Beta-hydroxybutyric acid is one of the three ketone bodies that are fuel for muscle tissue. Excessive accumulation of the product in the body is characterized by ketosis, which is destructive to health. Meanwhile, beta-hydroxybutyric acid can be used as a source of energy for the brain when there is a glucose deficit to stimulate brain function. The formation of beta-hydroxybutyric acid salts can follow the following metabolic pathway:
Thus, ketone body formation in the body is preceded by lipid accumulation. For this reason, it is likely that diabetes associated with overweight patients is an important predictor of increased ketone body concentrations in the body. The reactions described above are realized in liver cells, with oxidative processes occurring as indicated. Due to the increased concentration of ketone bodies in the body, the rate of their synthesis may exceed the rate of utilization, which leads to a state of ketonemia.
In ketonemia, the energy source from glucose is replaced by ketone bodies; the most likely predictors of the condition include an excessive-fat diet, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and a ketone diet based on starvation.
In a specific experimental case, the condition of ketonemia was observed in the dogs in the study group. This is not surprising since these dogs were given a dose of the sodium salt of beta-hydroxybutyric acid, which means that excessive ketone bodies were introduced. The dogs’ bodies did not have time to react immediately to such changes, so urine and blood tests showed ketonemia when an excess of ketone bodies is detected in fluid media.