionary law enforcement is necessary because...

What should have been done to prevent the Miami River Cops corruption scandal? There are several possible ways out: to reorganize the hierarchy of the department and to supply the system with more money so it does not have the motivation to find hidden ways. Give examples consistent with the ethos found in studies of police subcultures discussed in the reading.

The ethos of any police subculture can be seen and analyzed from the point of good and bad examples of values and ideas that are cultivated. Positive examples include devotion to the profession, a desire to self-sacrifice for the purpose of saving the citizen’s life, and excellent teamwork that helps...

What are the four elements of police department Early Intervention Systems? Explain the purposes of these systems?

The early Intervention System includes four basic elements for dealing with problematic and suspicious officers. They are the following: Performance Indicators, Identification and Selection of Problem Officers, Intervention and Post Intervention Monitoring. The first implies the selection of criteria that can help to find problematic policemen. For example, the system...

Describe life in a juvenile facility. Is everything being done to help these juveniles turn their lives around and become productive members of society? What changes would you make?

There are several types of such institutions; however, in most cases, the activity in them is built around four groups of activities. First, the main task is to separate dangerous juveniles from society. Second, correctional institutions provide methods to ensure that convicts return to the community with constructive tendencies. Third,...

What problems do juveniles experience in adapting to institutional life? What problems do juveniles experience when they are released from an institution?

There are several problems that juveniles suffer from in such establishments. First of all, a sharp change in the household environment should be highlighted. Many juvenile institutions are characterized by strict, almost military discipline and absolute adherence to established schedules. Second, juveniles’ lives in institutions are centered around an established...

Explain the effect of violent aspects of American culture on juveniles involved in episodes of school violence. What do you think, if anything, could have been done to prevent the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in February 2018? If you could pass a law in an effort to decrease or stop school shootings, what would it be, and why would it work?

The culture surrounding minors influences them, shaping and determining their behavior, including within the school’s walls. At the moment, there are a lot of violent elements in American culture. First of all, there are many bandit formations, which for almost 60 years of their existence, have become an almost integral...

Read the article “Police officer resigns after video shows him using excessive force on an 11-year-old girl”. How can this type of treatment label a child?

Such an attitude can leave irreparable consequences on the child’s psyche. First, she may be afraid to communicate with people, not to cause them the same reaction as this policeman had. Second, she may stop trusting people whose vocation is to protect the population. Third, psycho-emotional stability can be disrupted....

America’s bail system is the subject of two in-depth articles and a section of the 2013 NY State of the Judiciary Report. How does the bail system deny justice and inflict grave hardship on the poor? Cite specific examples from several sources. What reforms have been proposed to fix the broken bail system? What obstacles have prevented reform thus far? How might they be overcome?

The American bail system is not ideal, but it sets the same framework for all categories of people. It means that the rich can afford to deposit a large sum if necessary, while the poor are often forced to go to jail. According to Weiner, low-income citizens are cramped to...

Summarize how the right to counsel has been interpreted by the United States Supreme Court. How does the current system of providing legal counsel to indigent defendants comport with rulings of the court?

Under the 6th Amendment of the Constitution, all defendants in criminal prosecutions have the right to assistance of counsel. However, minority and poor defendants often could not afford counsel leading to unfair trials. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled several times on the issue. In the famous 1932 case Powell...

Explain Paul Butler’s argument in support of “racially based jury nullification”. Explain his position on non-violent versus violent crimes.

The racially based jury nullification argument proposed by law professor Paul Butler after the infamous O.J. Simpson trial suggests that African American jurors should refuse to convict fellow African Americans regardless of the strength of evidence against them. Jury nullification has its roots in English common law when a juror...

Choose either Kennedy’s or Butler’s position on the role of race in the jury selection process and argue in support of one of them. Don’t simply repeat their arguments, add some additional supporting material.

If the race is utilized in a manner recommended by Butler, it breaks up the foundation of the system and opens up Pandora’s box metaphorically, as other parties can then utilize the courts to meet or advocate their demands, regardless of if they are morally justified or not. Jurors take...

Identify and analyze the elements of battery. Understand the case for the “eggshell skull” rule. Determine what renders contact “offensive” for the purpose of battery. Understand how the intentional torts of assault and false imprisonment interact with criminal law and attendant social perceptions of “crime.”

The battery is a tort committed intentionally and, in most cases, negligently, resulting in an undeniable offensive or dangerous contact with an individual or an object connected to them. Compared to assault, where the fear of a future reference might underpin a civil claim, the battery is concerned with actual...

Identify three primary privileges for actions that would otherwise constitute intentional torts (consent, defense of self, and defense of property). Explore how courts treat, and individuals convey, the scope of consent. Understand how our rights to defend our property and to defend ourselves differ, and how these rights reflect values about our possessions and personhood. Understand the circumstances when a defendant may be held liable for the torts of another.

When an individual has been reported in a court of law for a tort involvement, he or she can avoid related liabilities by asserting several defenses. Self-defense is the first reason a defendant can use it, and this mainly works for tort cases relating to assault and battery. The first...

Identify the elements of torts based on theories of negligence, and what constitutes the general standard of care identify relationship of strict liability to “abnormally dangerous.”

There is a great correlation between tort and negligence because the laws of the former give a plaintiff the right to sue a defendant for intentional harm. The components defining the two phenomena can be used interchangeably since they exhibit similar legal consequences. When an individual suffers emotional or physical...

Explain the history of women in the legal field. What are the challenges that women working in the legal field have faced that is different form the challenges men face? Discuss women in the judiciary (especially the Supreme Court). What advantages do women have over their male colleagues in the area of victim services and advocacy?

Traditionally, women were barred from pursuing careers in the legal field, with the first women being admitted to the bar in 1922. The Sex Disqualification (Removal Act) of 1919, enacted on December 23 that year, allowed women to venture into the legal profession. Notably, Sybil Campbell, Ethel Bright Ashford, Helena...

Identify and explain the theories that have been put forth to explain why women might be treated more lenient or more harshly in sentencing. What is the evidence for these theories? How does race effect the punishment received by women? Explain the factors that in recent decades have altered sentencing decisions for women (whether they go to prison, length of time sentenced to prison etc.)?

Although gender stereotypes have historically worked against women, they have advanced key benefited women, particularly in sentencing during criminal proceedings. This implies that women generally receive shorter sentences than men for similar crimes. Additionally, courts are less likely to incarcerate a female offender than a male culprit. However, women who...

Discuss the due process function and the rehabilitation function of the courts.

Due process as a function of courts involves protecting individual rights against any form of undeserved privileges. This is made possible by guaranteeing the person’s counsel right, and jury trial privilege as well as safeguarding them against any form of self-incrimination. On the other hand, the rehabilitation function is meant...

What is a preliminary hearing, and why is it important?

A preliminary hearing refers to the procedure done before an unlawful trial, with the major aim being to establish whether the already presented evidence is enough for the case to be moved to trial. In other words, this refers to a guided investigation made before a case trial with the...

Explain the history of women entering the police force. What are the challenges that they faced and what challenges do they still face? What are the challenges women in corrections face? What are some advantages women have in the roles of police officer, corrections officer, or probation or parole officer?

The incorporation of women into law enforcement agencies can be viewed as a major social change milestone. Notably, female officers were not deemed capable of undertaking general policing duties. Women started entering the police force in the United States during the Victorian Era and undertook such activities as matron duties...

Compare and contrast trial courts and appellate courts.

Trial courts are where most of the cases start their determination through proper examination of fact questions. Appellate courts are set to make a review of previously made decisions and with the ability to uphold or decline determinations made at trial courts. Additionally, trial court decisions are made on new...

Fully explain “Rape Myths” and why they are so problematic.

Rape myths are false stereotyped assertions and beliefs regarding sexual assault, victims, and rapists perpetuated to excuse the violence, initiate hostility towards the victim, and potentially lead to bias in criminal prosecution. They are problematic since they emanate from traditionally accepted cultural stereotypical perspectives and deliberately obscure the true nature...

What is human trafficking and how does it relate to sexual victimization?

Human trafficking entails the transportation of people through coercive, fraudulent, or deceptive means for purposes of exploitation. It is closely related to sexual victimization since traffickers use SV as a tool to control their victims, assert power, and obtain compliance. This implies that these two criminal acts are anchored on...

Explain PCR-STR and RFLP DNA fingerprinting.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) refers to an automated process that creates many Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence copies. Short tandem repeat (STR) is a technology that evaluates nuclear DNA’s specific regions. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) refers to a technique used to create homologous DNA sequence variations.

Explain the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS).

The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is a generic name that describes the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) criminal justice support programs, DNA database, and the software that run them. Palmer et al. expound that the overall software development is managed by an FBI manager within the laboratory.

Give a brief history of the 911 operating system.

The AT & A announced its establishment of the nine-one-one in 1968 as the United States’ emergency code. Palmer et al. explain that Senator Rankin Fite made the first call in Haleyville, Alabama, through the Alabama Telephone company. When a person starts the 911 call, the signal goes to the...

Discuss the advantages of computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems, including enhanced CAD.

Computer-aided (CAD) systems are used by call-takers, 911 operators, and dispatchers to record and prioritize incident calls, determine responder in the field’s location and status, and dispatch personnel effectively. Therefore, CAD systems improve communication, enhance information management, and ensure that the customer and employees are safe.

What does a stop and frisk require?

Police are not allowed to proceed with stops and frisks at any given time or for any reason. The officer is only allowed to conduct this procedure in the case that they have reasonable suspicion that the suspect is guilty of criminal activity. Though the probable cause is not necessary,...

Does the race of the victim or perpetrator impact court decisions?

The history of the legal activities has depicted a big difference when sentencing whites and non-whites. Non-white victims are given lesser sympathy when the perpetrator is white, while non-white perpetrators are judged severely. Many studies have shown that this bias affects minority races and ethnicities more harshly during sentencing when...

Is justice blind?

The phrase ‘justice is blind’ refers to the fact that the judicial system is objective, unbiased, and impartial. No current system like this exists in the world. All legal systems are prone to certain biases or corruption, but the extent to which certain systems are debilitated varies. In the United...

What are the traits of a police culture or subculture? What is the blue wall of silence? Do you believe the “wall” exists? What can be done to break down the wall of silence?

Police culture encompasses the beliefs, attitudes, and values shared between officers that influence their conduct and behavior. The police culture or subculture has several traits, which include honor, loyalty, clandestineness, individuality, clannishness, and isolation from the public. The blue wall of silence is used to describe the informal code of...

Describe the traits of the police personality. Does police work attract people who already have this personality, or do people develop these traits after becoming an officer?

Law enforcement officers are faced with a wide variety of potentially dangerous events and situations during the execution of their duties. These circumstances include gun violence and interaction with criminal gangs, which threaten the life of the law enforcement officer. The exposure may significantly cause changes in the personality and...

Briefly describe the two-court system in the United States. Present one example of how this dual-court system effects businesses in the positive sense?

A dual court system is a judicial structure that involves two independent judicial procedures, one operating at the local level and the other at the national level. The United States and Australia have the world’s longest-standing dual court systems. Under the power-sharing system in the United States, known as “federalism,”...

Is legal compliance the same as acting ethically? Briefly discuss.

What is legal is not necessarily ethical, and what is ethical is not always legal. White claims that business ethics is the science of how a business should act in situations where ethical dilemmas and disputes arise. There are specific rules of professional ethics, as people understand that the law...

Explain the parens patriae philosophy as it relates to the juvenile justice system. How has parens patriae affected girls differently than boys and how does this difference persist? Next, explain the changes in female delinquency since the 1980’s and explain how this led to the “Violent girl” phenomenon.

Parens patriae philosophy is the United States juvenile justice cornerstone that requires the state to act in the child’s best interest as a surrogate parent. Parens patriae traditionally referred to the state’s sovereign and guardian role to persons under a legal disability. The principal evolution in America emerged as the...

Describe the historical progression of women in prisons (Include the different facilities and their characteristics). How was the experience of women different from the experience of men?

Females have been experiencing challenges in jail due to inadequate amenities. Research indicates that a woman in prison during the early 19th century shared facilities with men counterparts. Most states in the United States did not have separate facilities for females. The prisons resembled classrooms where the inmates stayed together....

Describe the characteristics of women in jail. What are the different reasons women are sent to jail and which are the most common reasons for a jail sentence.

Studies indicate that most women in jail have criminal histories. Based on the family characteristics, women in prison have a related member who was incarcerated. Additionally, a high percentage of women in jail have a history of serving a juvenile sentence. The women in prison also have parenting responsibilities, and...

Discuss the challenges women face returning to society after incarceration. How does reentry from jail differ from reentry from prison? What are the similarities and differences between probation and parole. What is gender-responsive programming and why is it important?

The incarcerated women face many challenges as they rejoin society, including the ability to re-establish a home and an everyday family life. This situation encompasses the legal and physical custody of children. When the women exit jail, it is difficult to find an affordable house and other necessities due to...

Do you believe that biological theories have something of significance to contribute to the discussion of causes of crime and deviance? Explain.

Despite the considerable attention from researchers, a unified, comprehensive approach to understanding the determination of crime has not yet been developed. Modern science has established that the psychophysiological characteristics of a person (nervous system, temperament), which affect the regulation of his behavior, are primarily determined by the endogenous (innate) and...

Describe how various body chemistry theories explain crime.

In the context of the study of criminal behavior, particularly violence, the following questions come to the fore. What biological factors and how do they affect the psychophysiological characteristics of the offender? Which entails a violation of the regulation of the individual’s behavior and contributes to his extreme deviant manifestations?...

Describe the Similarities and Differences between Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Among the similarities between criminology and criminal justice is that they address issues concerning law enforcement and crime. However, the latter is the societal response to crime and addresses all aspects of offenses from detection, commitment, prosecution, and punishment of offenders. Conversely, criminology does not involve itself with actual crimes...

Identify the Three Main Ethical Issues in Criminology.

The main ethical issues in criminology are whom, what, and how to study. The former entails the criminologists’ decision on the target section of the society to explore while ignoring all the other social classes and segments. What to study is the objective, unbiased, and impartial conduct of research. The...

Explain the Social Goals of Contemporary Criminal Law.

The social objectives of contemporary criminal law are retribution, incapacitation and deterrence, and rehabilitation and restoration. The former is the focused imposition of punishment on people who violate the existing laws. Deterrence is inflicting severe sanctions and sentences, which discourage people from engaging in crime. Incapacitation is the use of...

What Is the Theory of Social Harm?

The theory of social harm is the criminological perspective regarding the narrowness of the societal definition of crime and the need to integrate detrimental actions committed by organizations. This model seeks to expand the scope of what comprises a crime beyond the ordinary acts of violation of the law, such...

Briefly outline how Article 3 of the UNCRC may override Article 12.1.

Provisions of Article 3 may override the tone of Article 12.1 due to the child’s lack of age and maturity, leaving the core role of children’s protection to the concerned parties. It also allows for administrative policies which have an acute effect on the proceedings that are put in place...

Discuss the following topic: Police must follow knock and announce rule and any exceptions to the rule and consequences police face for not complying with the rule.

The law that governs search warrants is based on the guarantees of the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution. According to it, law enforcement officers must announce their presence and provide residents with the opportunity to open the door before a search. The objectives of the Knock-and-Announce Requirement are as...

What is true diversion?

True diversion is a practice that creates an opportunity for an accused not to return to the system, provided that the accused adheres to particular rules and conditions. These could be requirements such as undergoing a rehabilitation program, participating in community service, restitution, or fines. If the accused fulfills the...

What is minimization of system penetration?

The minimization of system penetration is the placement of the accused into the system, but only for a while. A court shall be appointed to decide on the case of the accused; the court proposes a recusal program and presents fairly clear requirements and conditions that the accused must fulfill....

What is deferred judgment? What is deferred prosecution?

A deferred judgment is a practice according to which, before a conviction is issued, the court offers the accused a probationary period. If successful, after considering the case within the prescribed time limit, the court may dismiss the charges. In case of violation of the conditions of the probationary period,...

How do we regulate interest groups and lobbying activity? What are the goals of these regulations? Do you think these regulations achieve their objectives? Why or why not? If you could alter the way we regulate interest group activity and lobbying, how might you do so in a way consistent with the Constitution and recent Supreme Court decisions?

The activities of the interest groups and lobbyists can be regulated through laws that promote transparency and accountability in engagements among private entities, politicians, and the government to deter corruption and power abuse. For instance, the Lobbying Disclosure Act (1995), the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act (2007), and Executive...