There are two main types of hypertension, that is, primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary hypertension is also known as essential hypertension and has no identifiable cause. However, factors such as genetics, lifestyle, age, and diet are thought to contribute to it. Secondary hypertension is caused by another medical condition or by the use of certain medications. High blood pressure typically does not have any signs and symptoms and is considered a silent killer.
When symptoms occur, they include severe headaches, irregular heart rhythms, fatigue, nosebleeds, vision problems, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. High blood pressure is treated by medicines or lifestyle changes. Examples of medication used to treat hypertension include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and beta-blockers. Secondary hypertension can be treated by stopping medication or managing the underlying disease, causing high blood pressure.