Briefly explain the differences between peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN).

A

PPN is indicated when oral nutrition or enteral nutrition (EN) is possible but inadequate to meet the patient’s nutritional needs. In contrast, TPN is given when a patient cannot tolerate oral nutrition or EN. Further, according to Oshima and Pichard, PPN administration involves a peripheral intravenous catheter, while TPN is given via a central venous catheter. Optimal PPN formulas are of two types: “lipid emulsions and amino acid-dextrose solutions.” In contrast, TPN feeds are enriched with proteins and dextrose. Based on the nutritional status of the patient, TPN solutions may contain additional nutrients, including minerals and insulin.

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