Developmental characteristics for preschool children include mental development, behavior, intellectual self-regulation, purposeful behavior, cognitive activity, communication during and outside educational activities, and motivational and cognitive learning abilities.
This typology can help parents to look for the signs of cognitive problems if a child does not meet the cognitive criteria corresponding to their age. The typology information is usually spread by teachers in educational institutions, and the parents can ask their tutor to share these guidelines. Retardnes in one of the mentioned spheres should be seen as a problem, but the requirements are different for particular ages.
It is noteworthy that anemia or iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of developmental delays in infants and should be blamed for many cases of cognitive problems. The risks are especially big in children under seven years of age, who are most vulnerable to iron deficiency anemia. A direct signal and consequence of iron deficiency is impairment of cognitive functions and psychomotor development since iron is actively involved in brain metabolism.
The researchers also note that “iron deficiency is a common comorbidity in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and an autism spectrum disorder.” Moreover, iron deficiency can “cause or exacerbate other nutrient deficiencies, which can harm the developing brain and other organs in infants.” Therefore, when observing signs of inadequate development, parents should consult a doctor and pay attention to the child’s diet.