The 1969 White Paper led to a political crisis because the indigenous groups opposed the document arguing that it ignored their concerns and that assimilation was not the only way to attain equity. As a result, indigenous people reinvigorated several existing native organizations. Some groups pursued policy reforms, while others focused on cultural and social changes.
Indigenous communities and leaders also took their campaigns to the legislatures, courts, British Commonwealth, international forums, and streets, thus resulting in a resilient fight for a just society. Essential organizations were formed, including the National Indian Brotherhood and the Union of BC Indian Chiefs, which fought for aboriginal rights and self-governance.