“Representations of Smoking and Experiences of Disapproval in UK and Greek Smokers” by Louka et al. provides variable theories according to the changing circumstances, giving a new orientation to the research work.
Researchers have reported different criteria to achieve smoking cessation through behaviour modification. Such behaviour modification programs include timely assessment of behavioural changes, motivation, treatment, and cost. Cahall suggests that assessing behaviour at follow-ups, counselling via referral services, and perceiving quitters’ awareness and response is important to study the change in behaviour. In addition, a complete training protocol should be available for the evaluation of smokers.
Smoking cessation should be enhanced with certain behaviour modification programs to encourage quitters to make positive changes in their lifestyles. Such programs encourage smoking quitters with very interactive personal and social programs to avoid smoking in the remaining of their lives. Such community-driven and personalised programs are designed with the criterion to encourage quitters to adhere to this behaviour for a long-term period. These programs are based on recent researches in behaviour modification.
Various graphical presentations of correlation between initiation and duration of smoking cessation with subsequent assessment of health, reduction of symptoms of cough, respiratory tract infection and disappearance of the diseases like pneumonia and tuberculosis can be made. Such visual representation will make quitters aware of the health improvement they are attaining gradually, and consequently, will encourage them to refrain from smoking for the rest of their life. A similar type of graphical illustration of a correlation between smoking cessation and reduction in pollution of the environment will also encourage quitters to withdraw from smoking completely.
Cost-effective methods to encourage smokers to quit smoking is to reach them and educate them by various methods including, the pasting of posters, distribution of pamphlets, advertising in radio/TV, use of the Internet and email.
Some tobacco users need personal counselling and advice from the health care provider to encourage them to quit smoking. This method of approach requires regular appointments with a doctor, counselling from a physician, and pharmaco-therapy. This method of combined treatment with drugs and psychological intervention is very effective than the earlier one but is very expensive. Counselling, even for a very short period of time, has an influential positive effect on smokers quitting smoking. However, this method has some additional costs to endure, and other barriers like geographical distances and instant support are not available. Therefore, the need is to develop cost-effective methods with easy assess and instant help, with personalised 24 hours support via electronic communications by use of the Internet and software. Nicotine is the main reason why people become addicted to cigarettes. Nicotine is a well-known addiction chemical compound. Although the process of addiction is still not 100% clear, some new research has shown that nicotine actually acts on a novel nicotinic receptor complex that is strategically located at the sites of communication between neurons in the brain. This relationship of nicotine is reported to cause the short term relaxation and easy feeling that smokers feel.
Smoking is reported and verified to be dangerous for the brain, too, just like it is for any other part of the body. At first, the brain metabolic activity is altered by nicotine. The activity is actually boosted by cigarettes. We know that when the natural rate of anything in the body is disturbed, it is not a good sign. Hence cigarettes are harming the nerve cells and hence the brain cells.
The nicotine specifically targets the neurons- the building blocks of the nervous system. The nicotine is thus detrimental during the brain development process. In research, the data clearly showed that prenatal exposure to nicotine could be harmful.
Smoking has been investigated in neural tube defects. The central nervous system, which includes the spinal cord and the brain in the developing embryo, is known as the neural tube. Normally the neural tube closes completely. If, however, all or part of the neural tube fails to close, the baby has a neural tube defect. Smoking has been found to add to the chances of neural tube defects. Hence smoker parents are at greater risk of having an NTD baby.
In a study, nicotine is found to be responsible for destroying brain cells. An experiment with a rat brain showed that structural changes were stimulated by the presence of even very small concentrations of nicotine. The experiment was conducted on developing brains, which means that babies are at potential risk who are in the womb of a smoker mother.
Although cigarettes have not yet been verified to be associated with brain cancer, some research is suggesting a link. Several studies have implicated dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds as a risk factor for brain tumours. And tobacco or cigarettes are sources of many n-nitroso compounds, which may reveal a link between brain cancer and cigarettes. Another evidence of brain cancer associated with cigarettes comes from the fact that exposure to vinyl chloride is an environmental risk factor for brain cancer. Vinyl chloride is a carcinogen, that is, a cancer-causing substance. It is present in tobacco smoke.
Dangerous chemical compound exposure is a reason for brain cancer. Many industries have been declared to be a potentially higher risk for their employers as they work with carcinogen compounds. Among the many industries, the tobacco industry is also declared to be at higher risk of developing brain cancer in their workers.