The main security threat that, for a long time, was unnoticed is a disease. The emergence of traditional directions for security studies took place in the twentieth century. Two global wars, and the Cold War, during which the nuclear arms race took place, shifted attention to military power. States were concerned about the protection of national borders and territories. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the crisis in Yugoslavia demonstrated that states might understand the nation in different ways, and the emphasis shifted from national security to social and human security. Problems such as economic inequality, environmental issues, reduced reserves of non-renewable natural resources, and many others have come to the fore. Scientists of various directions drew the attention of society to the threats that worried them most.
Besides the acute relevance of military power issues, human confidence in the ability to defeat diseases contributed to the neglect of such a threat. The use of antibiotics improved living conditions. Hygiene opportunities contributed to the development of medicine and the preservation of many human lives. All these circumstances contributed to the creation of the illusion of control over the disease. However, the spread of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and coronaviruses have shown that they are still a severe threat. They can cause many deaths and destabilize the state’s economy.
Security has traditionally been seen as a low probability of damaging acquired values. Convention scholars like David Baldwin recognize the various dimensions and directions of this sphere. They could consider the inclusion of the disease threat in the security studies as a way for scientists in this area to confirm its importance. Moreover, from a traditional perspective, a particular species may not be needed to describe one of the dimensions. In scientific circles, identification is mainly essential-how a threat will affect values and what actors it concerns. At the same time, to take any action to eliminate or prevent a threat, states require the ability to determine what costs, means, and time are needed.