E-Learning in Higher Education in Critical Situations

How has E-learning in higher education increased during the past decade due to its inevitable benefits in critical situations like natural disasters (COVID-19 pandemic, etc.) and war circumstances?

The reliable, fair, and seamless execution of online exams in E-learning is highly significant. Particularly, online exams are conducted on E-learning platforms without the physical presence of students and instructors at the same place. This poses several issues like integrity and security during online exams. Discuss different techniques and tools to address such issues of integrity and security during online exams.