Plant plants, algae, and some bacteria use photosynthesis to convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into food and oxygen. There are two types of this process: photosynthesis and anoxygenic. Light energy transfers electrons from water taken up by plant roots into CO2 to produce carbohydrates during oxygenic photosynthesis. Anoxygenic photosynthesis uses electron donors that are not water and do not produce oxygen, a process that normally occurs in bacteria.
The overall process of photosynthesis can be written as a chemical equation: 6CO2 + 12H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O. Six carbon dioxide molecules combine with 12 water molecules using light energy. The result is the formation of one molecule of carbohydrate or glucose and six molecules of oxygen and water.
Plants contain special pigments that can absorb the light energy needed for photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is one of the main pigments used for photosynthesis and gives plants their green color. Chlorophyll is a large molecule that requires a lot of resources to produce; it breaks down to the end of the leaf’s life, and most part of the pigment nitrogen is resorbed back into the plant.