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The main reasons why the court ruled that videotaping a movie from television to watch later was not an infringement of copyright. Use the fair use doctrine to frame your argument.

The Supreme Court ruled that videotaping a movie from television to watch later was not an infringement of copyright because of the following reasons. According to the fair use doctrine, as long as the material used was not meant for profit, then there is no infringement of copyright law. Sony...

Research substance usage in at least three different countries on three different continents and the percentage of reported addicts in those countries. How does this relate to addiction and the societal view of substance use?

Substance use is not a common phenomenon in Japan. This could be due to the tough laws regarding substance use in the country. For instance, a person may get a prison sentence of 10 years for using stimulants, and a life imprisonment for selling drugs. On the other hand, Egypt...

How is the increase of diagnosis of treatable addictive diseases related to economy and profit? Does this make it more difficult to get help to addicts who need it due to strained or financially unavailable resources?

The increase in the diagnosis of treatable addictive diseases has made medical practitioners lose the income and revenue they earned from organized medicine. Previously, these practitioners held a critical and profitable role in dealing with addictions, which the psychiatrists and addiction counselors, later, assumed. A while ago, physicians and psychiatrists...

Should marijuana be criminalized? Explain

Marijuana should not be criminalized due to the following reasons. First, the health risks such as impaired attention, lung cancer, and schizophrenia that are associated with the use of marijuana can also be caused by the legalized drugs such as alcohol and tobacco. Thus why should marijuana be criminalized due...

Should marijuana be legalized? Explain

Marijuana should be legalized. The drug control policies have failed to prevent the use of marijuana in the country. This is based on the fact that a high percentage of the citizens are still able to access and use it despite its criminalization. Thus it will be better to focus...

Identify and provide details about the three elements of arrest warrants that satisfy the requirements of the Fourth Amendment warrant clause.

The first element of arrest warrants that satisfy the Fourth Amendment warrant clause requires that the warrant must be supported by probable cause, not reasonable suspicion. This means that several legal standards must be satisfied. Second, specific details must be provided concerning the person, the place, and the materials to...

Does unprovoked flight + high-crime area = reasonable suspicion? Explain.

This question is best answered by an examination of Illinois v. Wardlow. In the presence of a place marked for narcotics trafficking, Wardlow decided to flee upon spotting four police cars. He was apprehended and presented before a Supreme Court. However, the Court stated that headlong flight does not serve...

1. Identify the two elements of the qualified immunity defense, and explain why the test is so easy for officers to pass. 2. Identify and describe the differences between two kinds of state civil lawsuits against individual state officers. 3. Can one sue a judge or a prosecutor for damage? Explain.

1. The two elements of the qualified immunity defense include constitutional violation and establishment of the right at issue during the time of the conduct of a state officer. The test is so easy for officers to pass because of the nature of the job that plays a significant factor...

Identify the difference between the subjective and objective tests of entrapment. Identify two elements in the subjective test of entrapment and the two kinds of circumstances the government can use to prove defendants’ predisposition to commit crimes. Explain these tests using prostitution as an example.

The difference between subjective and objective tests of entrapment revolves around the fact that subjective test of entrapment focuses on the defendant’s state of mind, whereas objective test of entrapment focuses on the conduct of police officers during the entire period of inducement to commit the crime. The two elements...

1. Identify and explain the rationales behind the three justifications for the exclusionary rule. Which justification does the U.S. Supreme Court use today? 2. List and explain five exceptions to the exclusionary rule. 3. Is there a constitutional right to the exclusionary rule and the defense of entrapment? Explain your answer.

1. The three justifications for exclusionary rule include the fact that it is a fundamental right that should not be violated, there are no exigencies, and to deter misconduct of police officers. The justification that the United States Supreme Court uses today is the exclusionary rule as a personal right...

Why are photo identifications the most unreliable eyewitness identification procedure?

Photo identifications are the most unreliable eyewitness identification procedure and are the main reason behind increases in cases of mistaken identities. The main reason behind this revolves around poor encoding of information at the time of perception. This is influenced by a myriad of factors such as distance between the...

Identify and define the mental processes that account for mistakes in identifying strangers. Also identify the circumstances that affect the accuracy of perceptions in identifying strangers.

The mental processes in the identification of strangers are complex processes that demand more than basic memory of facts. However, three main mental processes account for mistakes in identifying strangers. These include acquisition, storage, and retrieval. Acquisition refers to the process of perceiving and collecting information. Several factors such as...

The Justice for All Act of 2004 is federal legislation that, among other things, grants federal inmates the right to petition the federal court for DNA testing to support innocence claims. There are other provisions that address preserving evidence and making post-conviction DNA testing available to state inmates. Analyze, whether it is worthwhile legislation and explain why?

Based on the analysis carried out on the limitations of forensic science in the justice system, it is discerned that the Justice for All Act of 2004 is a worthwhile activity that seeks to exonerate the innocent. The process of determining the validity and reliability of evidence presented in criminal...

With so much attention focused on scientific evidence in television crime shows, it is important to understand the limits of science and the problems associated with using this type of evidence in the criminal justice system. What aspects of the reading from the Innocence Project website are the most interesting and why?

The increase in the number of television crime shows that focus on scientific evidence in criminal justice systems has generated intense debate on the need to examine the problems and shortfalls of scientific evidence. After reading all the aspects of the innocence project, several issues seem to come out. However,...

Why should legal immigration be expanded?

Such issues as immigration have long-been debated by economists and policy-makers. In popular opinion, this phenomenon is often associated with job insecurity and increased expenses on social security. However, one should take into account that legal immigrants can pay the same taxes and insurance fees and they do not always...

What is cultural literacy and how can a firm use it to evaluate the attractiveness of a particular location as a place for doing business? What role does religion play in understanding culture?

Globalization can empower and mobilize people of a culture, providing them with a method of representing themselves and supporting a collective identity of the people that belong to the culture. However, globalization can disempower people through misrepresentation, providing a means of being colonized further; and boosting the loss of independence,...

Explain the term “Corruption” and what it includes.

Corruption occurs as a result of poverty in the whole world. Corruption occurs at all ranks of the society from the businesses, the government, the judiciary, and the civil society. The poorest are the most affected by corruption may they be in rich or poor economies. All elements of the...

What main problem is Terry from “On the Waterfront” (1954) facing?

Terry is facing the problem of a troubling conscience and facing his fear. He witnessed a murder in which Joey was killed by being thrown off a roof. The murderers got away with their actions because nobody in the Waterfront was willing to talk. The workers had a code of...

Describe the screening tools that are used for assessing substance abuse

Alcohol and drug screening AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), is a screening tool that is heavily effective in the identification of heavy consumption of alcohol among women who are not pregnant. It consists of around 10 questions that are related to the harmful consumption of alcohol. On the other...

How can Case Management be used in the treatment for addictions?

The term case management has been constantly used over the past decades in the world of literature, referring to everything that revolves around the legislative system to the medical management of a patient’s care. The use of case management to counter the use of drugs has been a constantly debated...

When looking at group therapy, analyze 12 step programs and their spiritual component. In what ways might such programs compete with counselor’s work? In what ways might they complement it?

The 12 steps of group recovery are important for two major reasons. First, they have a high rate of effectiveness in treating drug addicts and changing their lives. Secondly, they are free and available at any time and place because all communities have the 12 step groups. Patients move very...

Once a challenge in treating addiction is the high incidence of relapse, the counselor is faced with relapsing clients. How can counselors keep themselves from becoming discouraged and even cynical about their work?

Relapse is a major problem facing counselors in addiction treatment since most addicts under treatment often crave for the drug, and if there is no effective follow-up, they are likely to resume the use of the drug. In most cases, the counselors are likely to feel frustrated, discouraged and pessimistic...

Explain the controversy surrounding the use of medication in recovery treatment.

Methadox and suboxone present as some of the most commonly used opioids in treating drug addicts by minimizing the degree of withdrawal syndrome in the addicts. Also, they provide a good way to help the addicts minimize craving for the drug. However, the medications are addictive and difficult to stop...

Motivational interviewing is to gently assist clients in exploring their ambivalence towards changing their addicted lifestyles. How to encourage someone to make major changes without pushing hard that he or she pushed back?

Motivational interviewing presents a good way to approach the work of counseling drug addicts through assisting them make decisions to change from their lifestyles, but under a stepwise process that allows them to adapt to a new life. To avoid pushing hard on the addict, it is worth noting that...