As part of the work of multinational teams on a common project, the skills and competencies of the project manager as a leader have the most significant influence. The project manager is the one who “integrates and coordinates all activities and directs them towards the successful completion of the project.” To effectively use cultural diversity for an advantage of the project, the manager needs to have a number of skills and knowledge, the main of which is communication.
Other important competencies include the ability to select a team, leadership skills, decision-making, and problem-solving skills, the ability to effectively integrate interested parties, negotiation skills, technical competencies, as well as flexibility in changing environment. One of the most important aspects of managing multinational teams is the realization that not all members perceive tasks and processes the same due to cultural differences.
Understanding the strengths of each project team member
For a project manager, the first step is to recognize and analyze cultural differences. In particular, it is important to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each team member for the most efficient distribution of tasks and coordination.
It is critical for the project manager to identify the challenges and advantages of different cultures in order to effectively tailor efforts to suit them. This aspect primarily has a positive effect on reducing the number of misunderstandings and improving communication. Moreover, awareness of the specific characteristics of different cultures can transform the communication strategy.
The awareness of the multicultural teams’ members’ needs
For the project manager, as well as identifying the strengths of each team member, it is important to pay increased attention to defining their needs. Bond-Barnard et al. note that paying attention to the values and needs of team members greatly influences the creation of trust and the identification of expectations, which is a prerequisite for the success of project management.
Awareness of the needs of team members in accordance with cultural characteristics and differences enables management expectations and ensures satisfaction. Stolzenberger emphasizes that emotional intelligence plays a key role in this process and helps the manager to identify significant needs more effectively.
This assumption is also supported by Zuo et al., who identify that management’s soft skills significantly impact project success. As part of project management, it is also critical to recognize changes in needs and develop strategies to meet them most effectively. It is also important to align them with the overall objectives of the project in order to ensure the most comprehensive level of satisfaction for all interested groups.
Ensuring fair and transparent communication
Communication within the project team serves as the main way of communicating ideas and opinions and making the necessary decisions. This process involves two-way interaction and a constant exchange of information between team members and the project manager. In this situation, building trust among the project team members is most important to ensure a continuous flow of ideas and information that are the basis for project implementation.
Wu et al. note that collaboration and understanding are integral parts of effective communication. Moreover, “communication included the exchange of information among teams as well as the interaction of thoughts and emotions, thus making it an activity of information transmission and emotional communication.”
Potential conflicts and clashes of views can result in ineffective communication and can reduce the effectiveness of project management. Thus, it is important for the manager to choose channels and methods of communication that ensure the participation of all team members and take into account their needs.
Promoting the shared vision among all project team members
The ultimate goal of project management in a culturally diverse setting is to manage differences to create a common vision for the project team. By identifying needs and strengths and ensuring effective communication, the manager can create a shared vision and promote it for all team members.
In this situation, it is important to define it on the basis of the individual traits of the members of a multicultural team and take into account their characteristics. It is also important to articulate effectively the team’s shared values and goals to build a cohesive team and drive common efforts toward project success.
When working together, conflicts and disagreements inevitably arise that need to be resolved by the project manager. In the context of cultural diversity, this aspect is even more important. The project manager needs to constantly monitor team members’ satisfaction and their changing needs to identify potential conflict situations.
The most important factors in this regard are emotional intelligence and communication, which ensure the establishment of a trusting relationship. These tools allow the project manager to recognize potential risks and mitigate them together with members of a multicultural team.