Read Chapters 11 and 12 in Hoffman, Parry, and Reese’s edited volume Readings in Arkansas Politics and Government, 2nd edition. Be able to describe the types of judicial reforms adopted in Arkansas discussed in these pieces – how the state court has “evolved” over time, and be able to explain what they mean when they write of policy diffusion, external and internal factors and how these terms help explain what is thought to have contributed to policy adoption over time.

Chapter 11 elaborates the evolution process the legal system experienced in judicial selection. It also elaborates both external and internal changes witnessed and narrates the direction most likely to be taken in the future. Chapter 12 is all about a guide for practitioners in new judicial articles. It is understood that the methods in judicial selection with their possible consequences have been subjected to considerably lengthy scholarly debate.

In this foray, political science scholars have been involved in the unending discussion of judicial selection with their legal counterparts. Political scientists argue that accountability is critical to selecting judges as they are considered political players in a political arrangement. Thus, the idea of electoral selection has minor consequences to the judicial system. On the other hand, legal minds believe in the non-electoral method. They maintain that selection should be on merit and retention rather than the electoral way.

By 2000, the judicial system in Arkansas had evolved through several tedious stages. In 1836, judges from both the supreme court and the circuit courts were elected by the majority of the legislature for eight- and four-year terms. In 1848, judges from the circuit court were elected by people. In 1864, supreme court judges joined their circuit court counterparts as people now did their election. In 1868, the supreme court’s chief justice and circuit court judges were elected by the governor with consent from the senate. People elected associated justices.

In 1874, the chief justice and all judges of the supreme court were selected by the people. Circuit court judges were elected to a four-year term. In 1978, the legislature was authorized to create a court of appeal where justices were elected for eight years. In 2000, the electorates of Arkansas voted in amendment 80, which paved the way to the non-partisanship method of selection for justices from the previous partisanship. Also, the changes merged chancery, circuit, juvenile, and probate courts to a single jurisdictional court called the circuit court. Furthermore, courts with limited jurisdiction were merged to form the district court. The term limit for circuit and district court judges were six and four years, respectively.

Policy diffusion is a scenario where the making of policies in one arm of the government affects policymaking in other components. Also, it includes a process by which policymaking in a single government involves other governments. Internal and external factors are those aspects that directly and indirectly affect the policymaking of a state. The internal factors are those within a state’s judicial system, while the external is from mainly the federal and the states’ executive arm of the government.

The external and internal factors in a judicial system include the legal aspects, personal issues among the legal fraternity, ideological views, and influence from political players. The external and internal factors have significant impacts on policy diffusion and adoption. In Arkansas, during the judicial evolution, politics from both the republican and democrats’ camps played a crucial role in financing and advocating for judicial activisms. Moreover, the legal and political science scholars have continued to influence and decide on the direction to be taken by the judicial system.

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Academic.Tips. (2022) 'Read Chapters 11 and 12 in Hoffman, Parry, and Reese’s edited volume Readings in Arkansas Politics and Government, 2nd edition. Be able to describe the types of judicial reforms adopted in Arkansas discussed in these pieces – how the state court has "evolved" over time, and be able to explain what they mean when they write of policy diffusion, external and internal factors and how these terms help explain what is thought to have contributed to policy adoption over time'. 9 October.

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Academic.Tips. (2022, October 9). Read Chapters 11 and 12 in Hoffman, Parry, and Reese’s edited volume Readings in Arkansas Politics and Government, 2nd edition. Be able to describe the types of judicial reforms adopted in Arkansas discussed in these pieces – how the state court has "evolved" over time, and be able to explain what they mean when they write of policy diffusion, external and internal factors and how these terms help explain what is thought to have contributed to policy adoption over time. https://academic.tips/question/read-chapters-11-and-12-in-hoffman-parry-and-reeses-edited-volume-readings-in-arkansas-politics-and-government-2nd-edition-be-able-to-describe-the-types-of-judicial-reforms-adopted-in-ark/

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Academic.Tips. 2022. "Read Chapters 11 and 12 in Hoffman, Parry, and Reese’s edited volume Readings in Arkansas Politics and Government, 2nd edition. Be able to describe the types of judicial reforms adopted in Arkansas discussed in these pieces – how the state court has "evolved" over time, and be able to explain what they mean when they write of policy diffusion, external and internal factors and how these terms help explain what is thought to have contributed to policy adoption over time." October 9, 2022. https://academic.tips/question/read-chapters-11-and-12-in-hoffman-parry-and-reeses-edited-volume-readings-in-arkansas-politics-and-government-2nd-edition-be-able-to-describe-the-types-of-judicial-reforms-adopted-in-ark/.

1. Academic.Tips. "Read Chapters 11 and 12 in Hoffman, Parry, and Reese’s edited volume Readings in Arkansas Politics and Government, 2nd edition. Be able to describe the types of judicial reforms adopted in Arkansas discussed in these pieces – how the state court has "evolved" over time, and be able to explain what they mean when they write of policy diffusion, external and internal factors and how these terms help explain what is thought to have contributed to policy adoption over time." October 9, 2022. https://academic.tips/question/read-chapters-11-and-12-in-hoffman-parry-and-reeses-edited-volume-readings-in-arkansas-politics-and-government-2nd-edition-be-able-to-describe-the-types-of-judicial-reforms-adopted-in-ark/.


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Academic.Tips. "Read Chapters 11 and 12 in Hoffman, Parry, and Reese’s edited volume Readings in Arkansas Politics and Government, 2nd edition. Be able to describe the types of judicial reforms adopted in Arkansas discussed in these pieces – how the state court has "evolved" over time, and be able to explain what they mean when they write of policy diffusion, external and internal factors and how these terms help explain what is thought to have contributed to policy adoption over time." October 9, 2022. https://academic.tips/question/read-chapters-11-and-12-in-hoffman-parry-and-reeses-edited-volume-readings-in-arkansas-politics-and-government-2nd-edition-be-able-to-describe-the-types-of-judicial-reforms-adopted-in-ark/.

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"Read Chapters 11 and 12 in Hoffman, Parry, and Reese’s edited volume Readings in Arkansas Politics and Government, 2nd edition. Be able to describe the types of judicial reforms adopted in Arkansas discussed in these pieces – how the state court has "evolved" over time, and be able to explain what they mean when they write of policy diffusion, external and internal factors and how these terms help explain what is thought to have contributed to policy adoption over time." Academic.Tips, 9 Oct. 2022, academic.tips/question/read-chapters-11-and-12-in-hoffman-parry-and-reeses-edited-volume-readings-in-arkansas-politics-and-government-2nd-edition-be-able-to-describe-the-types-of-judicial-reforms-adopted-in-ark/.

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