In Hinduism, all local gods were acknowledged as manifestations of Brahma. People from other religions were considered representatives of special varnas and could not become Hinduists. Medieval Indian culture openly illustrated sexual relations between people in literature, art, and architecture. Sex was considered a spiritual act. Kamasutra shaped as teaching for young couples.
In contrast to Hinduism, Chinese Buddhism taught celibacy which created an issue of population growth in the country. People could be representatives of three religions at once: Confucian, Daoist, and Buddhist. Chinese literature was marked by its secular nature. Educational works, encyclopedias, and ethical discourses are common in the medieval era. In Japan, Buddhism absorbs Indian and Chinese gods as manifestations of Buddha. Japanese writers set restrictions on education. Murasaki Shikibu made women writers very famous in Japanese society.