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Watch Genie Wiley – TLC Documentary. Please provide at least two risk factors and identify how trauma impacted the development of the client.

From the critical analysis of Genie’s case, some factors increased or facilitated the mistreatment, which resulted in her retarded growth and inability to speak. Firstly, the risk factor that can be identified is the psychological trauma of her father. Her father, Clark Wiley, was traumatized after the incident in which...

What is RAD? How does a child acquire the disorder, and what are the symptoms?

The abbreviation RAD refers to Reactive Attachment Disorder. According to Perry and Szalavitz, RAD is often observed among people who experienced early childhood trauma. Children with this condition struggle to establish relationships with others and often demonstrate aggressive and dangerous behavior, posing risks for both the child and the environment....

Please describe roles and responsibilities from parents and counselor. Focus on emotional, mental problems that children may have after process of divorse and as a counselor roles and responsibility.

Both parents and counselors need to be focused on minimizing the damaging and disruptive impact of divorce on children by providing a smooth and healthy transition from a single family to parental separation. Since parents are not always equipped with relevant skills and knowledge in regard to these objectives, it...

Read Jacobson’s book “Don’t get so upset!” “We need to be intentional in how we guide and motivate children’s behaviour and learning from the day they are born”. Mention different factors indicated in chapter 1 of “Don’t Get So Upset” that affect the emotional development of a child.

Among the factors that influence the emotional development of a child, Jacobson mentions the following: biological and environmental determinants and positive and negative emotions. Biological factors include the temperament and genetics of a child – their influence is difficult to regulate. However, environmental determinants can be easily modified; people just...

Read Jacobson’s book “Don’t get so upset!” Jacobson has raised the issue that in most cases educator’s well-being is neglected. What strategies can be adopted to promote the educator’s well-being? Why is it necessary?

Reading the literature and using the techniques indicated will help teachers improve their emotional state. For example, Jacobson mentions the five-finger method for solving problems that arise when interacting with children. The available literature provides advice on how to educate children to control their impulses, change the approach to teaching,...

What is the ineffable? What is a criticism of the ineffable?

Inexpressibility includes ideas and terms that should not be expressed verbally, such as censorship or taboo. In philosophy, this term refers to concepts that are too complex or abstract to be appropriately conveyed. The most significant part of the criticism is aimed at the ineffectiveness of the taboo. It highlights...

Research shows that most forms of risky behavior reach their peak during adolescence, resulting in adolescent mortality rates being 2-3 times greater than childhood rates. Discuss why adolescent decision-making is still less effective than adults. How the differential timing of maturation of prefrontal cortical and limbic brain areas and the different functions of the “networks” that are formed in the brain explain why this may be. Also, create one policy you would put in place to help keep adolescents safer from harm during this time of development while still allowing them some autonomy.

Adolescents make decisions less efficiently than adults. First, the explanation for this is a little experience and insufficient knowledge in order to assess the situation and make the right decision correctly. Also, adolescents perceive risky behaviors without negative consequences inadequately, which leads to additional risk. Second, adolescents need adult supervision...

What is the danger of a single story? Provide an example of a “single story” that shapes how people view a particular group or a particular event or thing.

A single story is a stereotyped point of view on something or someone. Single tales require vulnerability to convey erroneous perceptions of the true story. For example, a roommate of Chimamanda was surprised at how fine she comprehended English throughout a TED chat. Her roommate was taken aback when she...

What are the four axioms in Zaller’s RAS model? Do you have any concerns with any of the axioms? Do you think this is the best model of how the public responds to surveys? Why or why not?

The reception axiom-the greater the level of cognitive engagement with an issue, the more the likelihood a person is to be exposed to and comprehend a political message. The resistance axiom- individuals tend to block arguments that are against their political predispositions. The accessibility axiom- the earlier consideration is called...

Employ a lens of intersectionality to explain some aspects of domestic violence.

Domestic violence is considered one of the most widespread and difficult to deal with issues humanity has to encounter. Intersectionality inquires that not every victim of domestic violence is treated equally due to the existence of different kinds of societal privileges. For example, “The White Savior Complex” can be interpreted...

List the pros and cons of negotiation.

The negotiation process has its advantages and disadvantages, as demonstrated in Table 1 below. Type of Negotiation Pros Cons Compromising Because both sides win and lose, it is fair. The conflict ends immediately, and both parties may becomedisenchanted since neither of them gets what they want. Forcing It takes little...

Briefly identify and describe the 4 main principles of MI (motivational interviewing) as discussed in the Naar-King & Suarez (2011) text.

The four main principles of MI are expressing empathy, developing discrepancy, rolling with resistance, and supporting self-efficacy. Expression of empathy is important in order to establish a caring and secure interpersonal context, which is especially applicable for young adolescents. Developing discrepancy allows a client to align the desired behaviors with...

Briefly describe how the therapeutic interventions of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and CBT differ. Briefly discuss when you would use one intervention over the other in working with youth or young adult populations.

In the case of therapeutic interventions, DBT differs from CBT because the former focuses on approaches such as mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulations, and interpersonal effectiveness. In other words, CBT focuses on thoughts, behaviors, and emotions, whereas DBT focuses on emotions primarily with an emphasis on emotional control through the...

What is a self-development diary?

A self-development diary is a regular reflection on current and past events, including thoughts and questions on specific issues arising while assessing the situation. Such a diary is a tool for improving, tracking progress, and finding obstacles. A leader needs reflection; analyzing motives, a person rethinks his/her experience and sees...

An effective teacher makes time to reflect. Why would it be important for you? How will you incorporate reflection into your day? What types of questions will you ask yourself to be sure you are carrying out your work with compassion, justice, and concern for the common good of your students?

Reflection in the teacher’s professional activity presupposes a change in his attitude to his activity, and the ability to see himself as the subject of its modeling, organization, and transformation. Casley and Cartmel note that in the process of reflection, teachers summarize their work and apply the experience of their...

Describe the PIAs (Personal Inventory Assessments) that you selected and explain why you chose them.

I selected three PIAs for this assessment, namely emotional intelligence (individual), gaining power and influence (group), and comfort with change (organization). Emotional intelligence is a critical skill in organizational management and leadership to understand, control, and regulate emotions. Its components are self-awareness, self-management, empathy, motivation, and social skills. The choice...

Describe the purpose of the PIAs (Personal Inventory Assessments), describe the advantages and disadvantages of the PIAs, and determine how or why the PIAs met or did not meet its objectives.

Individual PIAs like emotional intelligence play an important role in perceiving and understanding personal factors in the workplace. This PIA aims to build strong professional relationships, succeed at work, and achieve goals. Among its advantages, Robbins et al. admit teamwork effectiveness and attitudes expression without violating norms. Personally, I admire...

Use OB theories to explain the PIA (Personal Inventory Assessment) results and individual behaviours, in the group context and organisational contexts.

In individual PIA, I have high emotional intelligence results (80), which tells about my awareness of emotions and their impact on my work. According to affective events theory, people have to react emotionally to what happens to them at work and use their emotions while developing workplace attitudes and behaviors....

Describe the research methods that are used in I/O psychology.

Questionnaires and tests are surveys which feature several multiple-choice questions, but there are also ones which require respondents to provide their own ideas. Interviews are discussions between a psychologist and a participant where the latter must answer the former’s questions. Psychophysiological measures involve gaining information about a person’s neurological and...

How is personality relevant to employee work performance? Give examples.

Personality is a factor which is often considered when assessing the work performance of individuals, yet there is no evidence which would prove that it certainly has any influence on it. The term personality refers to certain behavioral patterns characteristic of a person and ones governing their actions in different...

What are the merits and drawbacks of American federalism?

The disadvantages of American federalism incorporate financial aberrations across states, rush-to-the-base elements, and the trouble of making a move on issues of public significance. For instance, the financial dissimilarity is brought about by states contending to draw in business by bringing down duties and guidelines. Moreover, medical care access, expenses,...

What special challenges do developmental scientists face?

Developmental science is the field of study that explores the normal and abnormal course of children’s psychological evolution. Its goal is to understand various physical, emotional, and social factors that influence this development later in life. However, conducting research in this area is challenging because of ethical issues raised in...

Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Erikson’s theory.

Erikson’s theory describes eight stages of human psychosocial development from infancy to old age. The first four stages occur in childhood when trust, autonomy, initiative, and competence should typically develop. Abnormalities during this period can cause such maladaptive issues as excessive guilt, withdrawal, compulsion, and feeling of inferiority. The fifth...

Differentiate between Watson’s classical conditioning and Skinner’s operant conditioning.

Teaching is a complex process that often requires additional stimuli to reinforce learning. The two most used concepts in behavioral psychology are classical and operant conditioning, which apply two distinct methods in training. Watson’s classical conditioning implies that particular response to an event or object can be stimulated. Specifically, Watson...

Explain principle of double effect.

The principle of double effect postulates that in order for a certain act to be morally correct, it should meet five basic conditions. First of all, the act itself must be good or indifferent. Secondly, the good effect must not be achieved by evil means. The evil effect should only...

From “Don’t Get So Upset” by Tamar Jacobson, read Chapter 3: We Understand the Power of Our Anger. What does the author mean when she says, “It is important to remember that anger itself is neither bad nor shameful. The harm can come in how we express or repress it”?

Upbringing and traditions do not allow openly talking about anger, and then negative emotions manifest themselves in the form of outbursts of sarcasm and passive aggression, destroying mutual respect. People are used to thinking of anger as destructive, but it can be helpful because it allows people to be aware...

In what way do the results of the Stanford Prison Experiment reflect Zimbardo’s quote from the article that, “the prison study was a demonstration of how good people can do bad things”?

One of the objectives of the Stanford Prison Experiment was to gain insights into how prisoners and guards behave in prison. Before the experiment, both the prisoners and guards were everyday students who were probably accustomed to each other. However, the moment the guards were given power over the prisoners,...

How has Zimbardo applied the lessons of the experiment to more recent examples of evil acts or specific headlines (e.g., in politics, war crimes, etc.)?

Most recently, Zimbardo has applied the Stanford Prison Experiment in comprehending the abuses meted on prisoners at Abu Ghraib in Iraq. He noted that the Iraqi prison incident is a real-world example of what he demonstrated in his Stanford Prison Experiment. Additionally, through the lessons he learned from the experiment,...

Watch the short clip “Raising Ryland: Parenting a transgender child” from CNN, about a young transgender male, Riley, who though born biologically female, identifies as male. In what ways does Riley defy or resist traditional notions of gender and gender socialization?

Gender socialization takes place inside someone’s mind and is ingrained there by the societal expectations of an individual. Riley defied this by insisting on creating his own gender identity aside from the one created for him by society. He insisted that he was a boy and not a girl, as...

Watch the short clip “Raising Ryland: Parenting a transgender child” from CNN, about a young transgender male, Riley, who though born biologically female, identifies as male. How did you feel when you were watching this clip? In other words, were there scenes that elicited discomfort, empathy, confusion, etc.? Offer a brief description of your experience of watching this with a specific focus on emotions (or not) that you experienced while it was on.

Watching this clip was one of the most unsettling things that I have had to do lately. Riley was not only born deaf, but he also had to go through the harrowing experience and confusion of determining his gender. I felt so emotional and empathetic about his state of events....

Watch the short clip “Raising Ryland: Parenting a transgender child” from CNN, about a young transgender male, Riley, who though born biologically female, identifies as male. Why do you think that Riley’s parents are concerned about the challenges he may face in his life as he grows older? What challenges are you concerned about or do you imagine he may face as he develops and grows?

The main concern that Riley’s parents have regarding his future challenges stems from the grim statistics that are associated with transgender children. Studies show that 41% of transgender children commit suicide because of depression. Although they provide their child with the tender loving care that he needs, their greatest worry...

Watch the short clip “Raising Ryland: Parenting a transgender child” from CNN, about a young transgender male, Riley, who though born biologically female, identifies as male. Explore what Riley’s experience as we observe it in this clip reveal about gender identity and the relationship between sex and gender.

Riley perceives himself as a boy and not the girl that his parents wanted him to be. It is evident from the interviews conducted with him that he is more comfortable if he refers to his gender identity in masculine terms. From Riley’s story, it can be revealed that gender...

Watch the short clip “Raising Ryland: Parenting a transgender child” from CNN, about a young transgender male, Riley, who though born biologically female, identifies as male. Were there any stereotypes you have had or heard about people who are transgender before you watched this? In what ways does representation and the role of media and relative oppression versus privilege influence our impressions or knowledge regarding the experiences of transgender people in the culture today?

I had a lot of stereotypes about transgender before I even watched this video. I have heard of the gender essentialism theory that states that a person can either be masculine and male or feminine and female. This theory fails to recognize the existence of transgenders amongst us. Therefore, according...

Discuss the various ways socializing agents may contribute to an institutionalized system of social inequality. For this discussion, you may want to focus on the following key concepts: Socialization, Socializing Agent, Conflict Theory.

There are different socializing agents that a person meets throughout life. Some of them are family, language, mass media, economic systems, school, and peers. They form the personality of individuals, influencing their values and beliefs. According to the conflict theory, when resources are distributed between groups unevenly, it leads to...

Jina is studying Information Technology Management at college. She has a test tomorrow, which she completely forgot about. Luckily, she has been studying a little bit each week, has attended all her classes, and is a member of a study group that has offered to help her prepare. Use Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory of Stress to explain Jina’s experience with her upcoming test.

Psychological stress is a complex health problem and several theories have been formulated to explain its etiology. Lazarus and Folkman’s transactional theory of stress and coping is one of the frameworks that offer a plausible explanation for this phenomenon. According to Lazarus and Folkman, stress results from a lack of...

Jina’s teachers have been very impressed with her work and have praised her for her ability to use post-formal thought. What does this mean about Jina’s cognitive abilities?

The post-formal thoughts emerge in adulthood. Mostly the thinking habits of the teenagers are challenged from a unique approach that becomes realistic and pragmatic. Therefore, the teacher means that Jina has reached a point of realization that there is no forwardness to life and that she must adapt to the...

Antony’s teachers at art school are always praising the depth and insight of his work. He struggles a bit learning the history and theory of art, but he is extremely strong at producing pieces of art that his teachers and classmates admire. How are fluid and crystalized intelligence interacting in Antony’s case?

Fluid intelligence refers to thinking and reasoning abilities. Crystalized abilities refer to the accumulating skills, facts, and knowledge all through a season of life. In crystallized intelligence, a person is able to utilize knowledge and skills from learning. The crystallized skills intelligence allows easy remembrance of skills and information. Fluid...

A number of social critics have pointed out that new communication media expand the potential for freedom of expression and have greatly enlarged the scope of human culture. Do you agree? Are there different interpretations?

I believe that the new communication media, social networks in particular, indeed increase the freedom of expression for journalists, activists, influencers, and generally any enthusiasts. It occurs primarily because of the accessibility of various media resources, where any person can share their views to a wide multinational and multicultural public....

What is the definition of an occupational subculture, and how is it distinct from the dominant culture?

An occupational subculture is a subculture defined by traditions and culture within an occupational group. The occupational subculture is a necessary component of surviving in a specific occupational environment. The occupational subculture is closely related to the unique challenges and surrounding related to that occupation. For example, the occupational culture...

Jessica is an extremely passionate person. She often acts on her emotions before she fully thinks through a situation. She quickly and openly expresses when she feels anger, excitement, desire, jealously, and many other strong emotions. What role does Jessica’s prefrontal cortex play in explaining this impulsive behaviour?

The prefrontal cortex widely contributes to the execution of functions, which include attention focusing, prediction of consequences of the actions, the anticipation of events in a given environment, management of emotional reactions, and the control of impulses. The prefrontal cortex uniquely controls the functions of Jessica’s brain that include impulsive...

Provide a brief background of nonviolent struggle against structural violence and argue how effective that struggle is and why. Do not forget to give an example to support your answer.

Structural violence has long been an integral part of civilization. However, nonviolent resistance began to emerge as an alternative response to injustice. The most striking example can be Mahatma Gandhi and his Satyagraha, which promotes the rejection of violence and the willingness to endure suffering. Many human rights activists, such...

In a short paragraph, explain the indirect costs of war. Also, argue why it is important to find out the indirect costs of war alongside the direct costs.

The indirect costs of war can be considered as the consequences that confrontations bring. These include psychological ones, such as soldier PTSD, lost childhood, environmental damage, economic disruption, and the need to rebuild social spheres. These costs can cause much more harm since they have much longer consequences echoing many...

Through the use of a health-related example, explain how Bandura’s concept of triadic reciprocal determinism works within the context of the social cognitive theory.

Bandura’s concept of triadic reciprocal determinism shares many similarities with social cognitive theory and, therefore, works in its context. Bandura’s concept assumes that human behavior is influenced by three aspects the individual, the environment, and the behavior itself. At the same time, socio-cognitive theory finds individual, social and environmental factors...

You are working at the Canadian Cancer Society as an educational health psychologist. Part of your duties is to develop a program to assist people in their attempts to stop smoking. Because you want to develop these programs with the use of a theory, you decide to find one that takes into account both personal and social factors. You finally decide upon the theory of planned behaviour. Describe how you would incorporate the concepts included in the theory into the program you are designing.

Planned Behavior Theory is most useful and appropriate at the first stage of getting to know patients and involving them in the program. This theory has six constructs that define people’s control over their behavior, and each of them can be useful for determining a person’s motivators. For example, if...

You are a clinical exercise therapist. A client has recently been referred to you for the development of an exercise program to assist him in managing his obesity. During your initial interview with your client, he tells you that he is not very confident in his abilities to exercise, including scheduling exercise into his schedule. Because you know a lot about enhancing motivation through increasing self-efficacy perceptions, you realize that you have to incorporate a variety of tactics in your exercise program to increase this individual’s self-efficacy for exercise. What do you expect these enhanced perceptions of self-efficacy for exercise would influence and why?

Self-efficacy is the concept of influencing people’s perception of their abilities on their motivation. According to Bandura, self-efficacy affects how people use their own strengths and capabilities; therefore, it is the source of their inspiration and self-confidence. Consequently, increasing the client’s self-efficacy will help him feel confident about his abilities,...

There is an overlap of construct definitions among health-related behaviour theories where the constructs had different labels, however conceptually meant the same thing. Provide one example of such a construct, explaining its definition in each theory and the similarities (and potential differences) among the definitions.

The Health Belief Model and Planned Behavior Theory have several similar constructs with different names. These constructs include “perceived barrier” and “perceived power” since they both influence patient attitudes towards healthcare. Both constructs mean some factors that can interfere with treatment or preventive measures, for example, lack of money or...

Although secure attachment is usually established during infancy, parent-child attachment is important throughout childhood and adolescence. Apply family systems theory to describe how parent-child attachment in one parent-child dyad affects the whole family system (include siblings). Then describe how other relationships in the family system (specifically the parental relationship) can affect parent-child attachment throughout childhood and adolescence.

Culture and distinctive family conformations play a vital part in neglect, such as parentification, thus mistreatment happens in the family setting. For instance, some family systems may engender an appropriate overlap in subsystems, with members participating in duties that are traditionally reserved for other members. Such actions usually result in...

Apply all of the four main principles of life course theory to a theory of coparenting (between parents who are no longer romantically involved and who do not share a household).

The four main principles of life course theory are: historical context, time-appropriate roles, timing of life course transition and timing of life course experiences. Those principles may seem less executable for parents who are no longer romantically involved and do not share a household, thus creating a different and sometimes...

Show the factors which can affect a child’s communication and language needs.

Environment Environmental conditions that are favorable can stimulate communication and language development. The conditions that are not favorable lead to retarded development. Children that have parents or guardians around them most of the time have better development in language and communication, unlike those who are in foster care institutions within...

Give examples here of the strategies you have or would use to support a child to develop emergent literacy, but you must link this to the EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage).

As a practitioner, one can use several strategies to help the child in the development of language and communication in the early years of the foundation stage. Using models in writing and reading while training young children stimulates their minds and keeps them alert, ensuring that they learn. Symbols and...

How have individuals in your life influenced your schema development?

I consider that people around me significantly influenced my perceptions of equity and inclusion. Certainly, when I was a child, I shared my family’s prejudices about people of different social groups and religions but growing up, I reconsidered some points. I communicated with people from other countries via the Internet,...

Which methods of encoding information are effective in increasing retrieval from long-term memory? Does environment, perception, or sensory output play a factor in your ability to encode information? Why is it important to differentiate between memory impairments due to traumatic brain injury and deterioration of the brain due to a neurocognitive disorder?

The encoding process is one method through which your brains get information. When individuals incorporate elaborative encoding, they digest information according to its significance, allowing it to stay in their memory much longer. After receiving sensory information from the environment, your memory stores or code the information for an extended...

Consider the example of someone who has had open-heart surgery, and who was on a heart-lung machine during their surgery. This is sometimes associated with a condition known as “pump head,” in which the personality of the patient changes and they experience confusion because the machine gave more reliable blood flow to their brain than their ailing heart did in the past. Has their “self” changed, are they the same person they were before? Why or why not, according to at least one philosopher in the unit?

In the open-heart surgery example, the individual’s self has changed. According to Hume, the self is the result of personal experiences and inward knowledge and evolves as the mind grows. In the kidnapping scenario, the individual identities will remain unchanged.

How did Zimbardo originally think of or come to develop the Stanford Prison Experiment?

According to Philip Zimbardo, the Stanford Prison Experiment was an improvement of the Milgram study. However, the Stanford Prison Experiment primarily emphasized other individuals’ institutional power when in groups as opposed to Milgram’s study, which mainly focused on social power on a one-on-one basis. Zimbardo thought of doing research that...

Alvin started to mature physically when he was 11 years old. What are some advantages and disadvantages of Alvin maturing at age 11? Explain how puberty was “initiated” in Alvin’s body.

The common average age for puberty in boys is 12 years old. However, research shows that puberty is different for different people. Physical developments in children change their ideas about themselves and affect their social relations. The advantage of early maturation in Alvin is increased popularity, social benefits, and physical...

David Hume’s skepticism about the self is rooted in his need for direct sensory impressions. Considering Descartes’ distinction between mind and body, which do we have the most direct sensory impressions of? What might Hume say about this?

Descartes is a dualist who insists that the body and the mind are independent entities seeing as he was capable of conceiving them as separate. He believed that human beings received knowledge through innate knowledge rather than the senses. Humanity has the most direct sensory impression of the body rather...

Gordon Allport asserted that a complete understanding of personality psychology requires both idiographic and nomothetic research methods. Psychologists have emphasized certain kinds of knowledge over others. What are the significant advantages and limitations of each approach (idiographic vs. nomothetic) for the discipline? In addition to personality psychology, provide examples of studies that use each approach.

Psychology alternates between nomothetic and idiographic approaches in research. Both approaches have strengths for different situations within the research process. The idiographic approach is subjective and depends on the experiences of the individual. On the other hand, the nomothetic approach is focused on the statistical and numerical aspects of the...

Animals are central to an understanding of human psychology. Although animal behavior may be studied in its own right, it is invariably construed as having broader implications to humans. What are some of the purposes for which psychologists have used animals as part of their experiments? What are some of the benefits and liabilities of using animals in these ways?

Psychologists apply the studies from animals to solve specific problems. For example, psychologists can study dogs to determine the best methods for training watchdogs or chickens to find out the best methods of preventing them from fighting. However, psychologists also use the study of animals to predict human behavior. In...

What effects does parenting style have on a teen’s life and their choices? How does attachment style play a role in an adolescent’s socioemotional development and development of autonomy? What other factors could play a role in the behaviors and attitudes educators would see in the classroom?

A parenting style has a profound effect on the development of an adolescent. Various types lead to different levels of autonomy and affect teens’ affinities toward delinquent behavior, their performance in school, and views on the rules and norms of society. An adequate parental involvement leads to gradually more autonomous...

Several problems are associated with adolescents’ sexual relationships. Choose one to discuss further then explain how an adolescent’s sexual behavior such as sexting or dating aggression can be dangerous. How could it affect an adolescent’s academic success? Is it important for teachers to be aware of where their adolescent students are receiving their information about sex? What would be the benefits of ensuring adolescents have the correct information and can seek guidance if they feel they need it?

Dating aggression is a growing issue among adolescents and leads to severe traumatic experiences. Not counting the fact that it can be considered a criminal offense, aggressive behavior on dates can suggest underlying mental issues for a perpetrator. Moreover, the harmful impact of such an encounter leads a victim into...

Illustrate the changes that friendships undergo from childhood to adolescence and the role that cliques, crowds and self-disclosure play. Are friendships in adolescence affected by popularity, peer-pressure, and reputation? How so? How can the popular students’ power over others lead to potential risks? How can educators, parents, coaches of adolescents assist?

Friendships undergo significant transformations throughout the teen years, as the social statuses begin to play an essential role. Interactions with friends become prevalent, while parents move to a less prominent position. Moreover, crowds begin to sway individuals’ opinions over acceptable friendships, and an adolescent may lose his childhood friends due...

What is algebraic thinking, and what are the core elements of it?

Algebraic thinking is an essential mathematical element involving paying attention to important pattern aspects, generalizing mathematical ideas and the patterns with individual’s experiences with number and computation, and using symbols to explore them. Additionally, algebraic thinking forms the basis for mathematical reasoning and allows students to use algebra as a...

Explain the phrase “depression is the common cold of psychological disorders”.

The phrase “depression is the common cold of psychological disorders” describes depression as something most people face at some point in their lives. Just like the common cold, depression is the condition that every individual has to deal with. While the phrase describes its high prevalence, it may at the...

Suppose you are a police detective and need to interview several eyewitnesses to a crime. How might you best approach this task to minimize false memories?

The existing research on the subject proves that eyewitness testimony could not be as reliable as expected. The problem with the testimony mostly relates to the idea that the advent of false memories could be rather harmful, as innocent bystanders could suffer from one’s testimony. Investigators often lead their witnesses...

Do you think that other factors besides changes in cognitive development may contribute to adolescent egocentrism? How might the emphasis in TV commercials on appearance affect an adolescent’s concern with self?

Adolescent egocentrism is a special case of egocentrism in general; it manifests itself in the sphere of personality with the onset of adolescence. If in the cognitive sphere egocentrism is overcome by the age of seven or eight, then in the sphere of personality, it flares up by the age...

What is attachment? Explain how Mary Ainsworth studied it and what she observed.

Attachment is the ability to develop long-lasting and emotionally meaningful connections and bonds with others, which are also considered a milestone in psychological development. Ainsworth conducted a series of studies to examine the bonds between parents and children and the ways these bonds form. Her main focus was on whether...

Explain how Jean Piaget believed that children advance in thinking and remembering? In which ways did Lev Vygotsky disagree with Piaget?

Piaget believed that children’s brains work fundamentally differently in comparison with adults, being intrinsically motivated by the need to explore. He believed that the mental development of children is a direct result of their interaction with the world, which helps them to adopt and implement various concepts. His perception of...

Discuss the general process of family adaptation to stress.

The process of family adaptation to stress can be considered through the lens of integration and economic independence. Thus, people tend to readjust their activity once a threat emerges by discussing it and making decisions together on how to modify their conduct. This initiative requires a high degree of flexibility...

Post your comments on the readings: Chapter 13 from “Exploring Lifespan Development” by L. Berk, “Academic self-efficacy, growth mindsets, …” by Zander et.al and Dr. David Williams’ TED Talk “How Racism Makes Us Sick.”

In chapter 13, Berk examines the physical and cognitive changes that occur in humans during early adulthood. Each of these concepts is interesting in isolation, as it represents a vast space for study. Physiological changes associated with both aging and changes in activities, as well as cognitive, focused on changes...

How can children best learn to communicate effectively?

Communicating with children requires objectivity and consistency in modeling and practicing. Reading, listening, and then discussing the acquired information with others is of great importance for children’s development. The skills are helpful in enhancing a child’s communication knowledge and skills, which allow the smooth exchange of information. Reading and listening...

When does the development of communication begin?

Development of communication begins early before a child articulates their first words. Modeling skills start and continue to develop until the age of the sixth month. This phase is critical for frequent uttering of common words such as mom and dad, as evidenced in different scenarios. From the sixth to...

Discuss the role of the family and specifically the role of women both in the fight against the Cold War and as part of a new definition of freedom centered on consumerism. How does the idealization of the gender role of “housewife” affect unmarried women, working women, non-heterosexual women?

The Cold War changed the lifestyle of American citizens and influenced the definition of freedom and the perception of gender roles in society. Indeed, the opportunity for women to stay at home was the opposite of the communistic values where everyone had to work regardless of their gender. The representation...

Watch lectures: “Moral Judgment”, “Moral Sensitivity”, “Moral Motivation and Moral Character”. Summarize what you found in your own words and explain the relevance to cognitive biases.

Sourses: “Moral Judgment”, “Moral Sensitivity”, “Moral Motivation and Moral Character”. Cognitive biases are unconscious distortions of perception of other people or their own qualities. Biases can be implicit or explicit and can be caused by a wide range of different factors. Biases can be a result of moral judgment with...