Name six body systems affected by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) and briefly explain how they are affected.

A

a. Hematologic system. The generalization of infection with the formation of foci of screening indicates its progressive spread by the hematogenous way. The timing of the occurrence of secondary foci and their localization can vary within wide limits, which corresponds to the acyclic course of sepsis.

b. Endocrine system. Characterized by endotoxicosis, MODS causes a failure in the thyroid gland and leads to further hormonal disbalance.

c. Immune system. The development and complications of MODS partially depend on the state of the body’s immunobiological forces. In case they are weak, there is an increased risk of MODS. The immune system becomes unable to provide adequate immune reaction, thus failing to ensure homeostasis between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory reactions and resulting in immunoparalysis.

d. Renal system. Renal grows in the early stages of the development of the given disease, which can be considered as a diagnostic symptom that is constant among the objective criteria for diagnosing sepsis. The failure of the renal system can be determined with the percussion of the abdominal cavity and ultrasound.

e. Neurologic system. The failure of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by MODS is characterized by hypoperfusion of the cerebral cortex and an increase in the level of endorphins and adrenomedullin (endogenous vasodilator), which disrupt microcirculation in the cerebral cortex.

f. Cardiovascular system. People with a heart rhythm disorder that are first hospitalized with a severe form of sepsis have a greater risk of developing a stroke and a fatal outcome. MODS decreases stroke volume.

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