Anemia is a blood condition that occurs when the body produces insufficient erythrocytes. Without erythrocytes, oxygen cannot be transported effectively to the body’s tissues and organs. This will make the patient feel weak and exhausted.
Additionally, a person may have migraines, skin pallor, and dizziness. The patient’s body may try to compensate for such symptoms by increasing the pace of the patient’s heart and breathing to ensure that enough red blood cells carrying oxygen circulate to the tissues.
Microcytic anemia is characterized by the accumulation of tiny, often hypochromic, RBCs in a peripheral smear. It is typically associated with a low MCV and is most often caused by iron deficiency. The lack of iron storage in the bone marrow remains the gold standard for distinguishing iron deficiency from other microcytic conditions, such as chronic disease-related anemia, thalassemia, and sideroblastic anemia.
Serum ferritin, iron concentrations, transferrin saturation, and iron-binding capacity measurements, as well as, more recently, plasma transferrin receptors, may eliminate the need for bone marrow assessment. Iron homeostasis is maintained in the human body by recycling the bulk of its reserves.
Menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and peptic ulcer disease can cause disruptions in this equilibrium. But even though the iron-absorptive capabilities may rise in response to information about total body iron storage or erythropoietic activities, this pharmacological response is limited. The types of microcytic anemia include:
- Iron deficiency IDA;
- Chronic infections;
- Sideroblastic anemia.
Macrocytic anemia is a kind of anemia in which the red blood cells are abnormally big. As with other types of anemia, macrocytic anemia results from reduced hemoglobin levels in the red blood cells. Heme is an iron-containing protein that is responsible for oxygen delivery throughout the body. If the RBCs are abnormally big, macrocytic anemia ensues. The unit of measurement for the size of RBCs is the femtoliter (fL).
Red blood cells are typically between 80 and 100fLTrusted Source. Macrocytic red blood cells exceed 100 fL in volume. When cells develop to excessive size, there are fewer of them now, containing less hemoglobin. This indicates that the blood is less oxygenated than it should be. Low blood oxygen levels may result in a variety of suffering from health complications.
Macrocytic anemia is not a distinct illness but a sign of several different medical disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Megaloblastic macrocytic anemia is one of the most frequent kinds of macrocytic anemia. This occurs when RBCs create DNA at a rate that is too sluggish for them to divide. Types of macrocytic anemia include:
- Liver disease/alcohol;
- Megaloblastic anemias;
- Increased destruction;
- Marrow disorders;
- Metabolic disorders.