Define Industrialization. What are its Main Causes and Effects?


The importance of industrialization cannot be understated. Industrialization influences societal development and produces certain economic transformations as a result.


Nowadays, the word “industrialization” is very common. It is usually connected with such issues as technological progress, mass production, large enterprises, and development. The impact of industrialization encompasses many different areas of human life, including politics, economics, culture, and even religion.

There are many fields where this term is used, and so clear explanations are required. For example, in sociology, experts aim to define industrialization as an economic or social change that occurs when society transforms from a pre-industrial to an industrial state. In a historical context, researchers define industrialization as a society’s revolution from an agricultural (agrarian) one to an industrial (manufacturing) one. A country’s economy also depends on the process of industrialization and its successful adaption in society because that is how profits, international relationships, and investments are determined.


To understand the importance of industrialization, it is necessary to define its causes and effects. For example, in many developed and developing countries, industrialization is explained by demographic factors like population growth and high immigration rates. In addition, natural resources play a significant role because the population’s activities depend on the use of those resources. Finally, the emergence of new inventions and investment capital methods have provoked changes in the economic and social development of many countries.


As well as any political, economic, or social process, industrialization has both positive and negative outcomes. Its impact depends upon the type of industrialization (physical environment, raw materials, public awareness, or services) and the period of development.

Positive Aspects:

  • Much physical work can be done by new technologies and devices.
  • Industrialization helps to predict and avoid workplace traumas and burnout.
  • New opportunities and achievements become available.
  • Urbanization becomes possible for millions of people.
  • More free time and saved labor are observed in countries.
  • People’s living standards are improved considerably.

Negative Aspects:

  • The necessity of human resources is reduced (i.e. many people lose their jobs).
  • Additional education is required to use technologies, resulting in additional financial challenges and unpredictable expenses.
  • The environment undergoes dramatic changes, including global warming, air/soil/water pollution, and lack of waste management.

In other words, it is important to study the history of industrialization in order to understand its benefits and drawbacks. It is hard to say if industrialization is a purely positive or negative process. As well as any change, it may motivate or challenge people, and effective leadership is required. Clear missions, visions, and aims have to be identified by companies, communities, and society for industrialization to be successful.

Each nation has its own approaches to deal with the effects of industrialization. Regarding the attempt to define industrialization in US history, modern researchers highlight the importance of sustainable development and the influence of recent activities on the environment. Every year is a new opportunity to use industrialization wisely, support human development, and create benefits for all.

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