The World History: Political Upheavals and Uprisings

Why are the uprisings of 1848 sometimes referred to as the Springtime of the Peoples?

German unification in 1871 was particularly difficult to accomplish. What were the barriers to German unification that Bismarck had to overcome? And, citing examples, show how Bismarck used Realpolitik and nationalism to unify Germany. Show how industrialization changed the everyday lives of Europeans in the 19th century. Explain how Marxism and Feminism were direct challenges to the bourgeois world.