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Discuss how the bird flies.

It has long been appreciated that what was achieved during the invention of airplanes, had long been achieved in nature by birds. The basic concept is to create a balance between weight and strength. Flight is a special adaptation of birds that enables them to obtain food, travel, escape from...

Discuss the how mammal adapt to land and water.

Evolution has it that mammals evolved from reptiles. As explained by Klappenbach on ‘An Introduction to Mammals,’ mammals evolved from “a group of reptiles known as Therapsids.” The adaptations that mammals acquired in favor of their reptile ancestors, is the ability to control their body temperature or a situation known...

Discuss the reproduction on land.

According to Wikipedia on ‘Amniotes,’ which constitute a stage of embryonic development, they can be characterized as having distinctive membranes known as the amnion, chorion, and allantois. Some amniotes have evolved to live on land while others like the amphibians can live both on land and water. Wikipedia explains that...

Compare and contrast relative dating techniques such as lithostratigraphy and absolute dating techniques such as radiometric dating. Which one is better for the science of evolution? Can you use whichever one you want? What are the limitations?

Relative dating techniques studies the layers of rock or the objects embedded in the layers. This assumes that deeper layers of rock were deposited earlier in the sequence than shallow layers and therefore older, that is, successive layers of rock represent successive intervals of time. It applies the principle of...

Discuss endangered species in the Mediterranean basin.

The life and development of living organisms on Earth take place in biomes. Mediterranean Basin, also known as the Mediterranean woodlands and scrub biome, is one of the largest world’s biomes currently characterized by severe biodiversity issues and the presence of numerous endangered species. Biodiversity as such can be defined...

Describe the three stages of structural development of the sexes prenatally.

The three distinct processes of structural development of the sexes involves: the development of gonads, internal organs, and external genitalia. Generally, all three processes occur congruently to produce an unambiguous male or female. Rare occurrences known as intersexes, elements of both male and female development occur in the same fetus....

How did oceanographers figure out the composition of the ocean water?

The question about the composition of the ocean water is a challenging one because answering it involves working at great depths, often amounting to several miles deep. Another challenge of answering this question is the required knowledge of chemistry, biology, microbiology, mathematics, and technology. The final challenge is the need...

Discuss the differences between cellular and molecular genetics, classical and mendelian genetics and population genetics. What does each look at and why?

Molecular genetics is a biological field that deals with the study of genes at molecular level. This field involves the study of function and structure of genes. It analyses the patterns of inheritance to determine how particular traits like hair color, height and hereditary diseases among others, pass from parents...

Discuss endangered species in the Mediterranean basin.

The Mediterranean Sea is completely surrounded by land, having a surface of 2.9 million square kilometres; the depth of the sea reaches 1430 meters. The territory of the Mediterranean Basin stretches from northern Italy to Morocco and from Jordan to Portugal; the location of the basin is considered to be...

What cells and connections make up the layers of the retina?

The retina is 0.3 mm thick complex neurons layers and their connections. Three layers of cell bodies are separated by two layers of axons and dendrites. The retina’s first layer is the ganglion cell layer having a single axon each. In the retina, light is converted to a set of...

Describe the role hormones play in female sexual behavior and male sexual behavior.

Androgens such as testosterone influence the brain and behavior in two ways. First, they act prenatally and during early infancy to organize the brain. Second, circulating androgens in later adolescence and adulthood mediate behavior by altering the activity of target neural systems. Davis (2000), in fact, claims that there may...

Both photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration are examples of complex metabolic pathways, consisting of many linked reactions. Briefly, explain the role of enzymes in catalyzing chemical reactions and in metabolic pathways.

Photosynthesis is comprised of two components: Light reaction in which light is harvested using specific pigments mostly chlorophylls, to a specific reaction center, where photon energy is transformed to chemical energy and partly wasted as fluorescence and heat. This chemical energy drives an electron transport chain of redox compounds, starting...

If oxygen is lacking, how might cells meet their energy needs through fermentation? Explain and give some examples of cells that can do this.

In muscles and liver in absence of oxygen sugars are broken down up to pyruvate. In Yeast and Bacteria under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate can be converted to lactic acid (Lactobacilli), butyric acid (butyric acid bacteria) and ethanol (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These fermentation reactions generate two ATP molecules per mol of glucose...

Describe the three types of mammals based on how their young develop.

The three types of mammals classified on the basis of how their young develop are the following: monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals. Quite very distinct from other mammals, monotremes can lay eggs rather than give birth to their young. Only three types of mammals can be classified as monotremes. These...

One phylum has more species than all the others. State the name of this phylum and provide several different examples of species found in this phylum.

Phylum Arthropoda has the most species compared to all other phyla. In fact, there are about 1 million species of arthropods, and scientists estimate that millions more are still undiscovered. Species that belong in Phylum Arthropoda are all insects (moth, butterflies, etc.), arachnids (spiders, scorpions, etc.), myriapods (centipedes and millipedes),...

Describe the characteristics of nutritional disorders found in reptiles.

a. Eye discoloration- this may be brought about by dehydration of the reptile. It might be a sign of failure to thrive. b. Failure to thrive- this psychological disorder experienced by reptiles at the time of captivity may lead to nutritional disorders and may even lead to the death of...

How can autonomic nervous system imbalances create problems or failures in our bodies?

Autonomic nervous system imbalances can create several problems in the human body. They include diseases associated with blood pressure, heart, breathing and swallowing, and erectile function. The reason for it is that this nervous system controls the significant involuntary actions of the body. When something is wrong, it may result...

Mention the general structures and functions of the taste and smell senses.

Taste and smell are chemical senses; taste receptors are located in the oral cavity, and smell ones are situated in the nasal one. Taste receptor cells are organized into groups forming taste buds. Their function is to connect with the sensory neurons conducting information to the brain. Olfactory receptors, in...

Mention the three divisions of the ear and their functions.

The divisions of the ear include the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The outer part ensures protection and channels sound. The middle one is responsible for transferring vibrations from the eardrum. Finally, the inner part of the ear contains the hearing organ itself and manages the...

Mention the three layers of the eye and their functions.

The three layers of the eye include the fibroid tunic (the outer one), the vascular tunic (the middle one), and the nervous tunic (the inner one). The outer layer has the function of protecting the eyeballs and ensuring that they are in the right shape. The vascular tunic supplies the...

Cite the main nerve plexuses of the body and mention their territory of innervation.

The main nerve plexuses of the body are the spinal and autonomic ones. The first category includes cervical, branchial, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal plexuses. The second one involves solar, myenteric, submucosal, and cardiac plexuses, and pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve. Spinal plexuses innerve the neck, shoulders, arms, hands, back,...

Choose one organ of the body that has dual innervation, and explain the action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on that organ.

One of the organs having dual innervation is the heart, affected by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The first one releases catecholamines to accelerate the heart rate while the second one uses acetylcholine to slow it. Thus, the sympathetic system prepares the body for stressful situations, and the parasympathetic...

How does the autonomic nervous system help to maintain homeostasis in the body?

The nervous system is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body through monitoring, provision of response, and regulation of systems in the body. There are receptors both inside and outside the body that detect a change in the conditions. When conditions fall out of the normal range, the receptors detect...

Explain how direct & indirect ELISA tests work.

The direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is referred to as a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay used to identify and quantify the antibodies present in a sample. In most cases, it has been used to detect the anti-HIV antibodies present in a patient’s serum. In direct ELISA, the antigen is immobilized through...

Explain ‘fluorescent-antibody’ techniques.

labeling. Fluorescent antibodies are described as antibodies tagged with a fluorescent compound to allow for their detection and visibility. Such compounds absorb light of a particular wavelength and emit light of a longer wavelength. The basis of the fluorescent antibodies technique revolves around labeling specific antibodies with fluorescent dyes, such...

Explain the basis for the complement fixation test.

The complement fixation test is used to evaluate the presence of an antibody in the serum. The test is based on two components. The first component functions as an indicator system that uses a mixture of sheep erythrocytes, complement-fixing antibodies secreted against the sheep erythrocytes (immunoglobin G), and an exogenous...

Explain how a neutralization test works.

Neutralization tests are employed in the inactivation of viruses and evaluation of the neutralizing bodies. The test operates under the principle that in the presence of a virus, neutralizing bodies are secreted to inhibit or neutralize its biological effects by forming a virus-antibody complex. The complex minimizes or stops viral...

Explain how precipitation reactions & immuno-diffusion tests work.

Precipitation reactions and immunodiffusion tests are the gold standard serological assays. They are usually used to detect the level of immunoglobin from the serum of an infected patient. The assay operates on the principle that when a soluble antigen and antibody concurrently migrate towards each other in a media, they...

Describe the general structures and functions of the integumentary and skeletal systems and how they work together to maintain homeostasis.

Integumentary and skeletal systems are interconnected and both essential for maintaining bone health. The inability to maintain homeostasis between them may lead to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis. In osteoporosis, the normal functioning of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is impaired due to several factors, leading to increased bone fragility and, while...

Why are melanin and keratin important?

Melanin and keratin are found in the outer layer of the skin and contribute to the development of skin and hair. Melanin is a pigment that is produced by a melanocyte cell to determine the tone of hair and skin. Keratin is a protein that is produced by a keratinocyte...

What factors influence the percent of VO2max at which the lactate threshold occurs? That is, for some people, the lactate threshold occurs at 50% of their max, while for others, it occurs at 75% of their max. What causes these differences? In addition to listing the factors, explain how they would increase or decrease the threshold.

VO2max is the maximum volume of oxygen the body can deliver to muscles at work per minute. The lactate threshold along VO2max is considered the most responsive physiological indicator to endurance training and physical efficiency. Therefore, dependent on the level of training, the lactate threshold occurs at different levels. For...

Explain the function of cytoplasm, mitochondrion, cell membrane, flagellum, fimbriae, and nucleus. Identify and of these features that are specific to a prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

Cytoplasm refers to the substance of the cell inside the plasma membrane. It is thick, aqueous, semitransparent, and elastic.Mitochondria are the primary sites of ATP production. They multiply by binary fission and are specific to eukaryotes.Cell membrane encloses the contents of the cell.Fimbriae can occur at the poles of the...

List the features that are found in eukaryotes but not prokaryotes. What are advantages provided by these features?

The features that are found in eukaryotes but not prokaryotes are the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. These features enable specific physiological processes to be compartmentalized and restricted within particular organelles.The nucleus encloses genetic material within a nuclear envelope.The mitochondria enable the production of energy in the cell.The...

What are some limitations to using bacteria for bioremediation?

Bacterial bioremediation may have particular disadvantages. It is a complex and fragile process that is sensitive to environmental factors and toxicity levels, which may not be conducive to bacteria function. The bioprocess itself takes a prolonged amount of time to take effect in comparison to other remediation methods or technologies....

How are bacteria as a whole being genetically modified to improve bioremediation?

The use of genetically engineered microorganisms is a practice that has been occurring since the 1970s. Due to the broad spectrum of applications for bioremediation, as human interference is causing enormous damage to the environment, this has become a promising field of study. The bioengineered microbes are created by identifying...

Which biogeochemical cycle does the bacterium participate in (Carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus cycling)? How is this important to its role in bioremediation?

Alcanivorax borkumensis participates in the biochemical process known as hydrocarbon degradation. Microbial remediation uses the metabolism functions of bacteria to remove xenobiotics and synthetic pollutant compounds present in higher concentrations than natural occurrence (usually due to human interference). A contaminant such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in crude oil is...

Provide the scientific name and identification of the bacteria that is used in bioremediation. How is it classified? Give a brief description of your bacteria. What is it’s normal environment?

Alcanivorax borkumensis is a rod-shaped degrading bacterium that is commonly associated with natural bioremediate oil spills. It is gram-negative and halophilic. It is in the Proteobacteria phylum and gammaproteobacterial class. This bacterium is classified as a marine hydrocarbon-degrading organism. Its physiology is unusual, characterized by oligotrophy with a restricted growth...

Review the video on metabolism. Where is metabolism being accomplished in the human cell? Be specific and include a brief description of the organelle being described. Does a human cell accomplish aerobic or anaerobic metabolism? What does the video describe as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?

Video on metabolism Cellular metabolism is a biochemical process that occurs in the mitochondrion. This organelle is also known as the “powerhouse” of the cell and is responsible for energy conversion by oxidizing elements such as glucose and carbohydrates into Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Some cells, such as blood cells, do...

What are HOX genes, how are they studied, what have we learned?

The products of HOX genes are HOX proteins, which are transcription factors. These proteins bind to enhancer sections of DNA to repress or activate a specific set of genes. In Drosophila, HOX genes regulate the development of antennae and other appendages. During its embryonic development, there is the gradient of...

What misconceptions in genetics do you have?

To answer the given questions, it is critical to understand that one’s hemoglobin structure can be considered as a completely genetic trait. Sickle cell anemia is a disease of a monogenic and point mutation in nature, that is, due to a single mutation in the gene. Sickle cell anemia is...

What are HOX genes, how are they studied, what have we learned?

In modern developmental biology, great importance is attached to the study of molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis control. It is now believed that a huge variety of animal forms has been achieved during evolution due to changes in genetic development programs. The elements of these programs are studied by analyzing the...

What misconceptions in genetics do you have?

The biggest misconception I have had in understanding genetic processes is the widespread notion that genetics only determines one’s physical makeup, whereas behavior and ability to learn are based on individual experience. Although the given view might be correct to an extent, it is important to note that genes can...

How is the specificity of IL-6 as a biomarker of inflammation related to chronic diseases?

Chronic inflammatory diseases and pathologies lead to a sharp linear increase in the level of interleukin-6 in the blood. In particular, the concentration of cytokines increases with ovarian cancer, atherosclerosis, and strokes. Inflammatory biomarkers and atherosclerosis. International heart journal, 15-346. The reduced content of interleukin-6 indicates the success of treatment...

Define photorespiration and explain the two main strategies plants use to prevent it (they are called C4 plants and CAM plants).

Photorespiration (also known as C2 photosynthesis) is the process of metabolism of Phosphoglycolate that occurs during RuBisCO-catalyzed oxygenation. Phosphoglycolate is then metabolized to form carbon dioxide and ammonia. The photorespiratory pathway is enzymatic, and it does not generate ATP. There are two forms of adaptations that evolved in plants living...

What is the source of the electrons in the electron transport chain in the chloroplast? And where do the electrons end up once they pass through the chain?

The source of the electrons in the electron transport chain in the chloroplast is water. Photosynthetic organisms use sunlight to split water to obtain oxygen, hydrogen, and electrons (this process is called the photooxidation of water). Once electrons pass through the chain, they participate in the photoreduction of NADP+ to...

Why are plants green?

Plants are green because they contain the natural pigment called chlorophyll, which is concentrated in chloroplasts. Chlorophyll absorbs practically all wavelengths of light, including red, yellow, and blue, and reflects green color. It is important to notice that chlorophyll is a key component in the process of photosynthesis and can...

The conversion of pyruvate to lactate in lactic acid fermentation and the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation does not produce ATP – and in fact, both ethanol and lactate are waste products. So why do cells run fermentation reactions?

Cells do not run the fermentation process in order to make ethanol or lactate, which are waste products. The reason why cells run the fermentation process is to regenerate NAD+ from NADH. Therefore, the main aim is to keep NAD+ coming in order to run glycolysis. Even though the source...

Define “exogenous” and “endogenous” electron acceptors.

An endogenous electron acceptor is the one that was formed within the system. A typical example of an endogenous electron acceptor is pyruvate. An exogenous electron acceptor is one that comes from the outside of the system. In typical aerobic respiration, the endogenous electron acceptor is oxygen. In order to...

What Darwin meant by “chance” or “accidental” variation and its role in his theory of evolution by natural selection. Consider also what Darwin took to be the theological dimensions of evolution by the natural selection fo chance variations.

Darwin’s theory of evolution starts with the concept of variation existing among different organisms within a group. Darwin differentiated between three approaches to variation: There is inheritable variation in each species (including domesticated species); Some of the inheritable variations are more productive for obtaining resources, surviving, and producing offspring; There...

Did the finding of vulnerability to false memory surprise you? Why or why not?

The finding of the susceptibility of HSAM individuals to false memory surprised me because I thought that these people should be invulnerable to memory distortion since they are able “to recall even distant autobiographical information with an exceptional level of accuracy” (Patihis et al., 2013, p. 20950). However, Patihis et...

What do you imagine might be one positive and one negative implication for close relationships if one partner has HSAM? If both partners have HSAM? Why do you posit those possible relational influences?

In the case of HSAM, possible relational influences should be taken into account since our memories, experiences, and thoughts ultimately constitute our personality as such. Hence, the ability to recall one’s life in close detail naturally influences a human character to a great extent. If one partner has HSAM, it...

What do you make of the finding that the caudate, part of the implicit memory system, plays a presumed role in this superior episodic functioning?

The caudate, as a part of the implicit memory system, is involved in habit formation and automatic performing tasks. One can observe all these features of behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Indeed, HSAM individuals are prone to the scrupulous collection and accurate categorization of things, facts, and memories. This necessity to...

Explain the physical principle known as conservation of energy. What is the connection between ATP and our ability to walk, talk, and think? You must use the terms energy, ADP, currency, food, cellular, and process in your response.

Speaking about energy, one should remember the principle of conservation. It states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant (Alberts et al., 2014). In other words, it can be neither created nor destroyed as it remains conserved to be later used for various purposes. Chemical energy peculiar...

Thousands of biochemical reactions take place in each of our cells. These reactions are carried out by enzymes. Explain how enzymes work at the molecular level. You must include the terms reaction(s), substrate, active site, speed up, lower, and specific.

Enzymes are specific biological molecules that help to increase the speed of all reactions and processes in cells. They play a critical role in the work of the body as they take part in metabolic and digestion functions. Every enzyme is responsible for a specific reaction which means that only...

Cell viability is dependent upon its ability to maintain water balance. Hypothetically, what happens when a person is stranded on a boat without fresh water and drinks water from the ocean? Include the terms osmosis, water, salt, and hypertonic in your response.

Drinking water from the ocean can be hazardous for a person. It contains huge amounts of salt, which have a specific effect on the body. The fact is that osmosis, a certain type of diffusion that involves water, is responsible for the stabilizing of salt concentration on both sides of...

Describe four differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

There are two basic types of cells which are prokaryotic and eukaryotic ones. Every form has its own unique differences that differentiate it from another one. The first critical element that distinguishes these two types is the nucleus. Eukaryotic cells include it surrounded by an envelope made of two membranes...

How are DNA and RNA molecules alike and different in their structure and functions?

DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genotype of an individual and transmits information by inheritance through self-reproducing. RNA is a ribonucleic acid with monomers called nucleotides. There are some similarities and differences in the structure and functions of DNA and RNA. The main difference is that the helix...

Water has unique chemical properties. Where does ice form in rivers or lakes in extremely cold weather? Why? What would happen to organisms on the planet if water behaved as most other chemicals do?

Thin ice appears in the shallow depth when sub-zero temperatures are established on the coast of lakes and reservoirs. According to Huang et al. (2019), the water cools and freezes in deeper places with frost increasing. The process goes from the shores of the reservoir to the center. An aqueous...

Discuss the eight common characteristics of living things. Include a specific example and/or statement that clearly demonstrates your understanding of each characteristic.

All living organisms share a standard set of characteristics. Reproduction helps to preserve and increase the number of species of a certain type. Under particular conditions, new plants appear from seeds and offsprings in animals. The growth and development of organism traits occur on the basis of inheritance or genetic...

What are some of the errors we identified in recent neuropsychology research seeking to link brain structure to psychological functions?

The first error associated with the research linking brain structure to psychological functions relates to the idea that specific brain parts cause certain psychological functions. This is problematic because many different parts play various roles in specific psychological functions regardless of what “lights up” during MRI studies. Therefore, the perfect...

Pick either Peak and Decline Model or Life Span Developmental Model and describe a biological process that can support that theory or model. Be specific about the process and then the outcome that would explain the chosen theory.

All I know about aging in general and the aging of the brain, in particular, supports the first theory. With aging, reaction time slows down, and intelligence may decline significantly (although there is still a chance that it will be steady for the whole lifespan). It is explained by the...

a. Monocytes are powerful phagocytes. b. Skeletal muscle fibers do mechanical work. c. Goblet cells secrete mucus. In each of these 3 cases, decide which cellular organelle(s) must be present in great abundance in order to accomplish the functions described and indicate how these organelles are involved.

a. Monocytes are powerful phagocytes The cellular organelles that must be present in abundance for this function are phagosomes. Phagosomes work by forming a membrane that engulfs the foreign object to be phagocytosed. The resultant phagosome fuses with lysosomes that contain digestive enzymes, which finally digest the foreign body and...

A student working independently in the laboratory extracts a drop of blood from his finger and places it on a microscope slide in a drop of distilled water. He adds a cover slip, puts the slide on the microscope, and focuses in on high power. To his surprise, he sees nothing. Only a red haze fills the field of view. Explain why no RBCs are visible.

No red blood cells were seen under the microscope when a drop of blood was placed in distilled water. This observation can be explained by the fact that distilled water is a hypotonic solution with respect to the inside of the red blood cells. Therefore, the cells absorbed water via...