Demonstrate your knowledge of the following surgical procedures by providing a brief description and example for each.

Elective surgery

It is a non-emergency surgery that is medically necessary, although it is possible to delay it for a minimum of a day. Examples of such surgery include vision correction interventions or procedures that improve heart function.

Emergency surgery

It is a surgery that is impossible to delay as it has no alternative treatment, and any delay may cause death. Small bowel obstruction, extensive burns, and gunshot wounds can be listed among the examples of such surgery.

General, local, epidural and spinal

These procedures refer to anesthesia types. General anesthesia is used to make an individual unconscious during the surgery and applied during such complicated interventions as small bowel obstructions. Local anesthesia affects only a small body part and is used for small interventions such as tonsils removal. Epidural and spinal anesthesia are regional types used for a large part of the body, but the patient remains conscious during the intervention. An example of such intervention is abortion.

Anaesthetic and peripheral nerve block

It is another type of regional anesthesia during which a local anesthetic is injected near the leg’s main nerves. It is used as additional pain relief after surgery on the lower limbs.

Amputation

This surgery relates to a limb removal caused by trauma, wound, or disease complications. The amputation of an arm is an example of such surgery.

Open reduction

This procedure relates to fracture restoring or dislocation to return it to the correct alignment. An example of such orthopedic surgery is hip dysplasia open reduction.

Hip replacement

This procedure involves replacing the hip joint with an implant and can be performed as a hemi- or total replacement. An example is managing arthritis complications.

Craniotomy

This surgery involves partial removal of the skull bones to get access to the brain. It is used during brain surgeries, and the removed part is placed back after the completion of the intervention.

Tonsillectomy

This procedure deals with the surgical removal of the tonsils and is usually performed on children with chronic tonsil disorders.

Appendectomy

This surgical intervention refers to the removal of the vermiform appendix. It is utilized to manage acute appendicitis as emergency surgery.

Laparotomy

This surgery refers to the abdominal wall incision to reach the abdominal cavity. It is used as a part of surgical interventions to treat abdominal organs.

Hysterectomy

This procedure involves the removal of the cervix and uterus. It is usually utilized to treat and prevent cancer.

Prostatectomy

This procedure includes the removal of the prostate and the tissues surrounding, as well as the seminal vesicles. It is utilized to manage prostate cancer.

Cataract extraction

This surgery refers to removing a clouded lens of an eye and replacing it with an artificial one. It is utilized to restore vision.

Internal bleeding due to trauma

This surgery refers to the elimination of internal bleeding caused by trauma. If the bleeding does not stop, surgical intervention is required rapidly.

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