Name and briefly explain the global indicators of systemic perfusion and oxygenation.

A

a. The elevated serum lactate (>4) is one of the global indicators, while its average level (2-4) identifies no systemic perfusion and oxygenation.

b. Base deficit that is also called tissue acidosis, is another global indicator. In particular, if the ion gap >16, it is possible to assume oxygenation and perfusion since the normal ion gap should be between 11 and 16.

c. Serum bicarbonate also may be used to analyze systemic oxygenation and perfusion. In the normal range, it should be 22-29 mmol/L in adults and 17-28 mmol/L in children depending on their age.

d. Mixed Venous Oxygen Saturation measurements (SVO2) indicate whether cardiac output is adequate or not. This is rather useful in measuring changes in oxygen delivery in the human body.

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