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Discuss the Concept of a Dream According to Freud and Adler

Why does a sleeping mind disguise dreams and what is the difference between manifest and latent content, according to Freud? What is the function of dreams and what did Freud mean when he said that dreams were “the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious?” According to Adler, what is...

Nutritional Value of the Microwave Food

Is it true that microwaving food removes some nutritional value? We’ve all heard about how microwaving food removes some nutritional value but is it true? Is something bad happening to our food behind that microwave glass? As a renowned Food chemist of the country, you are invited by media men...

Define a Problem in Your Environment

This can be a small scale problem, such as reducing procrastination, or a large scale problem, such as responding to the threat of climate change. After identifying the problem, develop a plan (or intervention) that could help to resolve the problem through either habit formation or self-directed learning. Research both...

Assess Research on a Current Topic in Evolutionary Biology

Choose and analyse recently published research on a current topic in evolutionary biology. For your assignment, choose one paper and write a summary and evaluation of it. Your essay should include a summary and explanation in your own words of the paper’s content and major points, including the main question,...

Study of the Influence of Water Quality on the Population Dynamics of Salmonid Fish

How does water contamination affect freshwater fish (salmon)? Write a 275-word science proposal in APA style on the topic of how water contamination affects freshwater fish (salmon). Properly reference your ideas and present the issue from different perspectives. Make sure your proposal contains an appropriate hypothesis and rationale and includes...

Answer the Questions on “Becoming Human” Documentary Series

Watch the documentary “Becoming Human,” part one, “First Steps.” While watching the documentary, answer the following questions in complete sentences. When were Selem’s fossils dated? How was this determined? What is Selem’s scientific name? What was the environment of the Suguta Valley 3 million years ago? Why did bipedalism evolve?...

The Characteristics of the Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

What are the characteristics of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa? What individuals are at risk of the pathogen? What are its transmission mechanism/s and methods of prevention? Describe the clinical symptoms and progression of the disease. What are its diagnostic procedures and clinical treatment? Which cells and tissues does it affect?...

The Role of Hormones in the Body

What is the role of hormones in the body? What is the name of the stimulating hormone that causes your chosen hormone to be secreted? What type of hormone is it? Where is the receptor for the chosen hormone located, and where in the cell of the organ is the...

Are there any mammalian cells that would be a good source for dividing cells? What types of cells would most like NOT have cells undergoing division?

Embryonic cells undergo active division and differentiation, especially in the blastula stage. In general, somatic cells in humans are divided continuously by mitosis — so the body is guaranteed the regeneration of skin cells, muscles, internal tissues. Sex cells (spermatozoa and eggs) are not formed as a result of mitosis...

What are the four phases of mitosis, and what happens during each peach?

Below are the four phases of mitosis. Prophase — spiralization of chromosomes, dissolution of the nuclear membrane, proteins begin to form a fission spindle. Metaphase — location of chromosomes in the center of the cell. Anaphase — the threads of fission spindle pull chromosomes to the poles, tearing them apart...

In the context of cell division in onion root tip, identify at least 1 cell in each stage of division. Draw a colored picture of a root tip cell in each stage.

The figure unambiguously displays the essence of the processes in cells during the interphase and mitotic division. One can see that the interphase period is characterized by visible stability and the absence of any noticeable processes in the cytoplasm. With the onset of mitosis, prophase, the nucleus undergoes destruction, and...

Create a Cell Cycle Wheel that contains the following: the two major stages of the cell cycle, all the phases of the two major stages of the cell cycle in order. Define what happens during all phases represented.

The presented cell cycle shows different phases of the cell’s existence: everything starts with the formation, stage G1 when the newly appeared cell actively increases the strength and proteins. Stage S is the active zone of DNA replication, in which the doubling of genetic molecules with the purpose of subsequent...

Which organisms stain purple and reddish-pink? What different characteristics exist between the two groups that allow for the different staining conditions?

According to Gram, Gram-positive microorganisms are colored in purple and Gram-negative microorganisms are colored in pale reddish-pink. The key difference is the structure of the cell wall, which either promotes or prevents the dye’s penetration into the inner content of the microorganism. Gram-negative cells have an outer layer, so they...

What is global change? Identify at least three key global changes that are likely to have impacts on ecosystem structure and function in the future?

Global change can be defined as the possible changes which can take place within the worldwide environment, and those changes can adversely interfere with the Earth’s capacity to support life. Some of the global changes which may impact the ecosystem structure and function include changes in global climate by injection...

Discuss the importance of hierarchy (scales of space, time, and organizational complexity) in ecology. Why is it important to be cognizant of scale when studying ecosystem processes?

The hierarchy in ecology is important in the sense that it assists in the understanding of the population of different organisms which are present in a particular habitat in the ecosystem. Moreover, the nature of the ecosystem is also evaluated through the hierarchy of scales of space, time, and organizational...

Which environmental factors best explain geographic variation in decomposition rates at large geographic scales? At the ecosystem level? Why should those variables relate so well to decomposition rates?

There are several environmental factors that influence geographic variation in decomposition rates. At the geographic scale, the temperature in various locations is a critical determinant of rates of decomposition. This is just one element of climate which is responsible for the decomposition rate at the geographic level. In addition, pressure...

What are the ethical concerns or benefits of using GMOs based on the Christian Worldview? Refer to “Here’s What Religious Experts Have to Say About Faith and GMOs” for help answering this question.

The religious views regarding the use of GMOs vary as there are many faiths. For instance, Smith notes that “the oldest and biggest Christian denomination has sent mixed messages on GMOs in the past few years”. For instance, some believe that selling genetically modified food is wrong since there are...

How is the Gram stain used to classify bacteria? How do antibiotics inhibit the growth of bacteria? Explain how carriers play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. Jan acquired an MRSA infection during a stay at a rehabilitation facility. Jan’s physician tells her that her MRSA was caused by S. aureus. How would you explain to Jan what S. aureus is and how it can cause diseases?

Gram stain is an important diagnostic feature and correlates with many properties of bacteria. According to their ability to stain with dyes of the trimethylphenol series, all bacteria are divided into two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative. Gram-positive bacteria retain the complex of gentian violet with iodine when the drug is...

Discuss the factors that influence the nature and rate of soil formation.

The most important factor is the parent material that forms the soil sample. For instance, the bedrock and the layer above it determine the mineral content of the soil formed. If the bottom layer is too hard, it may take a considerably long period of time for weathering process to...

Two papers nicely document the fact that the suppression of natural disturbance regimes can result in dramatic changes in ecosystem structure and function. One of these papers discussed the consequences of fire suppression in Wisconsin prairie remnants (Leach and Givnish), and the other paper discussed the impact of dams on riverine food webs and energy flow in rivers of the Pacific Northwest (Wooton et al.). Describe the key findings and implications of each study.

The fire suppression in Wisconsin prairie remnants revealed that the native species were increased to some extent. The dry prairies have also witnessed the development of species that are exotic in nature. There was also a 10 percent decline in the indigenous species. Sites that were under no management at...

The recognition of disturbance as an ecosystem process has had a strong impact on equilibrium vs. non-equilibrium perspectives on community organization, as outlined in the paper by Seth Reice published in American Scientist. Discuss these two perspectives.

In an equilibrium perspective to disturbance, there may be some patchy growth that tends to balance with the effect of the disturbance itself fairly. However, a non-equilibrium perspective has it that the impact left by the individual disturbances may be excessive and hard to strike a balance. Besides, a non-equilibrium...

Identify and define the major soil horizons.

There are distinct layers that make up any given soil sample in a natural habitat. These layers lie on each other, and they are also in a parallel position to the surface of the soil. A soil horizon then refers to each of these unique layers. When these layers are...

Why should we be concerned about soil erosion? What negative impacts are associated with the problem on-site? Off-site? What land-use practices can minimize soil erosion on cropland? Forestland? Rangeland?

Soil erosion leads to massive land loss, which cannot be replenished within a short time. We should be concerned with the challenges caused by soil erosion because it takes an infinitely long period of time for a small later of soil to be formed. Some of the off-site negative impacts...

What are the major inputs of nitrogen to an ecosystem? The major loss pathways?

Nitrogen can be input into the ecosystem through the processes of lightning and precipitation. The amount of nitrogen injected into the atmosphere by the precipitation process is largely dependent on the geographical position of a place. Another way through which nitrogen can be added into the ecosystem is through a...

What is the appropriate time scale of successional changes? Compare and contrast the essential features of primary succession and secondary succession. Give an example of a primary successional sequence and a secondary successional sequence. Indicate the dominant species in each seral stage and give approximate times required for the development of each stage.

The abiotic situation is developed from a community situation in primary succession, which may take up to 500 years. There must be some form of a disturbance called cataclysmic for primary succession to take place. In some instances, the soil sample may eliminate the prevailing disturbance. Hence, the soil formation...

How does disturbance affect ecosystems? What is meant by a disturbance regime? How do plants and animals adapt to disturbance regimes? What role does disturbance play in the maintenance of species diversity? How should managers of nature reserves deal with disturbance?

Disturbances will affect the ecosystem in a variety of ways. For example, some disturbances may disrupt, endanger or even kill some species in the ecosystem. The biotic interactions of the species in the system are also interfered with whenever disturbance prevails. Disturbance regime refers to a situation whereby there is...

Discuss human perturbations to the nitrogen cycle and their consequences.

One of the ways through which humans can perturb the nitrogen cycle is through the process of combustion or burning of fossil fuels that contain nitrogen compounds. The content of nitrogen in these fuels, as well as the temperature of combustion, determines how much of the gas is released into...

What is global change? Identify at least three key global changes that are likely to have impacts on ecosystem structure and function in the future?

Global change can be defined as the possible changes which can take place within the worldwide environment, and those changes can adversely interfere with the Earth’s capacity to support life. Some of the global changes which may impact the ecosystem structure and function include changes in global climate by injection...

Discuss the facilitation, tolerance, and inhibition models of succession described by Connell and Slatyer. How do these models relate to the earlier floristic relay and initial floristic composition models?

In the facilitation model, the physical environment undergoes some form of modification due to the action of the pioneering species. This occurs so that the late succession can colonize the regime. In the tolerance model, the physical environment also affects or drives the successional changes which are caused by each...

Describe the global carbon cycle in quantitative terms. Does the atmospheric budget balance? If not, what are the reasons? Why do we say that there is some missing carbon in the carbon cycle? Where might this carbon be going?

Most of the carbon dioxide found in the air is the same amount, which is transmitted in living organisms. The atmospheric composition of carbon dioxide is about 0.03moles in terms of percentage. Nevertheless, atmospheric carbon dioxide is not the main natural reservoir of this gas. The main reservoir is, however,...

Describe the following processes in detail: nitrogen fixation; ammonification; nitrification; denitrification. Integrate these four processes into a single diagram. Indicate how environmental conditions might influence the rates of each process.

Nitrogen fixation is a process through which the elemental nitrogen found in the atmosphere is converted into various compounds of nitrogen like ammonia by natural or artificial processes. Certain microorganisms in the soil can also fix or convert nitrogen into useful compounds, which can be easily assimilated by other plants...

What are the largest fluxes associated with the carbon cycle? Describe the strong linkages that exist in the carbon cycle between ecosystems and the atmosphere; between the atmosphere and the ocean; between the atmosphere and human activities.

Some of the major fluxes of the carbon cycle include the atmosphere, the production of cement and fossil fuels, vegetation, soils, and both surface and sub-farce ocean. The atmospheric carbon dioxide is utilized by plants in the natural ecosystem to manufacture their own food, while animals release carbon dioxide into...

Describe recent trends in atmospheric CO2 concentration over the past 150 years or so. What is driving the long-term trends? What is driving the short-term trends? What are some ecological consequences of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration? Climatic consequences?

The recent trends in atmospheric concentration reveal that this greenhouse has level has been steadily increasing with time. For instance, the concentration of CO2 has been rising at a margin of 1.5ppm annually since 1970 up to the advent of the new millennium, although this annual rise in carbon dioxide...

Describe the ocean bicarbonate system and comment on its significance.

The carbon dioxide which sinks into the ocean reacts with water to form a weak carbonic acid which contains about 1 percent of the carbon in the entire system. The weak carbonic acid is then converted into a bicarbonate ion which exists in equilibrium with the acid formed depending on...

List the macronutrients and micronutrients regarded as essential for both plant and animal life. What is the difference between these two categories? Which group is more important and why?

Some of the most important macronutrients required by plants and animals include magnesium, iron, calcium, phosphorus, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and potassium. On the other hand, micronutrients include sodium, manganese, zinc, cobalt, boron, copper, and chlorine. The main difference between these two categories is that macronutrients are required in...

Quantify the elemental composition of plant tissue.

Nutrients that are relevant for plant growth are usually supplied in vitro. The type of culture medium used determines how successful a certain plant propagation technique used will be. In any case, plants are known to grow strong and vigorous when elemental nutrients are absorbed directly from the soil. These...

What is the relative importance of the transpiration water flux compared with the evaporation water flux over land surfaces? What does this tell you about the role of plants in the global water cycle?

Through transpiration water flow, plants are capable of lowering tissue and cell temperature, which have been occasioned by intense heating of the environment. The very plants absorb water from the soil, which not only supports their life but also assists in the process of the water cycle. When plants are...

Discuss the significance of the hydrologic cycle to the other nutrient cycles.

The two most important cycles linked to the hydrologic cycle are the nitrogen and carbon cycles. Nitrogenous nutrients can only be absorbed by plants when in a soluble form. It is through the hydrologic cycle in plants (transpiration) that these nitrogenous nutrients from soil can be absorbed. The formation of...

Of all the water present in the earth-atmosphere system, only 0.00004% resides in the biosphere at any given point in time. Furthermore, of all the solar energy that reaches the earth’s surface, only 0.023% is converted into stored chemical energy by photosynthesis. Yet, the biosphere is of major importance to the hydrologic cycle, energy flow, the carbon cycle, and indeed the entire earth-atmosphere system. Explain.

The biosphere is the region on the earth’s surface that supports all plant and animal life. In other words, most living things reside in the biosphere. As a result, the consumption of water and energy by the living species is rather high at any given time, which leads to very...

Two or three different analyses have concluded that humans appropriate 30-50% of global net primary productivity for their own needs. What are the implications of this large diversion of energy to the human species for biodiversity?

This large amount of energy is appropriated by animals since much of it is basically stored as biomass. This stored energy is very crucial in maintaining the process of respiration in animals. This suggests that a huge amount of energy diverted for human use is redirected in other activities that...

J. Gosz conducted a very nice study in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This study documented energy storage and energy flows in various components of a forest ecosystem. Which specific portion of this forest ecosystem stored the greatest amount of energy? How do you explain this?

The most important portion of the forest, which stored the greatest amount of energy, was the watersheds which comprised of a series of water bodies emanating from the forest. This can be explained by the fact plants themselves do not store significant amounts of energy because some of the energy...

Discuss the concept of ecosystem services. What are some of the services that ecosystems provide that benefit mankind? Do they have an economic value? Is it possible that humans could disrupt or even eliminate certain ecosystem services?

Ecosystem services largely entail the myriad of benefits that are derived from the natural relationship between man and the environment. In this regard, the ecosystem is perceived as an equal supporter of life-owing to the numerous advantages obtained from it. Mankind has benefitted from the services provided by the ecosystem...

Discuss the importance of hierarchy: scales of space, time, and organizational complexity in ecology. Why is it important to be cognizant of scale when studying ecosystem processes?

The hierarchy in ecology is important in the sense that it assists in the understanding of the population of different organisms which are present in a particular habitat in the ecosystem. Moreover, the nature of the ecosystem is also evaluated through the hierarchy of scales of space, time, and organizational...

Why is ecosystem structure related to ecosystem function? Provide some specific examples of this relationship and discuss them in detail.

The ecosystem structure and function are related in the sense that in an ecosystem, the structural characteristics can only be derived from the chronological physical organization whereby both the biotic and abiotic functional elements of that particular ecosystem are coordinated. For example, in an ecosystem function, the effect of energy...

Discuss the Laws of Thermodynamics in relation to the energetics of the earth-atmosphere-biosphere system. How do these laws structure and influence the flow of energy through the earth system and the biosphere? Provide numerous specific examples of each law in action.

There are two main laws of thermodynamics that attempt to explain the energetics of the earth-atmosphere-biosphere system. According to the first law, it is not possible to create or destroy energy. However, it can be passed on into different forms. This law structures and influences the flow of energy through...

What is ecological growth efficiency? What are some typical numbers for this index? What phenomena influence the numerical values of this index? Why might the value of this index vary between species? Between warm-blooded animals vs. cold-blooded animals? Between herbivores vs. carnivores?

The level of efficiency through which energy is transported through different trophic levels is referred to as ecological growth efficiency. The assimilation and acquisition of energy by different organisms in an ecosystem is the main procedure used to determine ecological growth efficiency. The product of the assimilation and exploitation efficiencies...

Approximately 10% of primary production is consumed by herbivores, and the remainder of primary production is ultimately transferred to decomposers via the death or senescence of plant parts. Why do herbivores consume such a low percentage of primary production? How does so much plant production escape consumption by herbivores?

Primary production is the way in which autotrophs fix energy in an ecosystem. Herbivores consume a very small percentage of primary production due to the fact they have the ability to recycle important nutrients that are contained in their waste products. Once these nutrients are recycled, herbivores are in the...

Describe global patterns and variations of net primary productivity, litterfall, and litter. How are these related to environmental conditions, particularly temperature, rainfall, and evapotranspiration? Although we think of these three processes primarily as components of energy flow, they are also critical components of nearly all other nutrient cycles – explain how this is true.

The net quantity of primary production when all the possible costs of respired plants are inclusive will account for the net primary production. This value will vary depending on the intensity of photosynthesis and respiration in addition to biomass accumulation. Besides, the global ecosystem differs prominently in terms of production....

What is a pyramid of energy? How do you explain the shape of the pyramid?

A pyramid of energy refers to a detailed pictorial or graphical presentation of the different levels of the trophic through which the solar energy which is being received onto the surface is transmitted into the natural ecosystem. The shape of the pyramid has varying interpretations. The energy consumed by each...

Animals generally contain only a minuscule fraction of the energy, water, and nutrients present in nearly all ecosystems. Does this mean they are trivial ecosystem components that we can ignore when we study energy flow and nutrient cycling processes? Why or why not?

The study of energy flow and nutrient cycling processes revolve around animals to a larger extent. For instance, the energy flow from the sun is imperative in the production of food substances (through photosynthesis) consumed by animals. Moreover, animals complete the ecosystem, especially in matters such as a food chain...

Under which circumstances is asexual reproduction a good strategy? Why is sexual reproduction generally better? What is the drawback of sexual reproduction?

Asexual reproduction favors organisms that are found in a constant environment and have restricted movement. The number of offspring produced comes in large numbers, fast, and more efficiently, increasing survival chances. It is a good strategy because it can capture a variety of forms that can survive in scores of...

Lifehistory models divide individuals into two groups: K-selected individuals and R-selected individuals. What are the key differences between the two groups? What are the characteristics of the environmental conditions for each group?

Life history models are divided into K-selected individuals and R-selected individuals. R-selected individuals according to scientific literature are ‘opportunistic’. They make use of a less crowded ecological niche, giving forth to many offspring that have a very low chance of surviving to the adult stage due to limited postnatal care....

Think about the global issues affecting today’s environment. What threats are there to the ecosystem? Elaborate on common concerns currently shared by many people.

One of the biggest threats to ecosystems is caused by global warming and the greenhouse gases causing it. Greenhouse gases, along with the other gas pollutants, are considered to be the most dangerous environmental pollutants as they are spread fast and unlimitedly the reason of their chemical features. In addition,...

What makes a model organism “model” and what are their advantages and disadvantages? Discuss and compare three model study species in terms of genomics and biological importance.

It is worth first clarifying that a model organism is an organism used as a model in biological research aimed at studying its properties, its reactions to certain stimuli, and transferring the results to the properties and reactions of other organisms. Often the use of model organisms becomes an inevitable...

In the study “Inheritance of virulence in Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines” specify what is the plant’s: habitat, native geographical location, most unique trait and life cycle.

P. radiata is a widespread species of pine. It is cultivated in Australia, New Zealand, North and South America, Europe, in particular, Spain and Great Britain. Monterey pine originated from the small area on the coast of California and on the Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands. Its unique traits...

Describe one experiment from the study “Inheritance of virulence in Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines”. What are the predictor and response variables for this experiment? What evidence did it produce? Did the evidence answer the major hypothesis?

The authors crossed two wild strains of F. circinatum and obtained F1 generation. After that, they inoculated pine’s branches and collected only strains with the high virulence for getting F2 and F3 generation. Simultaneously, they collected the strains with low virulence. The authors chose the fungi according to the size...

Describe the differences between the types of carbohydrates.

Before explaining the main differences between the types of carbohydrates, it is necessary to define the glycemic index. It is the primary indicator responsible for fluctuations in sugar in the blood. The basis for the compilation of the glycemic index is glucose. The surplus of sugar results in the release...

What was the major conclusion of the study “Inheritance of virulence in Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines” by Slinski, Kirkpatrick and Gordon?

Sex reproduction of F. circinatum produces high variability of strains’ virulence. The tendency to decrease virulence is genetically based and could be explained by the loss of a chromosome. In general, the level of virulence is heritable. The selection of virulence does not present in nature because this trait could...

Regarding the study “Inheritance of virulence in Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines” why is this research important enough to spend time and money doing it (broader impact)?

One of the pine cultivation problems is pitch canker. Pathogenic fungi Fusarium circinatum causes this disease. The intellectual merit of the research is that the authors determined that fungi virulence selection is controlled genetically. The authors provided a possible explanation for the low level of virulence in the natural population...

In the study “Inheritance of virulence in Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines” what was the model plant’s species name, and to which division, class, order, family, and genus does the species belong?

The model plant was the Monterey pine. Its scientific name is Pinus radiata. The biological taxonomic classification of the plant: Division Piniphyta, Class Pinopsida, Order Pinales, Family Pinaciae, Genus Pinus, and specific name radiata. Taxon Scientific Name Division Piniphyta Class Pinopsida Order Pinales Family Pinaciae Genus + Specific name =...

What is the major question and hypothesis studied in the journal article “Inheritance of virulence in Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines”?

The major question of the study was: how sex reproduction and selection influence the variability and the level of fungal virulence. The authors’ hypothesis was that sexual reproduction between fungi strains with different virulence leads to the variability of this characteristic in the wild population. Slinski et al. demonstrated the...

Describe one experiment from the study “Inheritance of virulence in Fusarium circinatum, the cause of pitch canker in pines”. What are the predictor and response variables for this experiment? What evidence did it produce? Did the evidence support or answer the major hypothesis or question?

The authors crossed two wild strains of F. circinatum and obtained F1 generation. After that, they inoculated pine’s branches and collected only strains with the high virulence for getting F2 and F3 generation. Simultaneously, they collected the strains with low virulence. The authors chose the fungi according to the size...

Discuss how the bird flies.

It has long been appreciated that what was achieved during the invention of airplanes, had long been achieved in nature by birds. The basic concept is to create a balance between weight and strength. Flight is a special adaptation of birds that enables them to obtain food, travel, escape from...

Discuss the how mammal adapt to land and water.

Evolution has it that mammals evolved from reptiles. As explained by Klappenbach on ‘An Introduction to Mammals,’ mammals evolved from “a group of reptiles known as Therapsids.” The adaptations that mammals acquired in favor of their reptile ancestors, is the ability to control their body temperature or a situation known...

Discuss the reproduction on land.

According to Wikipedia on ‘Amniotes,’ which constitute a stage of embryonic development, they can be characterized as having distinctive membranes known as the amnion, chorion, and allantois. Some amniotes have evolved to live on land while others like the amphibians can live both on land and water. Wikipedia explains that...

Compare and contrast relative dating techniques such as lithostratigraphy and absolute dating techniques such as radiometric dating. Which one is better for the science of evolution? Can you use whichever one you want? What are the limitations?

Relative dating techniques studies the layers of rock or the objects embedded in the layers. This assumes that deeper layers of rock were deposited earlier in the sequence than shallow layers and therefore older, that is, successive layers of rock represent successive intervals of time. It applies the principle of...

Discuss endangered species in the Mediterranean basin.

The life and development of living organisms on Earth take place in biomes. Mediterranean Basin, also known as the Mediterranean woodlands and scrub biome, is one of the largest world’s biomes currently characterized by severe biodiversity issues and the presence of numerous endangered species. Biodiversity as such can be defined...

Describe the three stages of structural development of the sexes prenatally.

The three distinct processes of structural development of the sexes involves: the development of gonads, internal organs, and external genitalia. Generally, all three processes occur congruently to produce an unambiguous male or female. Rare occurrences known as intersexes, elements of both male and female development occur in the same fetus....

How did oceanographers figure out the composition of the ocean water?

The question about the composition of the ocean water is a challenging one because answering it involves working at great depths, often amounting to several miles deep. Another challenge of answering this question is the required knowledge of chemistry, biology, microbiology, mathematics, and technology. The final challenge is the need...

Discuss the differences between cellular and molecular genetics, classical and mendelian genetics and population genetics. What does each look at and why?

Molecular genetics is a biological field that deals with the study of genes at molecular level. This field involves the study of function and structure of genes. It analyses the patterns of inheritance to determine how particular traits like hair color, height and hereditary diseases among others, pass from parents...

Discuss endangered species in the Mediterranean basin.

The Mediterranean Sea is completely surrounded by land, having a surface of 2.9 million square kilometres; the depth of the sea reaches 1430 meters. The territory of the Mediterranean Basin stretches from northern Italy to Morocco and from Jordan to Portugal; the location of the basin is considered to be...

What cells and connections make up the layers of the retina?

The retina is 0.3 mm thick complex neurons layers and their connections. Three layers of cell bodies are separated by two layers of axons and dendrites. The retina’s first layer is the ganglion cell layer having a single axon each. In the retina, light is converted to a set of...

Describe the role hormones play in female sexual behavior and male sexual behavior.

Androgens such as testosterone influence the brain and behavior in two ways. First, they act prenatally and during early infancy to organize the brain. Second, circulating androgens in later adolescence and adulthood mediate behavior by altering the activity of target neural systems. Davis (2000), in fact, claims that there may...

Both photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration are examples of complex metabolic pathways, consisting of many linked reactions. Briefly, explain the role of enzymes in catalyzing chemical reactions and in metabolic pathways.

Photosynthesis is comprised of two components: Light reaction in which light is harvested using specific pigments mostly chlorophylls, to a specific reaction center, where photon energy is transformed to chemical energy and partly wasted as fluorescence and heat. This chemical energy drives an electron transport chain of redox compounds, starting...