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Read Scheper-Hughes’ “A talent for life: Reflections on human vulnerability and resilience.” I want your explanation and interpretation of the author’s conclusions, part of which will entail using anthropological concepts.

Discussing PTSD, the author comes to the conclusion that this model tends to underestimate people’s ability to survive and prosper in conditions of crisis. She identifies several major qualities that allow people to overcome traumatic experiences: resilience, normalization, the ability to narrate one’s experiences to others, reframing, and other factors....

Read Scheper-Hughes’ “A talent for life: Reflections on human vulnerability and resilience.” Is there anything in her theorizing about resilience that makes particularly compelling sense (or not) given what you’re going through currently or observing other people to be going through (i.e., enduring or suffering)–did she help you understand something about your own or others’ life better?

The author’s insights and examples made me realize, once again, how important it is to focus on overcoming adversities instead of complaining about them. What impressed me most about the author’s theorizing is her statement about character strength is obtained at the price of other things that may seem important...

Met7-PcoC protein was used to compare to the extracellular portion of Ctr1. How can Met7-PcoC be used as a reference for Ctr1 even though it’s a different molecule?

Met motifs, which are defined as methionine-rich sequences that are located in the high-affinity copper transporter Ctr1, possess integral membrane proteins that contain domains and motifs that are preserved all through the eukaryotic lineages. Therefore, the N-terminal areas are facilitated with Cu(I) in stable trigonal coordination that permits facile Cu(I)...

Distinguish enzyme structure, function, and inhibition.

The phenomenon of enzymatic catalysis occupies an essential position in organic life, impossible without enzymes. An enzyme’s function is closely related to its structure because the protein’s active state should be compatible with its substrate for the reaction to occur at an accelerated speed. In fact, enzymes play a critical...

Differentiate catabolism, anabolism, and energy.

Energy is a fundamental need of a living cell, which runs various reactions in an organism, generates signaling mediators, and regulates homeostasis. Energy is produced and consumed in specific metabolic pathways known as anabolism and catabolism. The former is the process of building complex molecules, while the latter is the...

It was revealed that Zur binds to the promoter of zitB in an oligomeric form. How did the authors come to this conclusion?

Following electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis, the authors postulated that certain sequences must be contributing to oligomeric Zur binding, given than Zur’s possesses a dimeric structure. They refined their search through electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), through which they observed that oligomeric Zur binding occurred increasingly as zinc levels...

What is ChIP analysis and what is the basic principle behind the technique?

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis refers to the examination of how the protein interacts with DNA. The basic principle behind this technique is that combining ChIP with massively parallel DNA sequencing allows the researcher to find DNS-associated proteins’ binding sites. Choi et al. (2017) exploit this idea in their study by...

Why the S. Typhimurium has a higher adhesion than E. coli?

S. Typhi has more adhesive proteins on its surface than E. coli. In particular, the higher adhesion in S. Typhimurium results is mainly due to the presence of type 1 fimbriae (T1F) proteins on the cell membrane. These proteins appear as long and thin structures composed of FimA proteins. FimA...

Why is S. Typhimurium more invasive than the E. coli species?

After adhesion, S. Typhimurium on the host M cell injects at least 12 effectors whose function is to trigger the update of the bacteria in the host cell. The first proteins, Sip A and C, are transferred through the T3SS of the M cell. Once inside the cell, Sip C...

Where in the brain are emotions processed?

Emotions are processed in interconnected cortical and subcortical structures that form a functional structure. The cortex areas where emotions are processed are the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, insular and somatosensory cortex. The set of subcortical structures of the emotional system includes the amygdala, anterior hypothalamus, and ventral striatum.

What are the six main facial expressions?

The six facial expressions portray the emotions an individual most often feels. They are called universal emotions and reflect disgust, sadness, happiness, fear, anger, and surprise. Two of these emotions are positive, while the other six are negative.

How does the brain integrate emotion and decision-making?

The emotional system evaluates a person’s emotional preferences and determines a person’s decisions. The part of the brain that makes quick decisions based on emotions and experience is called the lateral part of the hypothalamus. However, these are frontal areas of the brain that allow people to think abstractly about...

What is the function of poly(A) tail?

The main function of a Poly(A) tail is to increase the stability of RNA molecules, particularly messenger RNA or mRNA. After mRNA is transcribed and matured after splicing, it needs to be stabilized from degradation on both ends, where the head is protected by the cap, and the tail is...

What is the function of histones?

Histones are structural proteins which bind with DNA molecules to aid the condensation process by allowing a more improved packing of the long double helix structure. In other words, DNA wraps around histones in order to make the chromatin, which is more compact than loose DNA. There are five histone...

What is the function of nucleases?

Nucleases cleave the phosphodiester bonds, which means they can remove nucleic acids from the DNA. The enzyme enables a precision-based modification of a DNA molecule on a single nucleotide. It is important for mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and DNA replication. In other words, random single nucleotide...

What is the function of helicases?

Helicase is an enzyme that is responsible for the separation of two strands of DNA from their double helix form. It leads the replication process by enabling access to the leading and lagging strands for primases, DNA polymerases, and other enzymes. Helicases break hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases, which hold...

What is the function of primases?

Primase is an enzyme that creates a primer on a strand in order to allow DNA polymerases to synthesize a new strand. The main reason is that DNA polymerase cannot synthesize a completely new strand on a “naked” single strand, which is why it requires a primer to attach nucleotides...

What are some functions of the Bcl-2 protein family?

Bcl-2 protein family is responsible for controlling the apoptosis processes. They are divided into two groups, namely pro-apoptosis and anti-apoptosis proteins. Therefore, when the two types of proteins are relatively balanced, the cell continues living. On the contrary, when anti-apoptosis proteins prevail, the cell will eventually die. For example, the...

Oogenesis in the female results in one functional gamete – the egg. What are other cells produced? What is the significance of this rather wasteful type of gamete production? How does this process compare to spermatogenesis?

Oogenesis’ primary function is to produce the egg, a female functional gamete, and the result also includes three polar bodies related to devoid of cytoplasm. These cells’ formation occurs because the division of oocytes is asymmetrical, and meiosis results in the four elements. Polar bodies are developed to provide the...

Describe the pathway of sperm from the male testes to the uterine tube of a female.

Male testes are active throughout the entire reproductive lifespan, and they produce sperm and androgens. Spermatogenesis is performed in these organs’ cells, the process that begins from spermatogonia mitosis and DNA replication and completes with the sperm released into the lumen. Sperm is continuously produced in the male reproductive system...

Summarize how a mature mRNA is made from the primary mRNA transcript.

The primary mRNA transcript “matures” to a mature mRNA by undergoing capping, polyadenylation, and splicing. Firstly, the GTP cap is attached at the 5’ end of the transcript in order to increase ribosome attachment and stability. Secondly, a poly(A) tail is added at the 3’ end in order to protect...

Describe the central dogma of molecular biology.

The central dogma states that genetic information mainly flows from DNA to RNA, which is transcription, and from RNA to proteins, which is translation. In addition, DNA can create another DNA through the replication process, and RNA can make DNA through reverse transcription. RNA molecules also have the capability to...

Give three reasons why proteins are not made directly from DNA.

Firstly, the main disadvantage of using DNA directly is because DNA and protein synthesis needs to occur at different cellular locations, without which DNA would have to be in the same environment as ribosomes making DNA more vulnerable and exposed. Secondly, DNA contains a wide range of non-coding regions to...

Compare and contrast Regulatory Transcription Factors and Co-Activators which are involved in transcription in Eukaryotes.

Regulatory transcription factors are proteins that are capable of recognizing specific DNA sequences in order to selectively regulate the rate and degree of transcription processes. However, co-activators are coregulatory elements that interact with transcription factors to induce the regulation of a gene. Co-activators are needed to activate the activators, where...

How can one gene code for more than one protein?

A coding region of a gene is comprised of several chunks of exons and introns, where the splicing process can differentially cut and reorganize these parts to create more than one protein. In other words, an RNA transcript can be spliced in a number of ways in order to produce...

Write a two-paragraph summary of the experiment “What do genes do?” Your summary should clearly state the goal and the key findings of the research performed.

The goal of the experiment was to either support or reject the null hypothesis, which states that “genes do not have a one-to-one correspondence with enzymes.” The findings indicated that “the one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis is supported.” The experiment was set up focused on three different mutant strains of Neurospora crassa,...

What are the potential benefits and potential harms of using genomics for the resolution of health issues? Discuss in terms of ethical, environmental, legal, or social aspects.

Using genomics for the resolution of health issues can be effective but also can cause an ethical problem when applied to creating humans with superior genes. In other words, by engineering humans with more advantageous genes, such as resistance to diseases and aging, society will become segregated into humans created...

Including examples, compare and contrast genotype and phenotype.

Genotype refers to the genome or genetic material which is transferred from one generation to another. However, a phenotype is a collection of observable traits and characteristics, such as coloration, behavior, or longevity, which are the result of genetic variations. For example, the X-chromosome-linked hemophilia gene is a genotype, and...

Including examples, compare and contrast codominance and epistasis.

Codominance is an interaction between two allele variants of a gene, which results in a phenotypic expression of both versions. For example, if a gene for fur color has white and black alleles, then the codominant expression of the gene results in a phenotype of a grey color. The main...

Including examples, compare and contrast crossing-over and independent assortment.

Both crossing-over and independent assortment take place mainly during meiosis. The former refers to an exchange of genetic material between two homologous chromosomes in order to swap certain parts of a chromosome to create a higher degree of variation. It involves an exchange between a maternal and paternal chromosome. However,...

Including examples, compare and contrast non-disjunction and translocation.

Both non-disjunction and translocation are chromosomal mutations, where the former refers to a failure of separation of a homologous pair. In other words, one gamete will acquire one more chromosome than it should, and another will be deficient for the chromosome since the pair is not separated. Translocation is an...

A particular type of pond organism usually reproduces asexually. However, in later summer and as winter approaches, it tends to reproduce sexually. Explain why this organism would use two different methods of reproduction at different times of the year.

It is important to note that sexual reproduction yields significantly more genetic variation, whereas asexual reproduction results in genetically identical offspring, which are practically clones of a parent. The organism would use sexual reproduction before winter in order to create varying offspring before the major stress event, which is winter....

List 4 features of an ideal organism for the study of genetics.

An ideal organism needs to have a short life span or maturity. A large number of offspring can be easily manipulated genetically and easy to grow and maintain. Firstly, such an organism needs to mature quickly in order to be able to see the long-term effects of its genome, which...

How is maple syrup urine disease inherited?

MSUD is inherited through an autosomal recessive pathway, which means that in order to for an individual to suffer from the disease, he or she must have two recessive alleles of the gene. Therefore, if both parents carry the MSUD gene in a heterozygous fashion, then a child will have...

Why is it called maple syrup urine disease?

Maple syrup urine disease is named as such due to the specific smell of urine and earwax of infants, which resembles the smell of maple syrup. It is stated that “maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) occurs when the body is unable to break down certain parts of proteins. This leads...

Briefly explain what causes the maple syrup urine disease.

The main cause is genetic, which results in a person not being able to break down a specific set of proteins. It is stated that “MSUD is caused by genetic variants in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, or DBT genes.” Therefore, these proteins build up in the body, which can be highly...

Explain how the leachate could be bio-remediated using constructed wetlands.

Some techniques enable us to succeed in bio-remediating leachate using constructed wetlands. These techniques aim to design effective and cheap bio-remediation systems. The choice of an approach depends on the type of contaminants present in leachate. For example, using prioritization tools enables researchers to integrate toxicity data from databases with...

What are bioswales?

People construct bioswales to reduce stormwater runoff and eliminate contaminants that can pollute the surroundings. They are long vegetated areas that collect rainwater flowing on impervious surfaces such as streets, car parks, and pavements. The vegetation traps stormwater and allows it to infiltrate into the soil, thus preventing flooding. Apart...

Do you think humans are biased against animals, as moral philosophers like Peter Singer express with the term speciesism, and do you think this speciesism is comparable to other human biases such as racism, as Richard Ryder claimed in the 1970s? Why or why not?

Humans are biased against certain animals since they can discriminate against animals that do not belong to a particular species. Peter Singer drew the phenomenon of Speciesism from the ideology that it is categorical that humans are way better than animals. However, the term speciesism can be compared to sexism...

Thinking about the quantitative and qualitative methods, discuss the pros and cons of each method. Some things to think about are, how does the data collected differ? Was one method easier than the other?

Quantitative and qualitative methods provide similar data but are effective for different purposes. The qualitative method allows more specificity in the observations, like the description of particular interactions between animals. While such details can be helpful, they also introduce the possibility of bias, which is absent in the quantitative method....

What is a plasma membrane?

The plasma membrane should be called the elastic structure of each cell, which delimits the internal contents dissolved in the cytoplasm from the external environment and other cells. The membrane is not entirely tight: in order to provide resource and energy exchange, the plasma membrane has pores (transmembrane proteins) and...

What is present in eukaryotic cells?

The main content of such cells is a formalized nucleus with genetic material. In addition, eukaryotic cells have a membrane, a cell membrane (characteristic of some domains), the Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. The cell also includes the division apparatus, vacuoles (characteristic of some domains), reticulum, and means of...

What is complementary base pairing in DNA? Explain.

The term complementary base pairing refers to the pairing of nucleotides in the DNA helix, where guanine or G pairs with cytosine or C, and adenine or A pairs with thymine or T. In the case of RNA, adenine is base paired with uracil or U rather than thymine due...

Discuss the Non-cyclic and cyclic photophosphorylation.

In the former process, electron moves linearly, both photosystems I and II are involved, water photolysis takes place, both reduced coenzymes and ATP are synthesized, and it occurs in sufficient CO2 concentrations. In the latter process, electron moves cyclically, only photosystem I is involved, water photolysis does not occur, only...

Do you agree with the production and use of biofuels? Why or why not?

I agree with the production and use of biofuels because they are more environment-friendly than fossil fuels. Their carbon footprint is minimal since the crops used for production consume CO2 during their growth. Therefore, biofuels are a good alternative because they do not require major changes in engines and have...

What is Pleiotropy?

Pleiotropy is the concept of a single gene influencing multiple phenotypic traits in the organism, which can become visible as a resultof genetic mutation. It is possible for some genes to have singular, direct effects, but others might be responsible for multiple behaviors. Pleiotropy was first discovered by Gregor Mendel...

List two different ways vaccines against cetacean morbllivirus can be created.

Weakening the virus, which is then administered to the victim once or twice within a specific period, is one of the several ways of creating a vaccine. This method allows the body to mitigate the virus providing lifetime protection against virus slowly. Besides, a vaccine can also be made through...

How might cetacean morbllivirus spread from different stacks it they are not normally in contact with each other? Form a hypothesis that might account for how the virus moved into both residentand migratory populations.

The closeness of pods to each other is a significant reason why cetaceans in different geographical regions get infected with the morbillivirus. Since the virus is transmitted through contact with contaminated droplets, the pods exchange water which initiates the spread of the virus to other mammals in different zones. Contacting...

What are alleles?

Alleles are variations of genes, the chromosome sequences that determine a person’s characteristics. Since humans are “diploid organisms”, meaning at each genetic locus there are two alleles (“allele,” n.d.), genetic information from each one of the two parents is inherited. Therefore, the resultant genotype can be either homozygous or heterozygous,...

How does ocean acidification affect marine life relying on a shell or exoskeleton?

The marine life that relies on a shell or exoskeleton is affected by ocean acidification due to their shells and skeletons being formed from calcium carbonate minerals. Because of the seawater chemistry, the excess of carbon dioxide in the water causes the carbonate materials to dissolve, destroying marine life.

Does ocean acidification affect all marine life the same way?

Ocean acidification does not affect all marine life the same way. The impact of acidification depends on the sensitivity of the species, their ability to adapt, and various chemical changes in the ecosystem. Marine life can also have a different response to the changes in terms of physiology, biomineralization, reproduction,...

How could the effects of ocean acidification be lessened or minimized?

Global-scale carbon dioxide emissions reduction could minimize the effects of ocean acidification. A possible intervention is an adaptive management that would aim at particular function goals in response to changes in marine systems. Measures to lessen the impacts of ocean acidification have to be taken in every country across the...

Why is it important for us to study ocean acidification?

Studying ocean acidification is important because it impacts and changes marine life and also causes risks to human communities. Acidification reduces biodiversity and compromises habitat and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Ocean acidification can impact aquaculture, fisheries, and shoreline protection, resulting in people changing their activities for better or worse and...

Give two examples of marine mammals that can strand themselves.

For a marine mammal to be considered stranded, it cannot go back to its natural habitat, has an injury, cannot move back to the waters from the shore, or is found dead floating on water or the coasts. Dolphins, porpoises, and whales are some of the marine mammals that are...

Give two specific reasons why marine mammals strand themselves.

Marine mammal stranding can be classified into two categories, namely internal and external causes. Internal causes include disease outbreaks and entanglements, whereas external causes include oil spillage, injuries due to vessel collisions, and exposure to other marine water pollutants. External reasons may arise from human activities on the water, for...

The dolphins that washed ashore exhibited skin lesions and weight loss that was abnormal for bottle nose dolphins. What kinds of data do you think would be useful in determining the cause of this UME event based on the condition of the dolphins? Name three things you think researchers should record about these dolphins. Some scientists remembered that there was a similar case in 1987-1988, as described in Morbilliviral Disease in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins and in Dolphin Strandings.

To determine the cause of die-offs, researchers ought to observe the skin of the affected dolphins under a microscope. Observations can evaluate whether the dolphins had been intoxicated with morbillivirus or algae toxins, resulting in deaths. Histopathology is the process under which the tissues are observed under a microscope. Additionally,...

How is cetacean morbllivirus spread? One of the things that researchers keep track of is the different populations of marine mammals. Scientists are able to track dolphins based on photo IDs and genetics. Different populations can have different coloration and caudal fins (tail tins). Researchers noticed that dolphins that were being found stranded were not only from coastal resident stocks of dolphins, but included migratory populations.

Cetacean morbillivirus is spread through inhalation of contaminated droplets and air. Passage of the droplets contaminated with the virus through the lungs of the mammal and the bloodstream dilates the breathing and bloodstream vessels causing difficulty in breathing and transportation of oxygen to other essential body parts like the brain....

What is an organic molecule?

An organic molecule is a molecule that has hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms in its structure. It should be notedthat the combinatory presence of both carbon and hydrogen is needed to make a molecule an organic one. All forms of organisms are comprised of organic molecules, which is why they...

Explain difference between reproduction and procreation.

Despite the fact that the ultimate goal of every sexual intercourse is creating a new life, there can be two words to describe it, namely, reproduction and procreation. The former can be defined as the production of offspring performed by animals through a sexual or asexual process. Essentially, reproduction is...

What are the two dimensions of intimacy?

Intimacy is an inalienable part of the life of all married people, and it always has two dimensions, unitive and procreative. The unitive dimension is the intertwining that takes place between spouses and bonding, which ultimately constitutes their expression of love for each other. The procreative dimension of intimacy involves...

Give five reasons why a person might want to extract DNA from cells.

DNA extraction is of practical value for scientific research and for fundamental tasks of analytical biochemistry. First of all, DNA extraction can be helpful in a biological kinship test: by comparing polynucleotide sequences, paternity between a parent and a child can be established. Second, the DNA test can be helpful...

What are the three basic steps to a DNA extraction?

Three sequential steps for DNA extraction include treatment with a surfactant, salt, and alcohol. First, surfactants or soaps are used to break down cell membranes. To destroy the histones that bind the DNA, salts or buffer mixtures are used. Finally, cold alcohol can clean the molecules of other impurities since...

What did Jane mention as one of her fondest memories with the chimpanzees?

When Jane first started her expedition, she looked for chimpanzees, climbing up the slopes and sliding down. That is, their search was difficult for her, but they ran away from her, and it was challenging to observe them. After a while, the animals got used to it and the people...

What is the Calvin cycle?

The Calvin cycle is a cycle of chemical reactions performed by plants to turn carbon from CO2 into three-carbon sugars. Later, plants and animals can convert these three-carbon compounds into amino acids, nucleotides, and more complex sugars such as starches. This process of ‘carbon fixation’ is how most new organic...

What are the eight trends identified in the video “Among the Wild Chimpanzees?”

Male chimpanzees have a hierarchy according to which the leader of the community is determined. If their loved ones die, they experience great suffering and stress, leading to death. Males are not interested in newborns, while females protect, care for, and play with their young. They learn worldly wisdom from...

When traveling on airplanes, it is often recommended to chew gum during takeoff and landing. Using your knowledge of ear anatomy, why does chewing gum help with the pressure in your ears while flying?

The uncomfortable feeling in the ears during a flight on the plane is called barotrauma. The main reason for barotrauma to occur are quick and frequent changes in air pressure that happen quickly. Normally, the pressure inside the structures of the ear equals the air pressure; however, in particular conditions,...

Hypothesize why the body uses so many different types of signals. Next, choose two to compare and contrast. Focus on speed of delivery to the target cell, specificity of the target cell, and type of target cell response.

The body uses many unique signals because accuracy is the most crucial factor of an organism’s healthy performance. Paracrine and endocrine signals are the types of chemical signals in multicellular organisms. Paracrine signals are the signals between cells located not far from each other; for instance, a signal between the...

What is glycolysis?

Glycolysis is a sequence of enzymatic reactions that lead to the conversion of glucose into pyruvate with the simultaneous formation of ATP. Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate penetrates into the mitochondria, where it is completely oxidized to CO2 and H2O. If the oxygen content is insufficient, pyruvate turns into lactate. So,...

What is G3P?

G3P is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a metabolite, which serves as an intermediate in the process of glycolysis and plays an important role in all organisms. The first reaction of the energy release stage of glycolysis is the oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate with its simultaneous phosphorylation, which is carried out by the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate...

Describe the differences between genotype and phenotype.

According to Spielman, Jenkins, and Lovett, a phenotype refers to the actual observable characteristics of a person. A genotype, on the other hand, is the genetic make-up inherited from the individual’s parents. In other words, the person’s phenotype is the external characteristic that can be seen by others, whereas the...