Republic (from the Latin. Res. Publica – common cause) is a form of government under which all the highest bodies of state power are either elected or formed by a national representative body.
Signs of republican form of government:
- election of the authorities;
- dependence on voters;
- a political and legal connection is established between the state and the person by the type of citizenship, which confirms the citizen’s right to participate in politics, as well as his obligations to the republic (state);
- the Head of State is considered as a responsible person.
Despite differentiation in features among the republican form of government, there are peculiarities, which are common to all types:
1. Depending on citizen’s involvement in legislative activity:
- The directly republican form of government (a state where laws are passed by the decision of the many of the republic – Switzerland). Disadvantages – population growth and political apathy of citizens. Varieties:
- a republic where the people exercise the legislative power through the assembly of citizens;
- government where the people use the legislative power through a regular referendum.
- Representative republic.
2. Depending on the status of the head of state and the legal status of the Parliament, the republic may be presidential, parliamentary, or mixed.
The Presidential Republic – a state where the office of President is politically independent, allows the President to make decisions under his responsibility.
- Hard power distribution.
- The President is elected by the direct or indirect election of the people.
- The President combines the powers of the Head of State and the Head of Government (as a rule, there is no post of Prime Minister).
The Parliamentary Republic. The basis of this form of government is determined by the principle of the political rule of Parliament – Germany, Italy, Hungary, Czech Republic, India, Greece, Israel, Lebanon.
- As a rule, the President is elected by the Parliament and has responsibility (in Austria, Iceland – elected by the people by majority system).
- Parliament addresses all significant issues of public life.
- Parliament forms the government, so the prime minister is represented by the victorious party’s representative in the parliamentary elections.
In the Mixed Type Republic, there are many variations on the presidential or parliamentary principle. In this case, one can distinguish a specific type of representative government, which is called a mixed (presidential-parliamentary or parliamentary-presidential).
- The power is divided between the President and Parliament.
- The President is usually elected nationwide.
- The President and Parliament are jointly involved in forming the government (for example, the President proposes ministerial nominations and Parliament approves them).
- The Prime Minister plays an independent role in the state.
- The government is responsible both to the President and to the Parliament.