The first perspective is a psychodynamic personality development theory. This theory was pioneered by Sigmund Freud, who assumed that personality is based on the three structural elements – id, ego, and superego. Those three elements coexist within a person, and the relationships between them and reality shape the personality.
The id represents the primal and animalistic nature of humans. The ego is a great mediator, which acts within the realistic realm. The superego represents the set of moral principles, values, and ideals that the person follows. According to psychodynamic personality development theory, human behavior is motivated by the urge to fulfill sexual and aggressive unconscious instincts shaped and determined by childhood experiences.
The second perspective is the behavioral personality development theory. This theory was presented by John Locke, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. Those scientists are famous for their research on animals and their conditioning. Hence, the behavioral theory states that humans are intelligent rats who learn and adapt to the environment. Behaviorists reject the concepts of the unconscious, genetics, and internal traits. Their statement is that personality is learned through life experiences and behavioral choices that people make to survive and prosper.
The third perspective is the cognitive personality theory. In this theory, the assumption is that humans act as scientists in their daily lives, making an observation, analyzing the environment, and making conclusions that shape their personalities. In other words, human behavior is the product of the interaction of cognition, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment. Albert Bandura contributed to the cognitive theory by introducing the principle of self-efficacy. According to this principle, people are proven to expect success out of their actions. Hence, personality is dictated by one’s expectations and perceptions in the way.