Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy.
From the perspective of power ideology, the type of government in Canada is a constitutional monarchy. Canada has three branches of government: the legislative one that makes laws, the executive one that enforces laws, and judicial one that interprets laws.
The head of state is the Queen of England that has a representative, the Governor-General. He is chosen based on the Prime Minister’s advice. The legislative branch or the parliament of Canada has two chambers: the lower chamber or the House of Commons, the upper chamber known as The Senate. They together create the bills and propose them to the Queen. The Queen, through the governor-general, passes those bills into law. The executive branch is comprised of the Cabinet and the Prime Minister, Canada’s head of government. They make decisions about how the country is governed, including the proposition of new laws and budgeting. The Supreme Court is the highest court and is the court of final appeals in the justice system.
From the perspective of power source, Canada is a democracy. Canadians choose how they want Canada to be, what laws they want to have, what values they want to stand for. Citizens elect political representatives at federal, provincial and territorial, and municipal levels.
From the perspective of the power structure, the country is organized on the principle of federalism. It means that there are three levels of government in Canada: federal, provincial, and municipal ones. The federal government is headed by the Prime Minister that has the power to manage national and international issues. Provincial and territorial governments deal with their laws and public lands and have the authority to define educational, health care, and road systems. Each province and territory of Canada has its Premier. Municipal or city governments are responsible for running towns, cities, and districts and led by Mayors.