Fallacies: Propter Hoc Ergo Hoc and Expert Testimony

Provide examples of these fallacies: propter hoc ergo hoc and expert testimony.

These arguments are not hard to find or invent.

  • Propter hoc ergo hoc:
    Describe an argument in which someone argues that X causes Y because X happened before Y. There are lots of them. And remember–cause-effect relationships can be very complicated relationships to grasp and justify. Explain the fallacy, and why it is a weak or bad argument.
  • Expert Testimony:
    Describe an argument that relies on an “expert” or an “authority” that is weak or just plain bad. Explain why the argument is weak or bad.