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Reliability of Psychological Testing

Discuss the topic of test reliability as it is presented in “Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues” by Kaplan & Saccuzzo. According to your book, in some settings (particularly in education) tests have been criticized simply because of improper interpretation or over-reliance on a single measure. Discuss the topic and...

Mary Ainsworth: Attachment and the Growth of Love

Examine the case “Mary Ainsworth: Attachment and the Growth of Love” concerning childhood development. Apply theories of child development to the case. Summarize and cite at least one other child development theory to apply. Compare and contrast your selected theory with the theory within the case to explain your rationale....

A Recent Research Study About Psychology or a Related Field

Analyze an article that reports the results of a recent research study about psychology or a related field (medicine, economics, neuroscience, behavioral biology, etc. Answer the following questions about the study as reported in the article: What type of study was it–a survey, case study, correlational study, or experiment? What...

Unethical Experiments from the Field of Psychology

Locate two different historical research experiments from the field of psychology or behavioral health that were considered unethical. Here are some examples of unethical experiments that have been conducted in the past. You may choose from this list or find others on your own: Stanford Prison Experiment; Landis’s Facial Expression...

Studying Anxiety, Depression, and Pain Levels of Children

Discuss the research methods of a psychologist who works at a children’s hospital. Her responsibility is to ask children who are coming to the hospital for the first time to respond to a number of questionnaires that may help determine their anxiety, depression, and pain levels. Which research method was...

Studying How People Handle Confrontation

Discuss the research methods of a psychologist interested in understanding how people handle confrontation. The psychologist hangs out in a store near the customer service counter, unobtrusively watching the agents at the desk. She records if they respond with passive aggressiveness, kindness, or anger. Which research method was used? Identify...

A Psychologist’s Work with a Resident of the Jail

Discuss the research methods of a psychologist working with a resident of the local jail. Maxim is working with Joaquin in a counseling situation. Joaquin is a resident of the local jail, having been found stealing pastries from a bake shop. When caught, Joaquin claimed that the devil told him...

Studying the Impact of a Sense of Control on Stress

Discuss the research methods of a psychologist interested in understanding the impact of a sense of control on stress in humans. The psychologist brings in students from around campus and gives them a number of choices before exposing them to a very difficult math test. She brings in another group...

Use of the Deconstruction of Psychoanalytic Theory

Reflect on a deconstructionist reading of any text of your choice (novel, short story, movie, famous collection of photographs, etc.). Use insights from deconstruction theory and use the terminology of deconstruction theory in your reading. Your answer should demonstrate originality, critical thinking, and depth of argument and analysis. You should...

Use of the Language of Psychoanalytic Theory

Reflect on a psychoanalytic reading of any text of your choice (novel, short story, movie, famous collection of photographs, etc.). Use insights from psychoanalytic theory and use the language of psychoanalytic theory to construct your reading. Your answer should demonstrate originality, critical thinking, and depth of argument and analysis. You...

Explain how technology is designed to utilize the behavioral route to attitude formation and change by eliciting counter-attitudinal behaviors. Provide a specific example of either the foot-in-the-door technique or the door-in-the-face technique and explain, based on social psychology, how it works.

Technology elicits counter-attitudinal behaviors by finding examples where a person, for example, shared his opinion on a certain object, but, at the same time, his actions were not correlated with the thoughts. Conduct that is contradictory to a mindset is referred to as counter-attitudinal behavior. In this case, technology is...

We learned that we aren’t born knowing ourselves. We get to know ourselves while we are simultaneously being shaped into ourselves. Gradually, we become aware of who we are. At that point, we must either justify aspects of who we are or change aspects of who we are. Which is more difficult? How does this relate to the two basic beliefs about oneself that people are constantly trying to preserve?

Justifying themselves, those aspects of their characters that cause specific difficulties in life, people refuse responsibility for what and who they are. Thus, they refuse to manifest volitional efforts and go beyond the usual and, therefore, the relaxed state. Another way of behaving toward oneself is the path of transformation....

Discuss the pros and cons of both experiencing cognitive dissonance and being able to reduce cognitive dissonance. In your discussion, specifically address the following two questions: “What function does cognitive dissonance serve?” and “What are the consequences when one is unable to resolve cognitive dissonance?”

Experiencing cognitive dissonance along with being able to reduce it are two-facet phenomena. They both have pros and cons. Experiencing cognitive dissonance, a person may face such destructive states as panic, anger, and depression, which are the disadvantages. However, cognitive dissonance may lead people to rational thoughts and decisions that...

People’s ability to avoid and resolve cognitive dissonance confers on that individual a variety of benefits. However, these individual benefits may pose collective risks in terms of perpetuating the harmful status quo (think Prisoner’s Dilemma). Think of an example and explain how individuals’ cognitive dissonance reduction may be contributing to this ill of society.

The theory of cognitive dissonance asserts that out of the possible ways of interpreting and evaluating the same situation (objects) and their behavior in it, a person chooses those that cause less anxiety and remorse. That means that by reducing the dissonance, an individual tends to choose the strategy that...

Even people of exemplary moral character occasionally have moral failings. How might the ways of reducing cognitive dissonance following a moral failure further compromise a person’s character? Based on cognitive dissonance theory, which of the means we learned about to reduce cognitive dissonance should a moral person use to resolve cognitive dissonance, keeping in mind that past behavior cannot be changed?

The person who has a moral failure can use several ways of reducing the cognitive dissonance: changing the mind, changing the behavior, or changing the attitude toward the past actions. The first and second ways can compromise a person’s character, as they will make him or her change the moral...

What are some of the errors we identified in recent neuropsychology research seeking to link brain structure to psychological functions?

The first error associated with the research linking brain structure to psychological functions relates to the idea that specific brain parts cause certain psychological functions. This is problematic because many different parts play various roles in specific psychological functions regardless of what “lights up” during MRI studies. Therefore, the perfect...

What does being successful mean to you?

To me, success implies a combination of effective communication, trust in personal relationships, and professional progress. Continuous learning as a part of communication is another critical rule that I strive to follow. I try to become a part of a diverse global society and appreciate the needs of all its...

What are the kinds of things you take seriously?

The measurement of success is a rather subjective process since the very notion thereof varies extensively depending on one’s philosophy and beliefs. Personally, I consider success to be not only the reward for hard work but also the outcome of building a rapport with the members of one’s community. Therefore,...

Piaget and Vygotsky are both identified as educational “constructivists.” What does this mean? Who are they criticizing? How do they differ?

Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s approaches are considered constructive because both of them imply a scientific and psychological position that new knowledge should be acquired through the process of active construction. As long as people will inquire about the nature of the world, there will be constructivism because the approach is about...

Chapter 7 of “Psychology Through the Lifespan” by Beyer & Lazzara

Review Chapter 7: Adolescence of “Psychology Through the Lifespan” by Beyer & Lazzara. Look for two other scholarly sources or articles related to social media and their impacts. Summarize the topic and your opinions on the resources. Answer the two questions below inside your discussion in one or two sentences...

Developmental Psychology Constructs in Media

Evaluate the portrayal of developmental psychology constructs depicted in the media. You are to analyze a single television episode or movie and address three different issues. The issues you are to address are: one topic that the episode or movie portrayed accurately; one topic that the same episode or movie...

Technical Qualities of Psychological Tests

Locate and summarize a minimum of two articles related to the technical qualities of psychological tests. Study the provided resources about testing design and development. Focus on the purpose, contents, and constructs assessed, norms, and required training of psychological tests. Complete a deeper analysis of the technical quality of three...

Ethics, Informed Consent, and Deception in Psychological Research

Examine how ethics, informed consent, and deception are applied in psychological research. Review the following information: The American Psychological Association has a Code of Ethics that applies to many areas of the practice of psychology. One of these areas is research. Researchers working in universities and other agencies receiving federal...

Social Influence Within the Field of Social Psychology

How would you write an essay on the topic related to social influence within the field of social psychology? Begin with a short description summary of the topic prior to applying the info. Make sure to demonstrate you understood and digested the information on the topic. Provide your own examples...

Attention Extinction Alone Procedure for Self-Injurious Behavior

Can an attention extinction alone procedure be used for self-injurious behavior? Conduct a risk-benefit analysis on the use of an attention extinction alone procedure for self-injurious behavior (maintained by attention). Describe all the risk factors you identified. Describe all of the benefits you identified. Provide an overall conclusion of the...

A Single-System Intervention to Change Behavior

Design and implement an intervention with an individual or group to help change behavior. Identify an individual or group of individuals with whom to implement a single-system intervention and evaluation. This may be any individual or group in your life. The behavior intervention with this individual or group will involve...

Theories and Issues in Child Development

Describe some theories and issues in child development. Identify two theorists or paradigms and describe each theorist which provides a biographical description of their life experiences, important accomplishments necessary to theory development, and two important issues that the two theories are designed to address. Two theorists can be Erik Erikson...

A Behavior Modification Plan to Reduce Procrastination

Provide a behavior modification plan to reduce procrastination. To answer the question, find a reliable/non-biased resource on the web that you can use to help you make the behavior change. What information is provided on the site? What can individuals learn from the site? What types of information are missing?...

The Design of an Early Childhood Environment

Design an early childhood environment for three, four, and five-year-old children. What would this look like? What features would you include in the design of an ideal learning space for young children in contemporary settings (e.g., room(s), floor, the color of walls, outdoor equipment), as informed through our course readings...

A Discussion of Any Subject Dealing With Psychology

Discuss any subject dealing with Psychology. Describe what type of statistical test will be used to analyze your data and why the test chosen is the most appropriate. Include the use of both descriptive (central tendency, variance) and inferential statistics (t-test, 2-way analysis of variance, etc.). If your study is...

The Differences Between Counseling and Clinical Psychology

Discuss the differences between counseling and clinical psychology. What do you feel your strengths are when it comes to school/work? What do you feel your weaknesses are when it comes to school/work? What would your grades and faculty/supervisor feedback say your strengths and weaknesses are? What are your specific goals...

Objective and Projective Personality Assessments

Analyze the phenomenon and importance of personality tests. Compare and contrast two clinical personality assessments and discuss the legal and ethical implications of administering such assessments to children and youth below the age of 16. In your discussion, you must include ethical considerations when administering such assessments to minors. Describe...

Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory Analysis

Analyze Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory. Erik Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the most well-known theories of human development. Define eight stages of development, each characterized by a different crisis that must be resolved. What is the paradigms’ role in the development of psychosocial developmental theory? How...

Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Development

Analyze Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Development. Provide a detailed overview of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and how it has shaped people’s understanding of personality development. Demonstrate how psychoanalytic concepts such as the unconscious, repression, and the Oedipus complex can be used to interpret literary works. Consider how later thinkers...

Freudian and Adlerian Theories of Psychology

Compare and contrast Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory and Adlerian Theory of Individual Psychology. Demonstrate your understanding of these theories. Compare theories in the following aspects: view of human nature and personality, the relationship between the therapist and client, the therapeutic process (if applicable, discuss techniques, procedures, client’s experience, etc.), application to...

Is Behavior a Product of Nature or Nurture?

Discuss why you believe that nurture is the strongest factor contributing to human behavior. You have to prove why you believe that nurture is the strongest factor contributing to human behavior. You also then have to identify PTSD (the mental health disorder) as being caused by nurture (environmental). Discuss why...

Fodor’s Computational Theory of the Mind

Explain Fodor’s computational theory of the mind, and explain how he argues for it. Explain how Searle argues against Fodor’s theory. Explain the phenomenon of “failure of substitutivity” (also known as “opacity”), and explain why this phenomenon poses a challenge for a theory of thoughts. Explain the alternative ways in...

The Movie Pursuit of Happiness: Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual Assessment

Discuss the movie Pursuit of Happiness and develop a bio-psycho-social-spiritual assessment using the main character Christopher Gardner to complete the BPSS Assessment. Select a theoretical approach (behavior, client-centered, cognitive, communication, existential, problem-solving, or systems) as a foundation for the assessment. This theoretical approach should be evidence-based and align with the...

Brain Development and Its Effect on Attitudes and Behaviors

How does brain development affect attitudes and behaviors at a certain age? Apply at least one cognitive or psychosocial theory and its concepts to the person you selected based on his or her age group. Consider the physical development of the brain for the character as well as how brain...

Animal-Assisted Interactions to Alleviate Psychological Symptoms

Provide background information on the article “Animal Assisted Interactions to Alleviate Psychological Symptoms in Patients on Mechanical Ventilation.” Describe the research study explained in the article, including: What is the goal of the study (research question)? Is the study qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods? How do you know? Who participated...

Lifespan Development Research and Human Development Theories

Discuss lifespan development research. Review different theories which attempted to explain human behavior. After you review the theories, which theory do you think best explains your development thus far and why? Possible examples include Erikson’s theory, Freud’s theory, Bandura’s theory, or Piaget’s theory. You can base your answer on Chapters...

Preparing to Investigate a Topic in Psychology

Choose a topic in psychology that you would like to investigate. Find at least five original empirical sources that address the topic. For the purposes of the outline, read the abstracts of the five papers. Formulate a sentence outline that summarizes the findings of the five papers. Provide a rationale...

Classical Conditioning and the Pavlov Experiment

State the components of classical conditioning and the Pavlov experiment. Describe how the Pavlov experiment made a breakthrough in describing human behavior. Apply your knowledge and understanding of the Nervous system and outline Pavlov’s theory on Humans. Identify one impact of Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning theory in Science and discuss that...

Is the Counselor in Charge of Therapy?

In counseling, who is in control? Is the counselor in charge of therapy, or is the role shared? If the role is shared, how much of it belongs to the client, and how much belongs to the counselor? If the counselor is in charge, how is that established? How do...

Are Standardized Tests Biased in Favor of White People?

Are standardized tests really biased in favor of white, middle-class populations? Standardized tests have been accused of being biased in favor of white, middle-class populations. Using research outlined in the text, take a position, pro or con, and defend it. For your answer, you can use the textbook “Psychological Testing:...

Cognitive-Behavioral vs. Medical Model of Assessment

Describe the differences between cognitive-behavioral assessment procedures and the medical model of assessment. What is an example of a medical model? What are the methods of behavioral assessment? What are the five steps of cognitive-behavioral therapy? Using research outlined in the text, take a position, pro or con, and defend...

Original and Later Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories

Describe the methods used in developing the original MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) and subsequent revisions. Identify how the later tests addressed specific problems with the original. Why was MMPI originally developed? How was the MMPI 2 improved over the first version? Using research outlined in the text, take a...

Hierarchical Model of Binet and Spearman’s General Mental Ability

Discuss the three-level hierarchical model of the modern Binet and compare it to Spearman’s concept of general mental ability. The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale is a cognitive ability and intelligence test that is used to diagnose developmental or intellectual deficiencies in young children. General intelligence refers to a general mental ability...

Theories and Issues in Child Development

Describe some theories and issues in child development. Identify two theorists or paradigms and describe each theorist which provides a biographical description of their life experiences, important accomplishments necessary to theory development, and two important issues that the two theories are designed to address. Two theorists can be Erik Erikson...

Theories and Challenges in Child Development

Describe Erikson’s and Freud’s theories and challenges in child development. Identify Erik Erikson and Sigmund Freud, describe each theorist which provides a biographical description of their life experiences, important accomplishments necessary to theory development, and two or more important issues that the two theories are designed to address.

Distinguish between ‘delayed language’ and ‘specific language impairment.’

Learning language skills is an essential part of a child’s development. Specific language impairment (SLI) is a disorder in which language skills develop abnormally, but the reason is unknown. Language delay is the achievement of language milestones in a typical sequence but slower than necessary for a certain age. Thus,...

State the meaning of communication according to five characters you know!

Several characters have contributed to a significant definition of communication. Some characters include Keith Davis, John Adair, William Newman, Charles Summer, Louis Allen, and Peter Little. Firstly, Keith Davis’s communication meaning encapsulates a significant process involving information exchange information from one individual to another for mutual comprehension. According to John...

Discuss what could be the reasons why the child is pushing your button.

Children will do anything to get their parents or guardian to yield to their demands. Most children tend to have irritating behavior because they want to make the parent feel guilty and blame themselves for punishing or doing something the child does not like. Additionally, children express frustrating behavior like...

Discuss attention span in an early childhood setting.

Attention span is the duration at which a child can concentrate on the assigned activity or object or engage in a particular task without shifting the attention to other things. Experts in early childhood typically recommend that a children’s attention span be two to three minutes every year of maturity....

Explain how electronic communication has changed the way we communicate.

Electronic communication is a specific type of interaction that differs from face-to-face talk or letters exchange. Firstly, it allows us to speak to any person no matter where they are. However, the increased amount of contacts often affects their depth and quality: we do not have enough time to dedicate...

Watch The Blind Side film. Give at least three examples of a confirming message between two characters and identify the type (recognition, acknowledgement, endorsement).

A confirming message is when a person receives a message that outlines their worth and value from those they share relationships. Recognition statements confirm or deny a person’s existence; for instance, when Leigh Anne notices Michael walking alone on the road and shivering in of cold, she offers Michael to...

Watch The Blind Side film. Give at least three examples of a disconfirming message between two characters and identify the type (impervious, interrupting, etc.).

Disconfirming climates are when a person receives messages that suggest one is unimportant and devalued. Impervious responses are when a person fails to recognize the other person’s communicative attempts. For instance, the teacher dismissed Michael Oher due to his poor school grades. Interrupting response occurs when a person before the...

Watch The Blind Side film. Give examples of 2 types of defense-arousing messages based on Gibb’s Categories (evaluation, etc.) and identify the types.

The Gibbs categories are elements of a strategy for interpersonal communication. Defensive behaviors are demonstrated when a person feels threatened during contact hence feeling the need to defend themselves. These occur in different processes, control, superiority, and certainty. Lean Anne uses her status of being the wife of a well-known...

Watch The Blind Side film. List three of the main or side characters and describe the main conflict styles (competing, collaborating, etc.) of each one.

The competing conflict resolution style is assertive and aggressive; it occurs without concern for others’ opinions. The gang in the story adopts this methodology to punish the Tuohur family. Thus, the avoiding style is conflict resolution which avoids conflict. Leigh Anne adapted this method as she tends to keep off...

Watch The Blind Side film. List two characters and give an example of how they could have used collaborative problem solving to minimize destructive conflict for one of the problems they encountered.

Collaborating is used to solve significant conflicts that affect how people interact. Activities involved in collaborating are marching perspectives, gaining commitment, integrating solutions, and learning more about competition and parties. If Michael’s mother had been present in his life, this would have reduced the hard times in Michael’s life. Moreover,...

Watch The Blind Side film. Give an example of each of the destructive conflict patterns identified as “The Four Horsemen”: Criticism, Defensiveness, Contempt, Stonewalling.

Criticism is a pattern that consists of attacks on a person’s character—for instance, the teacher judge Michael based on his poor grades in school. Defensive is a destructive pattern that protects one by denying responsibility. In the film, Michael’s mother escapes from being there for her son as she adapts...

Watch The Blind Side film. Name two characters and describe the Relational Conflict Style between them (complementary, symmetrical, etc.)? Would you consider this conflict style generally constructive or destructive for the characters?

Conflict exists in relation as the participating people determine it; when people are involved in a long-term relationship, they develop a way of managing their disagreements. Parallel conflict style shifts between the symmetrical and complementary patterns from one issue to another. Leigh Anne is involved in motivating Michael to make...

What was Humanism and why do you believe it was important?

Humanism was a political philosophy that marked the progress of the Renaissance movement. The ideology was based on rationalism and individuality, which differentiated it from any previous life principles. Humanism primarily relied on the concepts of being human rather than religious terms and traditions. In this way, the movement symbolized...

What is affirmative therapy? What do we need to do as counselors in order to practice affirmative therapy with members of the LGBTQ community? How would you counsel someone that is struggling with their own sexuality? How would you counsel someone that is dealing with others around them struggling with your client’s sexuality? How is affirmative therapy very different from conversion therapy?

Psychologists use affirmative therapy to help sexually diverse individuals with self-acceptance and dealing with discrimination. It supports LGBTQ relationships and experiences without imposing change and judgment. As the name suggests, counselors need to affirm sexual diversity. First and foremost, they need to acknowledge and reflect on their attitudes and prejudices...

An informational interview is a conversation with a person about their job, organization, area of specialty and any other related professional concerns. I would love for you to actually do this, but with current conditions it might be too ambitious. However, I will ask you to think of someone specifically that you could contact in the future who has the job you want for yourself. Who is it and what do they do? How would/could you get in touch with them? (email, telephone, social media) Do they work for a company, someone else or themselves? What makes you think that this person loves their career that you would want it for yourself?

I would like to interview Dr. Chelsey Rosen, a licensed school psychologist. Dr. Rosen works at Manhattan Psychology Group and is a part of the team offering psychological services to children. Dr. Rosen’s dedication to the job is evident as she specializes in several therapeutic approaches, participates in various conferences,...

The world is changing as a result of this continuous global pandemic. How will your responsibilities change as a working professional as a result of the current coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis? What are the professionals in your field doing to help others within this crisis? How do you think they can help even more? Would you feel comfortable working in your chosen profession during this pandemic? What precautions would you need to take in order to feel more comfortable? How will this field be shaped in the future in a post-coronavirus world?

COVID-19 has considerably affected the mental health of many people around the world, including children and adolescents. The responsibilities of child and adolescent therapists increased during the pandemic due to the growing number of mental health issues among youth. Thus, more children and teenagers need therapeutical interventions due to the...

Read the book Biopsychology by Spielman, Jenkins & Lovett. Write about takeaways from it.

The first takeaway relates to the tremendous difference between behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology. In chapter three, Spielman et al. explain that both approaches are built on the premise that human genes’ areas of influence extend beyond traits and include cognitive patterns. However, the field of evolutionary psychology is concerned...

What is an attitude?

An attitude is an expression of a particular individual’s likes and dislikes of specific moments and things. A certain point of view on many circumstances greatly facilitates life and reduces the time spent on solving many problems. An attitude may change over time due to a person’s new experience. However,...

Are there other key concepts here that we need to articulate and distinguish, aside from ‘Selfishness’ and ‘Self-interest’?

In the context of the discussion of psychological egoism and its opposition to psychological altruism, one distinguishes between selfishness and self-interest. These two terms differ due to the placing of oneself over others without regarding others’ interests, which is inherent to selfishness but not self-interest. In addition to these concepts,...

Identify and discuss a key social issue facing future community psychologists. Describe your potential role as a community psychologist in addressing this issue.

Community psychology is a constantly developing discipline that changes every day. The changes in society, politics, environment, and economics drive change together with the inner dynamics of communities, social groups, and nations. Wolfgang made several predictions concerning the future state of community psychology. First, community psychology is expected to become...

Reflect on your experiences during the Community Psychology course. Discuss how the course has contributed to your thinking about psychological interventions and the development of your professional identity as a future psychologist. What can you do in your own community?

The course on community psychology helped me to re-evaluate my understanding of social interventions and their potential effects on the community. As I wrote previously, before taking this course, I believed that an evidence-based approach to addressing problems is the best since they are measurable, reliable, and cost-effective. I thought...

Name four basic elements that contribute to a comfortable emotional climate and explain why each is valuable. How do they support the five selves?

The four basic elements include for a positive or comfortable emotional climate are: Connection: an environment of connection between teachers, peers, and parents promotes a positive climate environment for physically challenged learners. This element supports the social development of children enabling them to socialize effectively. Engagement: learners get involved in...

How do you comfort a coach or staff member who has lost a family member?

Just like student-athletes, coaches and their staff also undergo an emotional breakdown when they lose their family members. However, society still demands proficiency and results from them. Therefore, chaplains should acknowledge the burdening effects such requirements have on their lives when comforting them. For instance, as a “good shepherd” who...

Listen to parent-child interactions. How do parents talk to their children? How do they respond? What effect do you think parental interactions have on a child’s language development?

Communication forms a crucial aspect of parenting and determines how a child will develop socially, physically, and intellectually. Parents communicate with their children both verbally and nonverbally when passing a message or instructions. Parents use encouraging and appreciating words such as thank you for motivating and giving the child morale...

Watch the video “The Truth About Growing Up Disabled” by Dylan Alcott. How can you apply what you learned to your professional interactions with children with exceptionalities and their families?

The information from this TED talk can be applied in a variety of ways during my professional interactions with children with exceptionalities. I want to change my practice from compassion to motivation because empathy is usually the first thing a person expresses in relation to a child with a disability....

Identify and briefly explain any five ethical principles that must be adhered to when conducting research involving human subjects as outlined by the Belmont Report and the American Psychology Association.

Respect for Persons Researchers should treat human participants as autonomous agents, acting under deliberation of personal goals. If the subjects have diminished autonomy, the researchers must protect them since they do not have self-determination. Additionally, they need to be excluded from those research activities that may harm them. Beneficence Researchers...

Conditioning is defined as a situation that brings about a change in the behavior of an organism. In classical conditioning, the change is automatic. Many of us have been conditioned by life events to fear or experience pleasure in response to certain objects and situations. In operant conditioning, the change is much more under voluntary control. Our behavior is constantly influenced by patterns of rewards and punishments. What behaviors have you changed through classical or operant conditioning during this time in isolation: Have you experienced any new fears? Found any new pleasures? Learned something new and then rewarded yourself for it? Did something “bad” and then punished yourself for it?

During the pandemic, as I was in isolation, my behaviors changed through classical conditioning such that I could no longer walk out of the room whenever it was 10 PM due to curfew. This was not the case before as I liked walking around during the night before this time...

One of Sigmund Freud’s major contributions to the subject of psychology is his personality theory. Freud believed that our personality is made up of three subsystems: Id, Ego and Superego. The three parts of our personality have to negotiate every moment and influence every decision we make. The Id is selfish (thinking only of ourselves) and the Superego is selfless (thinking only of others). How has your Ego resolved some of these conflicts during this time in isolation: What have you done that is selfish (Id) and what have you done that is selfless (Superego)?

Ego has enabled me to solve the conflicts that arise due to the Id and superego by making things realistic to me. When my selfish desires could not be satisfied in the real world, my ego helped me go back to my senses and becomes realistic. Ego also enabled me...

Explain Tuckman and Vygotsky’s theories of social interaction in groups.

The four stages of Tuckman’s framework include forming, storming, norming, and performing steps of group integration. This discussion describes my experience of playing on a volleyball team and analyzes my learning experience. At first, when I came to a sports section, I did not know any people there; I was...

What might cause your worldview to change?

Worldview defines the concepts and assumptions that can change throughout life. According to Flanagan, this term refers to “an individual’s frame of reference, held consciously and subconsciously, that evolves due to life experiences.” As I grow older or find myself in different situations having different needs, my worldview might change.

What Vygotsky ideas and concepts can support your socio-emotional observation?

Vygotsky’s ideas appear to be beneficial in different types of social interactions and experiences as they imply the cruciality of the development through its culture. As a result, people might find sociocultural theory profitable in social-emotional observation, considering that understanding an interlocutor’s community identifies one’s social skills. The perception of...

Why is an understanding of culture important to an IO psychologist? Use examples to support your discussion.

Culture is the unique arrangement of rules, attitudes, opinions, and behavior that characterizes the way people and institutions collaborate to accomplish goals. Culture establishes how members of an institution should behave under particular conditions and how their actions affect their relationships with others. It impacts everyone, from the seasoned CEO...

Describe two types of work performance measures and the strengths and limitations of each.

Determining what characterizes employees’ performance and how it may be measured is critical for IO psychologists. The generic concept of work performance establishes work productivity problems as a phenomenon and, as such, has examined if there are fundamental elements of work performance that are universal to all career fields. Therefore,...

Read Chapter 7 We Can Change Our Emotional Scripts of the book Don’t Get So Upset by Tamar Jacobson. Why does Jacobson say she disagrees with the statement that “It’s all about behavior management.”

The reason for any disobedience is an unmet need for love, attention, hugs, understanding, safety, protection, recognition, and care. Therefore, the child’s bad behavior is a sign that the time has come to help him. It will not be enough to simply try to regulate the child’s behavior by ignoring...

Read Chapter 7 We Can Change Our Emotional Scripts of the book “Don’t Get So Upset” by Tamar Jacobson. Why do you think Jacobson said, “Becoming aware of my emotional development and history has not always been easy”? What does this statement reflect about her past?

In reviewing their lives, people are likely to experience many emotions, including embarrassment, shame, or fear. But to fully develop emotionally requires a person to explore their life deeply and entirely without letting their worries interfere with the process. In it, people commit to being honest with themselves by exploring...

Read Chapter 7 We Can Change Our Emotional Scripts of the book “Don’t Get So Upset” by Tamar Jacobson. Jacobson said that “By understanding ourselves we can enable to help children in interpreting the messages they receive from significant adults in their lives.” What does Jacobson mean by this statement?

In pursuit of their ambitions, parents overlook such an important aspect as the development of emotional intelligence. Sometimes kids easily write, read, and count; however, the formation of the emotional sphere seems like a much more complicated process. But it is proven that it is a crucial component of the...

Define social psychology and provide examples of its use in the world today.

Social psychology refers to the study of how interpersonal and intrapersonal factors influence an individual’s behavior. Environmental factors such as social interaction can influence an individual to develop a new behavior. Social psychology can be experienced in group behavior, leadership, aggression, prejudice, conformity, and non-verbal behavior. Most people develop new...

What is cognitive dissonance? Share an example of when you have experienced cognitive dissonance in your life. What caused it?

Cognitive dissonance is psychological discomfort that arises when an individual holds two or more inconsistent attitudes, cognition, and behavior. Cognitive dissonance is mostly experienced when an individual understands the consequences of behavior but still engages in bad behaviors. I am a victim of cognitive dissonance because of some decisions I...