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In your study of the pure tones. Did you notice that for some sounds, the tones seemed extremely loud while others sound quite hard to hear? Does the spectrum analyzer SL Intensity results agree with your perceived level of sound intensity?

The different tonal frequencies generated sounds of varying intensities and loudness; in other words, frequency has a significant impact on the loudness of sound. The pitch of the different tones picked up by the ears aligns with the SL intensities reflected in the spectrum analyzer. For instance, the perceived level...

Why should we expect quasars to be small? How small?

Quasars are the glowing part of distant galaxies; they achieve this by emitting electromagnetic radiations of very high frequencies detectable as bright light. According to Einstein’s energy equation E=MC2, an object emitting high energy will continuously reduce its mass as it discharges more energy and will cease to be matter...

What role does your hearing response play? What role does the speaker or microphone response play? Try playing the files through headphones. Do you hear a greater range of tones? If you put the device with the Spectrum analyzer application near the headphone, does it have the same relative SL intensity at all frequencies?

The ear plays the role of a frequency receiver, and this is facilitated by its capability to identify and distinguish pure tones. On the other hand, the speaker and microphone serve the function of a frequency channel. The form is the pathway through which frequency travels from the source to...

Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation. What are electromagnetic waves and what other types are there besides visible light?

Electromagnetic waves consist of two components. One is electrical and the other is magnetic. Their speed is equivalent to that of light (300000 kilometers/sec) when they travel through space. Light contains waves that have wavelengths of about 10-7 meters. Other types of electromagnetic radiations are X-rays which have shorter wavelengths...

Why do astronomers infer that the Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reactions rather than chemical reactions? How do we know it cannot possibly come from a chemical process? Who was responsible for proposing nuclear energy powers the stars?

Astronomers believe that the source of the Sun’s energy is nuclear fusion reactions because the age of the sun is estimated to be at least 4.54 billion years. No chemical reaction can sustain itself for such a long time. We know it for sure because the temperature at the core...

Briefly describe a Hertzsprung-Russel diagram and give some examples of where and why some planetary objects appear on the diagram.

A Hertzsprung-Russell diagram refers to an illustration in which the absolute magnitude or essential brightness of stars are plotted vertically against the surface temperatures or corresponding spectral types. There seems to be a strong connection between brightness and surface temperatures, with types of blue stars having higher luminosity and types...

Why do animals’ eyes glow green when illuminated at night?

For many years, historians and poets have been fascinated by the green color that appears when the eyes of different animals get into contact with light at night. Unlike human beings, animals’ eyes tend to glow when illuminated at night. Jenkins indicates that the occurrence is caused by a layer...

Explain how Type I and Type II supernovae occur.

Supernovae are a stage in the evolution of stellar objects, which ends with a bright explosion of the star, and the object ceases to exist. The explosions of supernovae are divided into two main types – type I and II. According to Thompson, they are distinguished by the presence or...

“A Star Is Born!” In a step-by-step fashion, reconstruct the birth of a star. In your answer, include interstellar medium, protostar, and how stellar equilibrium is finally reached.

In the interstellar medium, there is a continuous counteraction between two tendencies – compression and expansion. The compression of the cloud is facilitated by its own gravity and external forces, for example, the explosions of neighboring stars. The expansion is developed due to the pressure of the gas and magnetic...

Explain how the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram is constructed of the four main groupings of stars. Identify the characteristics of the four main groupings of stars on the diagram.

The most famous visual tool in astronomy is the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This mechanism shows the dependence of luminosity with respect to the spectral class of the star, starting from high and blue-white stars on the left side of the diagram to the low temperature indicated by red stars on the...

Describe the sun in terms of its structure and activity. Include in your discussion the following terms: sunspots, prominences, solar flares, solar wind, core, radiative zone, convective zone, and photosphere.

The central part of the Sun’s internal structure is its core, where a nuclear reaction of the conversion of hydrogen into helium takes place. In the course of these changes, energy is released, which is ultimately emitted from the surface of the Sun in the visible region of the spectrum....

Consider the validity of the Hubble sequence in modern astronomy. What observations contradict the theory of galactic evolution? What observations support the theory of galactic evolution?

The Hubble sequence is an old classification of galaxies but is still relevant. The Hubble sequence is used in professional astronomical research and amateur astronomy. The main remark about the Hubble sequence is that it does not fully cover the variety of galaxies. Also, the sequence does not take into...

Compare and contrast size, composition, structure, and history of at least 2 specific galaxies. Describe how characteristics of these galaxies contributed to the Hubble sequence.

The Andromeda galaxy is Sb in the Hubble sequence; the Milky Way galaxy is SBbc. The selected galaxy Size Composition Structure History Galaxy Milky Way Diameter: 30,000 pc; Thickness: 1000 light years. Contains stars, constellations, gas and dust. Spiral-shaped, with a black hole in the middle. In the 18th century,...

Describe two to four characteristics of the three major types of galaxies.

First, about the form: elliptical galaxies have an oval shape. More than half of all existing galaxies are spiral galaxies. The rest can be attributed to galaxies of irregular shape. Core and branches: elliptical galaxies have no central nucleus and spiral branches. Spiral galaxies have nuclei and branches consisting of...

a. An electron is accelerated towards a copper target anode with an accelerating voltage. It is stopped in a single impact. Write down an equation for calculating the minimum wavelength of the X-ray in terms of the accelerating voltage. Define all the terms in your equation. b. The magnitude of the accelerating voltage used in a. is increased. What happens to the (1) minimum wavelength of the X-ray radiation? (2) Intensity of the X-ray radiation?

a. λ=hc/E, where λ=wavelength of X-ray produced, h=planks constant, E=energy (eV) e is electron charge, c=velocity of light.b. (1) shorter wavelength, (2) intensity increases.

What are pyroclastic materials?

Pyroclastic material often appears during (or rather is a result of) a volcanic eruption. It consists of volcanic rock, ash, lava, and gases. These materials come in a cloud or a flow. The flow and the cloud are very hot and cause a lot of damage to people and areas...

What causes a tsunami?

Tsunami is a large amount of water that moves to the land. An earthquake that occurs in the ocean, as well as a big lake, makes large volumes of water move. A tsunami is often a series of huge waves.

List 3 important differences between P and S waves.

First difference is that P waves are faster than S waves.Secondly, S wave “involves oscillation perpendicular to the direction of propagation,” while P waves are characterized by compressional motion.Thirdly, P waves can travel through liquid, whereas S waves cannot do this.

Discuss the big bang theory and the evidence that supports it. Explain how some scientists regard it as an adequate explanation of the origin of the universe.

The Big Bang theory postulates that the Universe later expanded rapidly. The theory is supported by various pieces of evidence: for instance, the expansion, its early hot state, helium, and galaxy formation are derived from various cosmological models, including cosmic microwave background, Hubble diagram (type la supernovae), availability of light...

The study and analysis of light according to its component wavelengths is called

The answer is spectroscopy. Explanation: Spectroscopy is concerned with the exploration and analysis the electromagnetic spectrum of light. The electromagnetic spectrum is the term used to describe the variety of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves produce various colors. Some of these colors can be seen by...