Two types of surgeries can be done to correct pectus excavatum. The open repair, also known as the Ravitch procedure, and the minimally invasive surgery called the Nuss procedure.
Ravitch procedure – this is an open repair that involves the removal of the cartilage which causes the deformity by performing an incision in the chest. The deformed cartilage is reshaped to the right shape, then bars are placed on the sternum to keep it in place. Draining tubes are inserted in the chest to drain fluid and prevent pulmonary effusion. And a chest tube is placed to prevent the lungs from collapsing.
Nuss procedure – it is a less invasive procedure since a few cuts are made. A curved metal bar is placed under the sternum to force it outward and in the desired position. Bars are placed behind the breastplate by the surgeon with the help of a camera by making small cuts. The surgeon then turns the bars to raise the breastbone up and outward. The bars are then stitched to hold them steady.