Cesare Beccaria and The Abolition of Torture

Discuss The Abolition of Torture (1764).

Who was Cesare Beccaria? Write a brief biography of him. What justifications are given for torture? How does Cesare Beccaria reply to these justifications? How, according to Beccaria, should the gravity (and hence the severity of punishment) of a crime be determined? What should not determine it? How would you define torture? Is torture ever justified? When? How?